|Hindi cinema |
|Main distributors||AA Films|
Fox Star Studios
|Produced feature films (2017)|
|Part of a series on the|
|Culture of India|
Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Cinema of South India and other Indian film industries, making up Indian cinema—the world's largest by number of feature films produced.
In 2017, Indian cinema produced 1,986 feature films, with Bollywood as its largest filmmaker, producing 364 Hindi films the same year. Bollywood represents 43 percent of Indian net box-office revenue; Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36 percent, and the remaining regional cinema constituted 21 percent in 2014. Bollywood is one of the largest centres of film production in the world. In 2001 ticket sales, Indian cinema (including Bollywood) reportedly sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets worldwide, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. Bollywood films tend to use vernacular Hindustani, mutually intelligible by people who self-identify as speaking either Hindi or Urdu, and modern Bollywood movies increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.
The most popular commercial genre in Bollywood since the 1970s has been the masala film, which freely mixes different genres including action, comedy, romance, drama and melodrama along with musical numbers. Masala films generally fall under the musical film genre, of which Indian cinema has been the largest producer since the 1960s when it exceeded the American film industry's total musical output after musical films declined in the West; the first Indian musical talkie was Alam Ara (1931), several years after the first Hollywood musical talkie The Jazz Singer (1927). Alongside commercial masala films, a distinctive genre of art films known as parallel cinema has also existed, presenting realistic content and avoidance of musical numbers. In more recent years, the distinction between commercial masala and parallel cinema has been gradually blurring, with an increasing number of mainstream films adopting the conventions which were once strictly associated with parallel cinema.
The term "Tollywood", for the Tollygunge-based cinema of West Bengal, predated "Bollywood". It was used in a 1932 American Cinematographer article by Wilford E. Deming, an American engineer who helped produce the first Indian sound picture.
"Bollywood" was probably invented in Bombay-based film trade journals in the 1960s or 1970s, though the exact inventor varies by account. Film journalist Bevinda Collaco claims she coined the term for the title of her column in Screen magazine. Her column entitled "On the Bollywood Beat" covered studio news and celebrity gossip. Other sources state that lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna was its creator. It's unknown if it was derived from "Hollywood" through "Tollywood", or was inspired directly by "Hollywood".
"Bollywood" has since inspired a long list of Hollywood-inspired nicknames.
Early history (1890s–1940s)
In 1897, a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera, Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, The Flower of Persia (1898). The Wrestlers (1899) by H. S. Bhatavdekar showed a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay.
Dadasaheb Phalke's silent Raja Harishchandra (1913) is the first feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was commercially successful. With a great demand for talkies and musicals, Bollywood and the other regional film industries quickly switched to sound films.
Challenges and Market Expansion (1930s-1940s)
The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times; India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Although most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, a number of filmmakers tackled tough social issues or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their films. Irani made the first Hindi colour film, Kisan Kanya, in 1937. The following year, he made a colour version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were cinematic staples.
The decade of the 1940s saw an expansion of the Bollywood's commercial market and its presence in the national consciousness. The year 1943 saw the arrival of Indian cinema's first 'blockbuster' offering, the movie Kismet, which grossed in excess of the important barrier of one crore (10 million) rupees, made on a budget of only two lakh (0.2 million) rupees. Kismet tackled contemporary issues, especially those arising from the Indian Independence movement, and went on to become "the longest running hit of Indian cinema", a title it held till the 1970s. Film personalities like Bimal Roy, Sahir Ludhianvi and Prithviraj Kapoor participated in the creation of a national movement against colonial rule in India, while simultaneously leveraging the popular political movement to increase their own visibility and popularity. Themes from the Independence Movement deeply influenced Bollywood directors, screen-play writers, and lyricists, who saw their films in the context of social reform and the problems of the common people.
Although the 1947 partition of India, divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, it precipitated the migration of film-making talent from film making centers like Lahore and Calcutta, which bore the brunt of the partition violence. These events further consolidated the Mumbai film industry's position as the preeminent center for film production in India.
Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s)
The period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s, after India's independence, is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Hindi cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this time. Examples include Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959), directed by Guru Dutt and written by Abrar Alvi; Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955), directed by Raj Kapoor and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Aan (1952), directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar. The films explored social themes, primarily dealing with working-class life in India (particularly urban life) in the first two examples. Awaara presented the city as both nightmare and dream, and Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of urban life.
Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), a remake of his earlier Aurat (1940), was the first Indian film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film; it lost by a single vote. Mother India defined conventional Hindi cinema for decades. It spawned a genre of dacoit films, in turn defined by Gunga Jumna (1961). Written and produced by Dilip Kumar, Gunga Jumna was a dacoit crime drama about two brothers on opposite sides of the law (a theme which became common in Indian films during the 1970s). Some of the best-known epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at this time, such as K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960). Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers during this period included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt.
The three most popular male Indian actors of the 1950s and 1960s were Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, and Dev Anand, each with a unique acting style. Kapoor adopted Charlie Chaplin's tramp; Anand modeled himself on suave Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant, and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting which predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray, inspired future generations of Indian actors. Much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino, Kumar had a similar influence on Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah, Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui. Veteran actresses such as Suraiya, Nargis, Sumitra Devi, Madhubala, Meena Kumari, Waheeda Rehman, Nutan, Sadhana, Mala Sinha and Vyjayanthimala have had their share of influence on Hindi cinema.
While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the 1950s also saw the emergence of a parallel cinema movement. Although the movement (emphasising social realism) was led by Bengali cinema, it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Early examples of parallel cinema include Dharti Ke Lal (1946), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal famine of 1943,; Neecha Nagar (1946) directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (1953). Their critical acclaim and the latter's commercial success paved the way for Indian neorealism and the Indian New Wave (synonymous with parallel cinema). Internationally acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Shyam Benegal, and Vijaya Mehta.
After the social-realist film Neecha Nagar received the Palme d'Or at the inaugural 1946 Cannes Film Festival, Hindi films were frequently in competition for Cannes' top prize during the 1950s and early 1960s and some won major prizes at the festival. Guru Dutt, overlooked during his lifetime, received belated international recognition during the 1980s. Film critics polled by the British magazine Sight & Sound included several of Dutt's films in a 2002 list of greatest films, and Time's All-Time 100 Movies lists Pyaasa as one of the greatest films of all time.
Classic Bollywood (1970s–1980s)
By 1970, Hindi cinema was thematically stagnant and dominated by musical romance films. The arrival of screenwriting duo Salim–Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar) was a paradigm shift, revitalising the industry. They began the genre of gritty, violent, Bombay underworld crime films early in the decade with films such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar (1975). Salim-Javed reinterpreted the rural themes of Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and Dilip Kumar's Gunga Jumna (1961) in a contemporary urban context, reflecting the socio-economic and socio-political climate of 1970s India and channeling mass discontent, disillusionment and the unprecedented growth of slums with anti-establishment themes and those involving urban poverty, corruption and crime. Their "angry young man", personified by Amitabh Bachchan, reinterpreted Dilip Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna in a contemporary urban context and anguished urban poor.
By the mid-1970s, romantic confections had given way to gritty, violent crime films and action films about gangsters (the Bombay underworld) and bandits (dacoits). Salim-Javed's writing and Amitabh Bachchan's acting popularised the trend with films such as Zanjeer and (particularly) Deewaar, a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna which pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan" (Bachchan); according to Danny Boyle, Deewaar was "absolutely key to Indian cinema". In addition to Bachchan, several other actors followed by riding the crest of the trend (which lasted into the early 1990s). Actresses from the era include Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan, Raakhee, Shabana Azmi, Zeenat Aman, Parveen Babi, Rekha, Dimple Kapadia, Smita Patil, Jaya Prada and Padmini Kolhapure.
The name "Bollywood" was coined during the 1970s, when the conventions of commercial Bollywood films were defined. Key to this was the masala film, which combines a number of genres (action, comedy, romance, drama, melodrama, and musical). The masala film was pioneered early in the decade by filmmaker Nasir Hussain, and the Salim-Javed screenwriting duo, pioneering the Bollywood-blockbuster format. Yaadon Ki Baarat (1973), directed by Hussain and written by Salim-Javed, has been identified as the first masala film and the first quintessentially Bollywood film. Salim-Javed wrote more successful masala films during the 1970s and 1980s. Masala films made Amitabh Bachchan the biggest Bollywood star of the period. A landmark of the genre was Amar Akbar Anthony (1977), directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan, and Desai continued successfully exploiting the genre.
Both genres (masala and violent-crime films) are represented by the blockbuster Sholay (1975), written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with spaghetti Westerns, spawning the Dacoit Western (also known as the curry Western) which was popular during the 1970s.
Some Hindi filmmakers, such as Shyam Benegal, Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta, continued to produce realistic parallel cinema throughout the 1970s. Although the art film bent of the Film Finance Corporation was criticised during a 1976 Committee on Public Undertakings investigation which accused the corporation of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema, the decade saw the rise of commercial cinema with films such as Sholay (1975) which consolidated Amitabh Bachchan's position as a star. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released that year.
By 1983, the Bombay film industry was generating an estimated annual revenue of ₹700 crore (₹ 7 billion, $693.14 million), equivalent to $1.78 billion (₹12,042 crore, ₹ 111.33 billion) when adjusted for inflation. By 1986, India's annual film output had increased from 741 films produced annually to 833 films annually, making India the world's largest film producer. The most internationally acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988), which won the Camera d'Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
New Bollywood (1990s–present)
Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation during the late 1980s with a box-office decline due to increasing violence, a decline in musical quality, and a rise in video piracy. One of the turning points came with such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), presenting a blend of youthfulness, family entertainment, emotional intelligence and strong melodies, all of which lured audiences back to the big screen. It brought back the template for Bollywood musical romance films which went on to define 1990s Hindi cinema.
Known since the 1990s as "New Bollywood", contemporary Bollywood is linked to economic liberalization in India during the early 1990s. Early in the decade, the pendulum swung back toward family-centered romantic musicals. Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988) was followed by blockbusters such as Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994), Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), Raja Hindustani (1996), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998), introducing a new generation of popular actors, including the three Khans: Aamir Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, and Salman Khan, who have starred in most of the top ten highest-grossing Bollywood films. The Khans and have had successful careers since the late 1980s and early 1990s, and have dominated the Indian box office for three decades. Shah Rukh Khan was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s, and Aamir Khan has been the most successful Indian actor since the mid 2000s. Action and comedy films, starring such actors as Akshay Kumar and Govinda.
The decade marked the entrance of new performers in art and independent films, some of which were commercially successful. The most influential example was Satya (1998), directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. Its critical and commercial success led to the emergence of a genre known as Mumbai noir: urban films reflecting the city's social problems. This led to a resurgence of parallel cinema by the end of the decade. The films featured actors whose performances were often praised by critics.
The 2000s saw increased Bollywood recognition worldwide due to growing (and prospering) NRI and Desi communities overseas. The growth of the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era led the country's film industry to new heights in production values, cinematography and screenwriting as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. Some popular films of the decade were Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai (2000), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... (2001), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), Lagaan (2001), Koi... Mil Gaya (2003), Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003), Veer-Zaara (2004), Rang De Basanti (2006), Lage Raho Munna Bhai (2006), Dhoom 2 (2006), Krrish (2006), and Jab We Met (2007), among others, showing the rise of new movie stars.
During the 2010s, the industry saw established stars such as making big-budget masala films like Dabangg (2010), Singham (2011), Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Son of Sardaar (2012), Rowdy Rathore (2012), Chennai Express (2013), Kick (2014) and Happy New Year (2014) with much-younger actresses. Although the films were often not praised by critics, they were commercially successful. Some of the films starring Aamir Khan have been credited with redefining and modernising the masala film with a distinct brand of socially conscious cinema.
Most stars from the 2000s continued successful careers into the next decade, and the 2010s saw a new generation of popular actors in different films. Among new conventions, female-centred films such as The Dirty Picture (2011), Kahaani (2012), and Queen (2014), Parched (2015), Pink (2016) started gaining wide financial success.
Influences on Bollywood
Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences which have shaped Indian popular cinema:
- The branching structures of ancient Indian epics, like the Mahabharata and Ramayana. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots.
- Ancient Sanskrit drama, with its stylised nature and emphasis on spectacle in which music, dance and gesture combine "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience." Matthew Jones of De Montfort University also identifies the Sanskrit concept of rasa, or "the emotions felt by the audience as a result of the actor’s presentation", as crucial to Bollywood films.
- Traditional folk theater, which became popular around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theater. Its regional traditions include the Jatra of Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.
- Parsi theatre, which "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft."
- Hollywood, where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s.
- Western musical television (particularly MTV), which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s. Its pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music may be seen in 2000s Indian films. An early example of this approach was Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995).
Sharmistha Gooptu identifies Indo-Persian-Islamic culture as a major influence. During the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performance across northern India and established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry, and Parsi theater. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, and Hindustani became the standard language of early Indian talkies. Films based on "Persianate adventure-romances" led to a popular genre of "Arabian Nights cinema".
Scholars Chaudhuri Diptakirti and Rachel Dwyer and screenwriter Javed Akhtar identify Urdu literature as a major influence on Hindi cinema. Most of the screenwriters and scriptwriters of classic Hindi cinema came from Urdu literary backgrounds, from Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Akhtar ul Iman to Salim–Javed and Rahi Masoom Raza; a handful came from other Indian literary traditions, such as Bengali and Hindi literature. Most of Hindi cinema's classic scriptwriters wrote primarily in Urdu, including Salim-Javed, Gulzar, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Inder Raj Anand, Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza. Urdu poetry and the ghazal tradition strongly influenced filmi (Bollywood lyrics). Javed Akhtar was also greatly influenced by Urdu novels by Pakistani author Ibn-e-Safi, such as the Jasoosi Dunya and Imran series of detective novels; they inspired, for example, famous Bollywood characters such as Gabbar Singh in Sholay (1975) and Mogambo in Mr. India (1987).
Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on 1970s commercial Bollywood masala films, including New Hollywood, Italian exploitation films, and Hong Kong martial arts cinema. After the success of Bruce Lee films (such as Enter the Dragon) in India, Deewaar (1975) and other Bollywood films incorporated fight scenes inspired by 1970s martial arts films from Hong Kong cinema until the 1990s. Bollywood action scenes emulated Hong Kong rather than Hollywood, emphasising acrobatics and stunts and combining kung fu (as perceived by Indians) with Indian martial arts such as pehlwani.
Influence of Bollywood
Perhaps Bollywood's greatest influence has been on India's national identity, where (with the rest of Indian cinema) it has become part of the "Indian story". In India, Bollywood is often associated with India's national identity. According to economist and Bollywood biographer Meghnad Desai, "Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence".
Scholar Brigitte Schulze has written that Indian films, most notably Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), played a key role in shaping the Republic of India's national identity in the early years after independence from the British Raj; the film conveyed a sense of Indian nationalism to urban and rural citizens alike. Bollywood has long influenced Indian society and culture as the biggest entertainment industry; many of the country's musical, dancing, wedding and fashion trends are Bollywood-inspired. Bollywood fashion trendsetters have included Madhubala in Mughal-e-Azam (1960) and Madhuri Dixit in Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994).
Bollywood has also had a socio-political impact on Indian society, reflecting Indian politics. In classic 1970s Bollywood films, Bombay underworld crime films written by Salim–Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar (1975) reflected the socio-economic and socio-political realities of contemporary India. They channeled growing popular discontent and disillusionment and state failure to ensure welfare and well-being at a time of inflation, shortages, loss of confidence in public institutions, increasing crime and the unprecedented growth of slums. Salim-Javed and Bachchan's films dealt with urban poverty, corruption and organised crime; they were perceived by audiences as anti-establishment, often with an "angry young man" protagonist presented as a vigilante or anti-hero whose suppressed rage voiced the anguish of the urban poor.
Bollywood has been a significant form of soft power for India, increasing its influence and changing overseas perceptions of India. In Germany, Indian stereotypes included bullock carts, beggars, sacred cows, corrupt politicians, and catastrophes before Bollywood and the IT industry transformed global perceptions of India. According to author Roopa Swaminathan, "Bollywood cinema is one of the strongest global cultural ambassadors of a new India." Its role in expanding India's global influence is comparable to Hollywood's similar role with American influence.
During the 2000s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world and was instrumental role in reviving the American musical film. Baz Luhrmann said that his musical film, Moulin Rouge! (2001), was inspired by Bollywood musicals; the film incorporated a Bollywood-style dance scene with a song from the film China Gate. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! began a renaissance of Western musical films such as Chicago, Rent, and Dreamgirls.
Indian film composer A. R. Rahman wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams, and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun was staged in London's West End. The Bollywood sports film Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and two other Bollywood films (2002's Devdas and 2006's Rang De Basanti) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language.
Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008), which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, was inspired by Bollywood films and is considered an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema". It was also inspired by Mumbai-underworld crime films, such as Deewaar (1975), Satya (1998), Company (2002) and Black Friday (2007). Deewaar had a Hong Kong remake, The Brothers (1979), which inspired John Woo's internationally acclaimed breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (1986); the latter was a template for Hong Kong action cinema's heroic bloodshed genre. "Angry young man" 1970s epics such as Deewaar and Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) also resemble the heroic-bloodshed genre of 1980s Hong Kong action cinema.
The influence of filmi may be seen in popular music worldwide. Technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced a 1978 electronic album, Cochin Moon, based on an experimental fusion of electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music. Truth Hurts' 2002 song "Addictive", produced by DJ Quik and Dr. Dre, was lifted[clarification needed] from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" in Jyoti (1981). The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972). Both songs were composed by Kalyanji Anandji, sung by Asha Bhosle, and featured the dancer Helen.
The Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. D. Burman compositions sung by Asha Bhosle for their 2005 album, You've Stolen My Heart: Songs from R.D. Burman's Bollywood, which was nominated for Best Contemporary World Music Album at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Filmi music composed by A. R. Rahman (who received two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by other musicians, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon, the French rap group La Caution and the American artist Ciara. Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora, have also been inspired by Bollywood music.
Bollywood films are primarily musicals, and are expected to have catchy song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. A film's music and song and dance portions are usually produced first and these are often released before the film itself, increasing its audience.
Indian audiences expect value for money, and a good film is generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally "money's worth"). Songs, dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills are combined in a three-hour show (with an intermission). These are called masala films, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas, they are a mixture of action, comedy and romance; most have heroes who can fight off villains single-handedly. Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic, frequently using formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers, angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, political corruption, kidnapping, villains, kind-hearted courtesans, long-lost relatives and siblings, reversals of fortune and serendipity.
Parallel cinema films, in and outside Bollywood, tended to be less popular at the box office. A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries and increased Western influence in India have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood.
According to film critic Lata Khubchandani, "Our earliest films ... had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures." Although Bollywood plots feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than pre-arranged marriages, traditional Indian culture continues to exist outside the industry and is an element of resistance by some to Western influences. Bollywood plays a major role, however, in Indian fashion. Studies have indicated that some people, unaware that changing fashion in Bollywood films is often influenced by globalisation, consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian.
Casts and crews
Bollywood employs people from throughout India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, stage actors and ordinary people come to Mumbai with the hope of becoming a star. As in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed.
Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, although many have tried. There have been exceptions, however, and the hit film Rang De Basanti starred the English Alice Patten. Kisna, Lagaan, and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors, and Australian-born actress Emma Brown Garett has starred in a few Indian films. Bollywood can be insular, and relatives of film-industry figures have an edge in obtaining coveted roles in films or being part of a film crew. However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce, and film-industry scions will falter if they do not succeed at the box office. Stars such as Dilip Kumar, Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, Rajesh Khanna, Anil Kapoor, Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit, Aishwarya Rai and Shah Rukh Khan lacked show-business connections.
Dialogues and lyrics
Film scripts (known as dialogues in Indian English) and their song lyrics are often written by different people. Scripts are usually written in an unadorned Hindustani, which would be understood by the largest possible audience. Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial register of Hindustani, mutually intelligible by Hindi and Urdu speakers. Most of the classic scriptwriters of what is known as Hindi cinema, including Salim–Javed, Gulzar, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Inder Raj Anand, Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza, primarily wrote in Urdu. Salim-Javed wrote in Urdu script, which was then transcribed by an assistant into Devanagari script so Hindi readers could read the Urdu dialogues. During the 1970s, the Urdu writers and screenwriters Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu" but were categorised as Hindi films by the government. Urdu poetry has strongly influenced Bollywood songs, whose lyrics also draw from the ghazal tradition (filmi-ghazal). According to Javed Akhtar in 1996, Urdu diction dominates Bollywood film dialogue and lyrics, with about 90% of them written in Urdu script, including his own works as well as those of Majrooh Sultanpuri and Anand Bakshi.
Some films have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or archaic Urdu in medieval historical films. In her book, The Cinematic ImagiNation, Jyotika Virdi wrote about the presence of Urdu in Hindi films: "Urdu is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom." Virdi notes that although Urdu was widely used in classic Hindi cinema decades after partition because it was widely taught in pre-partition India, its use has declined in modern Hindi cinema: "The extent of Urdu used in commercial Hindi cinema has not been stable ... the decline of Urdu is mirrored in Hindi films ... It is true that many Urdu words have survived and have become part of Hindi cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes ... For the most part, popular Hindi cinema has forsaken the florid Urdu that was part of its extravagance and retained a 'residual' Urdu". However, Urdu continues to be used in Bollywood films for dialogues and (particularly) songs.
Contemporary mainstream films also use English; according to the article "Bollywood Audiences Editorial", "English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu." Some film scripts are first written in Latin script. Characters may shift from one language to the other to evoke a particular atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). The blend of Hindi, Urdu and English sometimes heard in modern Bollywood films, known as Hinglish, has become increasingly common.
Cinematic language (in dialogues or lyrics) is often melodramatic, invoking God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics (especially in older films) frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with a number of Persian loanwords. Another source for love lyrics in films such as Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje and Lagaan is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the loves of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis.
Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, and the lyricist and composer may be seen as a team. This phenomenon has been compared to the pairs of American composers and songwriters who created classic Broadway musicals.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Sound in early Bollywood films was usually not recorded on location (sync sound). It was usually created (or re-created) in the studio, with the actors speaking their lines in the studio and sound effects added later; this created synchronisation problems. Commercial Indian films are known for their lack of ambient sound, and the Arriflex 3 camera necessitated dubbing. Lagaan (2001) was filmed with sync sound, and several Bollywood films have recorded on-location sound since then.
Female makeup artists
In 1955, the Bollywood Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association (CCMAA) ruled that female makeup artists were barred from membership. The Supreme Court of India ruled in 2014 that the ban violated Indian constitutional guarantees under Article 14 (right to equality), 19(1)(g) (freedom to work) and Article 21 (right to liberty). According to the court, the ban had no "rationale nexus" to the cause sought to be achieved and was "unacceptable, impermissible and inconsistent" with the constitutional rights guaranteed to India's citizens. The court also found illegal the rule which mandated that for any artist to work in the industry, they must have lived for five years in the state where they intend to work. In 2015, it was announced that Charu Khurana was the first woman registered by the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association.
Song and dance
Bollywood film music is called filmi (from the Hindi "of films"). Bollywood songs were introduced with Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931) song, "De De Khuda Ke Naam pay pyaare". Bollywood songs are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip syncing the words to the song on-screen (often while dancing). Although most actors are good dancers, few are also singers; a notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films during the 1950s while having a rewarding career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were known as singers and actors, and some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves.
Songs can make and break a film, determining whether it will be a flop or a hit: "Few films without successful musical tracks, and even fewer without any songs and dances, succeed". Globalization has changed Bollywood music, with lyrics an increasing mix of Hindi and English. Global trends such as salsa, pop and hip hop have influenced the music heard in Bollywood films.
Playback singers are featured in the opening credits, and have fans who will see an otherwise-lackluster film to hear their favourites. Notable Bollywood singers are Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Sadhana Sargam, Alka Yagnik and Shreya Goshal (female), and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed Rafi, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam (male). Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi have been considered the finest singers of Bollywood songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar (who has recorded thousands of songs for Indian films in her six-decade career). Composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Remixing of film songs with modern rhythms is common, and producers may release remixed versions of some of their films' songs with the films' soundtrack albums.
Dancing in Bollywood films, especially older films, is modeled on Indian dance: classical dance, dances of north-Indian courtesans (tawaif) or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance blends with Western dance styles as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals; Western pop and classical-dance numbers are commonly seen side-by-side in the same film. The hero (or heroine) often performs with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films contain unrealistically-quick shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in natural surroundings or architecturally-grand settings.
Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the film. A song may be worked into the plot, so a character has a reason to sing. It may externalise a character's thoughts, or presage an event in the film (such as two characters falling in love). The songs are often referred to as a "dream sequence", with things happening which would not normally happen in the real world. Song and dance scenes were often filmed in Kashmir but, due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the 1980s, they have been shot in western Europe (particularly Switzerland and Austria).
Contemporary Bollywood dancers include Madhuri Dixit, Hrithik Roshan, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Sridevi, Meenakshi Seshadri, Malaika Arora Khan, Shahid Kapoor, Katrina Kaif and Tiger Shroff. Older dancers include Helen (known for her cabaret numbers), Madhubala, Vyjanthimala, Padmini, Hema Malini, Mumtaz, Cuckoo Moray, Parveen Babi , Waheeda Rahman, Meena Kumari, and Shammi Kapoor.
Bollywood producers have been releasing a film's soundtrack (as tapes or CDs) before the film's release, hoping that the music will attract audiences; a soundtrack is often more popular than its film. Some producers also release music videos, usually (but not always) with a song from the film.
Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to ₹ 1 billion (about US$20 million). The science-fiction film Ra.One was made on a budget of ₹ 1.35 billion (about $27 million), making it the most expensive Bollywood film of all time. Sets, costumes, special effects and cinematography were less than world-class, with some notable exceptions, until the mid-to-late 1990s. As Western films and television are more widely distributed in India, there is increased pressure for Bollywood films to reach the same production levels (particularly in action and special effects). Recent Bollywood films, like Krrish (2006), have employed international technicians such as Hong Kong-based action choreographer Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility of professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, have seen an increase in action and science-fiction films.
Since overseas scenes are attractive at the box office, Mumbai film crews are filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe and elsewhere. Indian producers have also obtained funding for big-budget films shot in India, such as Lagaan and Devdas.
Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Although Indian banks and financial institutions had been forbidden from lending to film studios, the ban has been lifted. Finances are not regulated; some funding comes from illegitimate sources such as the Mumbai underworld, which is known to influence several prominent film personalities. Mumbai organised-crime hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan, a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan, in January 2000. In 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the film was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld.
Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before they are released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is an established small-scale industry in parts of south and southeast Asia. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually from unlicensed home videos and DVDs. In addition to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst portions of the Indian diaspora. Bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Pakistani government has banned their sale, distribution and telecast. Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by small cable-TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores, run by members of the Indian diaspora in the US and the UK, regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance; consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to industry losses.
Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now, fewer do. Most Bollywood producers make money, however, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue (including the sale of ancillary rights). There are increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly being noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. In 2002, Bollywood sold 3.6 billion tickets and had a total revenue (including theatre tickets, DVDs and television) of $1.3 billion; Hollywood films sold 2.6 billion tickets, and had a total revenue of $51 billion.
A number of Indian artists hand-painted movie billboards and posters. M. F. Husain painted film posters early in his career; human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Most of the large, ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are now created with computer-printed vinyl. Old hand-painted posters, once considered ephemera, are collectible folk art.
Releasing film music, or music videos, before a film's release may be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help attract audiences. Bollywood publicists use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most bigger-budget films have a websites on which audiences can view trailers, stills and information on the story, cast, and crew. Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. Product placement, used in Hollywood, is also common in Bollywood.
Bollywood's increasing use of international settings such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Mexico, Brazil and Singapore does not necessarily represent the people and cultures of those locales. Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianised by adding Bollywood actors and Hindi speaking extras to them. While immersing in Bollywood films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world.
According to Shakuntala Rao, "Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity"; "Indianness" (cultural identity) poses a problem with Bollywood's popularity among varied diaspora audiences, but gives its domestic audience a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups.
The Filmfare Awards are some of the most prominent awards given to Hindi films in India. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare began the awards in 1954 (recognising the best films of 1953), and they were originally known as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modeled on the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' poll-based merit format, individuals may vote in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in 1956.
The National Film Awards were also introduced in 1954. The Indian government has sponsored the awards, given by its Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF), since 1973. The DFF screens Bollywood films, films from the other regional movie industries, and independent/art films. The awards are made at an annual ceremony presided over by the president of India. Unlike the Filmfare Awards, which are chosen by the public and a committee of experts, the National Film Awards are decided by a government panel.
Other awards ceremonies for Hindi films in India are the Screen Awards (begun in 1995) and the Stardust Awards, which began in 2003. The International Indian Film Academy Awards (begun in 2000) and the Zee Cine Awards, begun in 1998, are held abroad in a different country each year.
In addition to their popularity among the Indian diaspora from Nigeria and Senegal to Egypt and Russia, generations of non-Indians have grown up with Bollywood. Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions made inroads into the Soviet Union, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and China. Bollywood entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers during the late 20th century, and Western actors now seek roles in Bollywood films.
Bollywood films are also popular in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where Hindustani is widely understood. Many Pakistanis understand Hindi, due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu. Although Pakistan banned the import of Bollywood films in 1965, trade in unlicensed DVDs and illegal cable broadcasts ensured their continued popularity. Exceptions to the ban were made for a few films, such as the colorized re-release of Mughal-e-Azam and Taj Mahal in 2006. Early in 2008, the Pakistani government permitted the import of 16 films. More easing followed in 2009 and 2010. Although it is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry, it is embraced by cinema owners who are making a profit after years of low receipts. The most popular actors in Pakistan are the three Khans of Bollywood: Salman, Shah Rukh, and Aamir. The most popular actress is Madhuri Dixit; at India-Pakistan cricket matches during the 1990s, Pakistani fans chanted "Madhuri dedo, Kashmir lelo!" ("Give Madhuri, take Kashmir!") Bollywood films in Nepal earn more than Nepali films, and Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shah Rukh Khan are popular in the country.
The films are also popular in Afghanistan due to its proximity to the Indian subcontinent and their cultural similarities, particularly in music. Popular actors include Shah Rukh Khan, Ajay Devgan, Sunny Deol, Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta, and Madhuri Dixit. A number of Bollywood films were filmed in Afghanistan and some dealt with the country, including Dharmatma, Kabul Express, Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban.
Bollywood films are popular in Southeast Asia, particularly in maritime Southeast Asia. The three Khans are very popular in the Malay world, including Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The films are also fairly popular in Thailand.
India has cultural ties with Indonesia, and Bollywood films were introduced to the country at the end of World War II in 1945. The "angry young man" films of Amitabh Bachchan and Salim–Javed were popular during the 1970s and 1980s before Bollywood's popularity began gradually declining in the 1980s and 1990s. It experienced an Indonesian revival with the release of Shah Rukh Khan's Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998) in 2001, which was a bigger box-office success in the country than Titanic (1997). Bollywood has had a strong presence in Indonesia since then, particularly Shah Rukh Khan films such as Mohabbatein (2000), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... (2001), Kal Ho Naa Ho, Chalte Chalte and Koi... Mil Gaya (all 2003), and Veer-Zaara (2004).
Some Bollywood films have been widely appreciated in China, Japan, and South Korea. Several Hindi films have been commercially successful in Japan, including Mehboob Khan's Aan (1952, starring Dilip Kumar) and Aziz Mirza's Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman (1992, starring Shah Rukh Khan). The latter sparked a two-year boom in Indian films after its 1997 release, with Dil Se.. (1998) a beneficiary of the boom. The highest-grossing Hindi film in Japan is 3 Idiots (2009), starring Aamir Khan, which received a Japanese Academy Award nomination. The film was also a critical and commercial success in South Korea.
Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani, Awaara, and Do Bigha Zamin were successful in China during the 1940s and 1950s, and remain popular with their original audience. Few Indian films were commercially successful in the country during the 1970s and 1980s, among them Tahir Hussain's Caravan, Noorie and Disco Dancer. Indian film stars popular in China included Raj Kapoor, Nargis, and Mithun Chakraborty. Hindi films declined significantly in popularity in China during the 1980s. Films by Aamir Khan have recently been successful, and Lagaan was the first Indian film with a nationwide Chinese release in 2011. Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan (particularly its soundtrack), and hired its composer A. R. Rahman to score his Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003).
When 3 Idiots was released in China, China was the world's 15th-largest film market (partly due to its widespread pirate DVD distribution at the time). The pirate market introduced the film to Chinese audiences, however, and it became a cult hit. According to the Douban film-review site, 3 Idiots is China's 12th-most-popular film of all time; only one domestic Chinese film (Farewell My Concubine) ranks higher, and Aamir Khan acquired a large Chinese fan base as a result. After 3 Idiots, several of Khan's other films (including 2007's Taare Zameen Par and 2008's Ghajini) also developed cult followings. China became the world's second-largest film market (after the United States) by 2013, paving the way for Khan's box-office success with Dhoom 3 (2013), PK (2014), and Dangal (2016). The latter is the 16th-highest-grossing film in China, the fifth-highest-grossing non-English language film worldwide, and the highest-grossing non-English foreign film in any market. Several Khan films, including Taare Zameen Par, 3 Idiots, and Dangal, are highly rated on Douban. His next film, Secret Superstar (2017, starring Zaira Wasim), broke Dangal's record for the highest-grossing opening weekend by an Indian film and cemented Khan's status as "a king of the Chinese box office"; Secret Superstar was China's highest-grossing foreign film of 2018 to date. Khan has become a household name in China, with his success described as a form of Indian soft power improving China–India relations despite political tensions. With Bollywood competing with Hollywood in the Chinese market, the success of Khan's films has driven up the price for Chinese distributors of Indian film imports. Salman Khan's Bajrangi Bhaijaan and Irrfan Khan's Hindi Medium were also Chinese hits in early 2018.
Although Bollywood is less successful on some Pacific islands such as New Guinea, it ranks second to Hollywood in Fiji (with its large Indian minority), Australia and New Zealand. Australia also has a large South Asian diaspora, and Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. Since 1997, the country has been a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films. Indian filmmakers, attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, initially used the country as a setting for song-and-dance scenes; however, Australian locations now figure in Bollywood film plots. Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate Australian culture. Yash Raj Films' Salaam Namaste (2005), the first Indian film shot entirely in Australia, was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in that country. It was followed by the box-office successes Heyy Babyy, (2007) Chak De! India (2007), and Singh Is Kinng (2008). Prime Minister John Howard said during a visit to India after the release of Salaam Namaste that he wanted to encourage Indian filmmaking in Australia to increase tourism, and he appointed Steve Waugh as tourism ambassador to India.[failed verification] Australian actress Tania Zaetta, who appeared in Salaam Namaste and several other Bollywood films, was eager to expand her career in Bollywood.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Bollywood films are popular in the former Soviet Union (Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia), and have been dubbed into Russian. Indian films were more popular in the Soviet Union than Hollywood films and, sometimes, domestic Soviet films. The first Indian film released in the Soviet Union was Dharti Ke Lal (1946), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal famine of 1943, in 1949. Three hundred Indian films were released in the Soviet Union after that; most were Bollywood films with higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions. Fifty Indian films had over 20 million viewers, compared to 41 Hollywood films. Some, such as Awaara (1951) and Disco Dancer (1982), had more than 60 million viewers and established actors Raj Kapoor, Nargis, Rishi Kapoor and Mithun Chakraborty in the country.
According to diplomat Ashok Sharma, who served in the Commonwealth of Independent States,
The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western cinema centers were banned in the Soviet Union. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.
After the collapse of the Soviet film-distribution system, Hollywood filled the void in the Russian film market and Bollywood's market share shrank. A 2007 Russia Today report noted a renewed interest in Bollywood by young Russians.
In Poland, Shah Rukh Khan has a large following. He was introduced to Polish audiences with the 2005 release of Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... (2001) and his other films, including Dil Se.. (1998), Main Hoon Na (2004) and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006), became hits in the country. Bollywood films are often covered in Gazeta Wyborcza, formerly Poland's largest newspaper.
Middle East and North Africa
Hindi films have become popular in Arab countries, and imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic when they are released. Bollywood has progressed in Israel since the early 2000s, with channels dedicated to Indian films on cable television; MBC Bollywood and Zee Aflam show Hindi movies and serials.
In Egypt, Bollywood films were popular during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1987, however, they were restricted to a handful of films by the Egyptian government. Amitabh Bachchan has remained popular in the country and Indian tourists visiting Egypt are asked, "Do you know Amitabh Bachchan?"
Bollywood movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas, and Bollywood is becoming popular in Turkey; Barfi! was the first Hindi film to have a wide theatrical release in that country. Bollywood also has viewers in Central Asia (particularly Uzbekistan and Tajikistan).
Bollywood films are not influential in most of South America, although its culture and dance is recognised. Due to significant South Asian diaspora communities in Suriname and Guyana, however, Hindi-language movies are popular. In 2006, Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro. In January 2012, it was announced that UTV Motion Pictures would begin releasing films in Peru with Guzaarish.
Hindi films were originally distributed to some parts of Africa by Lebanese businessmen, and Mother India (1957) continued to be screened in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have influenced Hausa clothing, songs have been covered by Hausa singers, and stories have influenced Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Nigeria's Northern Region, and posters of Indian films hang on the walls of tailoring shops and mechanics' garages. Unlike Europe and North America, where Indian films cater to the expatriate marke, Bollywood films became popular in West Africa despite the lack of a significant Indian audience. One possible explanation is cultural similarity: the wearing of turbans, animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, and traditional wedding celebrations. Within Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women; Hollywood movies were seen as having "no shame". In Indian movies, women are modestly dressed; men and women rarely kiss and there is no nudity, so the films are said to "have culture" which Hollywood lacks. The latter "don't base themselves on the problems of the people"; Indian films are based on socialist values and the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. Indian movies permitted a new youth culture without "becoming Western." The first Indian film shot in Mauritius was Souten, starring Rajesh Khanna, in 1983.
In South Africa, film imports from India were watched by black and Indian audiences. Several Bollywood figures have travelled to Africa for films and off-camera projects. Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was filmed in South Africa. Dil Jo Bhi Kahey... (2005) was also filmed almost entirely in Mauritius, which has a large ethnic-Indian population.
Bollywood, however, seems to be diminishing in popularity in Africa. New Bollywood films are more sexually explicit and violent. Nigerian viewers observed that older films (from the 1950s and 1960s) had more culture and were less Westernised. The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization ... and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced. The emergence of Nollywood (West Africa's film industry) has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films, as sexualised Indian films became more like American films.
Kishore Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan have been popular in Egypt and Somalia. In Ethiopia, Bollywood movies are shown with Hollywood productions in town square theatres such as the Cinema Ethiopia in Addis Ababa. Less-commercial Bollywood films are also screened elsewhere in North Africa.
Western Europe and North America
The first Indian film to be released in the Western world and receive mainstream attention was Aan (1952), directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar and Nimmi. It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, and France. Aan received significant praise from British critics, and The Times compared it favourably to Hollywood productions. Mehboob Khan's later Academy Award-nominated Mother India (1957) was a success in overseas markets, including Europe, Russia, the Eastern Bloc, French territories, and Latin America.
Many Bollywood films have been commercially successful in the United Kingdom. The most successful Indian actor at the British box office has been Shah Rukh Khan, whose popularity in British Asian communities played a key role in introducing Bollywood to the UK with films such as Darr (1993), Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). Dil Se (1998) was the first Indian film to enter the UK top ten. A number of Indian films, such as Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), have been set in London.
Bollywood is also appreciated in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia. Bollywood films are dubbed in German and shown regularly on the German television channel RTL II. Germany is the second-largest European market for Indian films, after the United Kingdom. The most recognised Indian actor in Germany is Shah Rukh Khan, who has had box-office success in the country with films such as Don 2 (2011) and Om Shanti Om (2007). He has a large German fan base, particularly in Berlin (where the tabloid Die Tageszeitung compared his popularity to that of the pope).
Bollywood has experienced revenue growth in Canada and the United States, particularly in the South Asian communities of large cities such as Toronto, Chicago, and New York City. Yash Raj Films, one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earned about $100 million per year in theatre screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks; Indian films earn more money in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country. Since the mid-1990s, a number of Indian films have been largely (or entirely) shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver or Toronto. Films such as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India (2007) attempted to popularise Bollywood for Hollywood.
Pressured by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to plagiarise. Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films) without acknowledging the source.
Before the 1990s, plagiarism occurred with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India, and few actors or directors saw an official contract. The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (except in the Soviet states), who would be unaware that their material had been copied. Audiences may not have been aware of plagiarism, since many in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. Although copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient, Bollywood and other film industries are more aware of each other and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign films and music. Organisations such as the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between filmmakers and industry professionals in India and the European Union.
A commonly-reported justification for plagiarism in Bollywood is that cautious producers want to remake popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Although screenwriters generally produce original scripts, many are rejected due to uncertainty about whether a film will be successful. Poorly-paid screenwriters have also been criticised for a lack of creativity. Some filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation, with which Western (particularly American) culture is embedding itself into Indian culture. Vikram Bhatt, director of Raaz (a remake of What Lies Beneath) and Kasoor (a remake of Jagged Edge), has spoken about the influence of American culture and Bollywood's desire to produce box-office hits based along the same lines: "Financially, I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude. The American way of life is creeping into our culture." According to Mahesh Bhatt, "If you hide the source, you're a genius. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere".
Although very few cases of film-copyright violations have been taken to court because of a slow legal process, the makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) were targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films: Hitch and Oldboy. The American studio 20th Century Fox brought Mumbai-based B. R. Films to court over the latter's forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai, which Fox alleged was an illegal remake of My Cousin Vinny. B. R. Films eventually settled out of court for about $200,000, paving the way for its film's release. Some studios comply with copyright law; in 2008, Orion Pictures secured the rights to remake Hollywood's Wedding Crashers.
The Pakistani Qawwali musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan had a big impact on Bollywood music, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the 1990s. However, there were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs. Several popular examples include Viju Shah's hit song "Tu Cheez Badi Hai Mast Mast" in Mohra (1994) being plagiarised from Khan's popular Qawwali song "Dam Mast Qalandar", "Mera Piya Ghar Aya" used in Yaarana (1995), and "Sanoo Ek Pal Chain Na Aaye" in Judaai (1997). Despite the significant number of hit Bollywood songs plagiarised from his music, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was reportedly tolerant towards the plagiarism. One of the Bollywood music directors who frequently plagiarised him, Anu Malik, claimed that he loved Khan's music and was actually showing admiration by using his tunes. However, Khan was reportedly aggrieved when Malik turned his spiritual "Allah Hoo, Allah Hoo" into "I Love You, I Love You" in Auzaar (1997). Khan said "he has taken my devotional song Allahu and converted it into I love you. He should at least respect my religious songs."
Bollywood soundtracks also plagiarised Guinean singer Mory Kanté, particularly his 1987 album Akwaba Beach. His song, "Tama", inspired two Bollywood songs: Bappi Lahiri's "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar (1990) and "Jumma Chumma" in Laxmikant–Pyarelal's soundtrack for Hum (1991). The latter also featured "Ek Doosre Se", which copied Kanté's "Inch Allah". His song "Yé ké yé ké" was used as background music in the 1990 Bollywood film Agneepath, inspired the Bollywood song "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar.
- Asian Academy of Film & Television
- Bibliography of Hindi cinema
- Central Board of Film Certification
- Film and Television Institute of India
- Film City
- Hindi film distribution circuits
- List of Indian animated films
- Lists of Bollywood films
- List of cinema of the world
- List of highest-grossing Indian films
- List of highest domestic net collection of Hindi films
- National Science and Media Museum
- Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute
- "Bollywood Distributors". Variety. 10 September 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- "Leading Distributors 1995-2018". The Numbers. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- "Indian Feature Films Certified During The Year 2017". Film Federation of India. 31 March 2017. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- Mazumdar, Ranjani. Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9781452913025.
- "'The word B'wood is derogatory'". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- Richard Corliss (16 September 1996). "Hooray for Bollywood!". Time.
- "The Digital March Media & Entertainment in South India" (PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Pippa de Bruyn; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain (2006). Frommer's India. Frommer's. p. 579. ISBN 978-0-471-79434-9.
- Wasko, Janet (2003). How Hollywood works. SAGE. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7619-6814-6.
- K. Jha; Subhash (2005). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. p. 1970. ISBN 978-81-7436-378-7.
- "Bollywood: Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?". Business Week. 2 December 2002.
- Lorenzen, Mark (April 2009). "Go West: The Growth of Bollywood" (PDF). Creativity at Work. Copenhagen Business School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Matusitz, Jonathan; Payano, Pam (2011). "The Bollywood in Indian and American Perceptions: A Comparative Analysis". India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs. 67 (1): 65–77. doi:10.1177/097492841006700105. S2CID 153982857.
- "Decoding the Bollywood poster". National Science and Media Museum. 28 February 2013.
- Aḵẖtar, Jāvīd; Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2002). Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780195664621.
JA: I write dialogue in Urdu, but the action and descriptions are in English. Then an assistant transcribes the Urdu dialogue into Devnagari because most people read Hindi. But I write in Urdu. Not only me, I think most of the writers working in this so-called Hindi cinema write in Urdu: Gulzar, or Rajinder Singh Bedi or Inder Raj Anand or Rahi Masoom Raza or Vahajat Mirza, who wrote dialogue for films like Mughal-e-Azam and Gunga Jumna and Mother India. So most dialogue-writers and most song-writers are from the Urdu discipline, even today.
- "Film World". Film World. 10: 65. 1974.
I feel that the Government should eradicate the age-old evil of certifying Urdu films as Hindi ones. It is a known fact that Urdu has been willingly accepted and used by the film industry. Two eminent Urdu writers Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai have said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu." It is a pity that although Urdu is freely used in films, the producers in general mention the language of the film as "Hindi" in the application forms supplied by the Censor Board. It is a gross misrepresentation and unjust to the people who love Urdu.
- Comedy Bollywood Movies, "Bollywood Movies", MovieNx, 12 December 2019
- Tejaswini Ganti (2004). Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema. Psychology Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-415-28854-5. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- Nelmes, Jill. An introduction to film studies. p. 367.
- "How film-maker Nasir Husain started the trend for Bollywood masala films". Hindustan Times. 30 March 2017.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (1 October 2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK. ISBN 9789352140084.
- Rajghatta, Chidanand (6 July 2008). "Bollywood in Hollywood". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
- Sarkar, Bhaskar (2008). "The Melodramas of Globalization". Cultural Dynamics. 20: 31–51 . doi:10.1177/0921374007088054. S2CID 143977618.
Madhava Prasad traces the origin of the term to a 1932 article in the American Cinematographer by Wilford E. Deming, an American engineer who apparently helped produce the first Indian sound picture. At this point, the Calcutta suburb of Tollygunge was the main center of film production in India. Deming refers to the area as Tollywood, since it already boasted two studios with 'several more projected' (Prasad, 2003) 'Tolly', rhyming with 'Holly', got hinged to 'wood' in the Anglophone Indian imagination, and came to denote the Calcutta studios and, by extension, the local film industry. Prasad surmises: 'Once Tollywood was made possible by the fortuitous availability of a half-rhyme, it was easy to clone new Hollywood babies by simply replacing the first letter' (Prasad, 2003).
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (1 January 2003). "The 'Bollywoodization' of the Indian Cinema: Cultural Nationalism in a Global Arena". Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. 4 (1): 25–39. doi:10.1080/1464937032000060195. ISSN 1464-9373. S2CID 144764499.
- Subhash K Jha (8 April 2005). "Amit Khanna: The Man who saw 'Bollywood'". Sify. Archived from the original on 9 April 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Anand (7 March 2004). "On the Bollywood beat". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 3 April 2004. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Jha, Subhash K (1 April 2005). "The Bollywood Man". The Telegraph (Calcutta). Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- Crusie, Jennifer; Yeffeth, Glenn (2005). Flirting with Pride & Prejudice. BenBella Books, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-932100-72-3.
- McKernan, Luke (31 December 1996). "Hiralal Sen (copyright British Film Institute)". Retrieved 1 November 2006.
- Hutchinson, Pamela (25 July 2013). "The birth of India's film industry: how the movies came to Mumbai". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- Vāṭave, Bāpū; Trust, National Book (2004). Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. ISBN 9788123743196. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Sachin Sharma, TNN 28 June 2012, 03.36AM IST (28 June 2012). "Godhra forgets its days spent with Dadasaheb Phalke". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2012.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Vilanilam, J. V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. New Delhi: Sage Publications. p. 128. ISBN 978-81-7829-515-2.
- Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
- "Talking Images, 75 Years of Cinema". The Tribune. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Unny, Divya (19 March 2014). "B-Town rewind: The tale of the first Bollywood crore". mid-day.com. Jagran Group. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
However, it was in 1943, that Kismet, directed by Gyan Mukherjee, became the first film to reach the coveted box office milestone of Rs 1 crore. Who would have thought that the journey of the crore in Indian films would begin with a movie made for under Rs 2 lakh? It was a time when India was in the throes of patriotic fervour. The Quit India movement had just been launched. Kismet, a crime thriller with patriotic sentiments, tapped into this feeling.
- Mishra, Vijay (January 1992). "Decentering History: Some Versions of Bombay Cinema". East-West Film Journal. Honolulu, HI, USA: East-West Center. 6 (1).
The next canonical text was Luck (Kismet, 1943), which, in 1970 at any rate, held the "record as the longest running hit of Indian cinema" (Star and Style, February 6, 1970,19). [Luck] owes its amazing, unexpected success to the time in which it was made." Achut Kanya and Kismet heralded a move away from what Shyam Benegal called alienating and orientalist cinema to movies that could "deal with reality"
- Agarwal, Bhumika (August 2013). "IPTA's Contribution in Awakening Nationalism". The Criterion. Kolhapur, MH, India: Rajaram College. 4 (4).
Indian People’s Theatre Association, popularly known by its acronym IPTA, was formed in 1942 when India was struggling to free herself from the shackles of colonial rule. The established artists of the tmmes Prithviraj Kapoor, Bijon Bhattacharya, Ritwik Ghatak, Utpal Dutt, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Mulk Raj Anand, Salil Chowdhury, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Jyotirindra Moitra, Niranjan Singh Maan, S. Tera Singh Chan, Jagdish Faryadi, Khalili Faryadi, Rajendra Raghuvanshi, Safdar Mir and many others came forward and formed Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA) in 1942.
- "Remembering Prithviraj Kapoor". indiatoday.in. Living Media India Limited. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
In 1946, Prithviraj Kapoor founded Prithvi Theatres, a theatre group that became a legend over decades. The house would stage influential patriotic plays and inspire the generation to join the Indian freedom movement and Mahatma Gandhi's Quit India movement
- Bandidiwekar, Anjali (2008). Bollywood and Social Issues: Dichotomy or Symbiosis?. Hyderabad, India: ICFAI books. p. 43.
Indian cinema grew up in the days of the National Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. The Gandhian philosophy of social reform deeply influenced Bollywood directors, screen-play writers, and lyricists. Their films became vehicles of social reform, taking up the cause of the common people.
- Ghosh, Partha S. (2016). Migrants, Refugees and the Stateless in South Asia. SAGE Publications. p. 263. ISBN 9789351508557.
- Bose, Mihir (2017). From Midnight to Glorious Morning?: India Since Independence. Haus Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 9781910376706.
- Raju, Zakir Hossain (2014). Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern?. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 9781317601814.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
- Sharpe, Jenny (2005). "Gender, Nation, and Globalization in Monsoon Wedding and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge". Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism. 6 (1): 58–81 [60 & 75]. doi:10.1353/mer.2005.0032. S2CID 201783566.
- Gooptu, Sharmistha (July 2002). "Reviewed work(s): The Cinemas of India (1896–2000) by Yves Thoraval". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (29): 3023–4.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
- Khanna, Priyanka (24 February 2008). "For Bollywood, Oscar is a big yawn again". Thaindian News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Sridharan, Tarini (25 November 2012). "Mother India, not Woman India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Bollywood Blockbusters: Mother India (Part 1) (Documentary). CNN-IBN. 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015.
- Kehr, Dave (23 August 2002). "Mother India (1957). Film in review; 'Mother India'". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Teo, Stephen (2017). Eastern Westerns: Film and Genre Outside and Inside Hollywood. Taylor & Francis. p. 122. ISBN 9781317592266.
- Tejaswini Ganti, Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, page 153
- "Film Festival – Bombay Melody". University of California, Los Angeles. 17 March 2004. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar, The Quint, 11 December 2015
- "Unmatched innings". The Hindu. 24 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2015.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Sen, Raja (29 June 2011). "Readers Choice: The Greatest Actresses of all time". Rediff.com. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- Ahmed, Rauf. "The Present". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (2016). Indian Cinema: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780191034770.
- Maker of innovative, meaningful movies. The Hindu, 15 June 2007
- "Do Bigha Zamin at filmreference". Filmreference.com. 3 August 1980. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Srikanth Srinivasan (4 August 2008). "Do Bigha Zamin: Seeds of the Indian New Wave". Dear Cinema. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- "India and Cannes: A Reluctant Courtship". Passion For Cinema. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 18–9. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
- "2002 Sight & Sound Top Films Survey of 253 International Critics & Film Directors". Cinemacom. 2002. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "All-Time 100 Best Movies". Time. 12 February 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- "Revisiting Prakash Mehra's Zanjeer: The film that made Amitabh Bachchan". The Indian Express. 20 June 2017.
- "Salim-Javed: Writing Duo that Revolutionized Indian Cinema". Pandolin. 25 April 2013. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Raj, Ashok (2009). Hero Vol.2. Hay House. p. 21. ISBN 9789381398036.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Psychology Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780415288545.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. p. 72. ISBN 9789352140084.
- Kumar, Surendra (2003). Legends of Indian cinema: pen portraits. Har-Anand Publications. p. 51. ISBN 9788124108727.
- Mazumdar, Ranjani. Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press. p. 14. ISBN 9781452913025.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Group. p. 74. ISBN 9789352140084.
- "Deewaar was the perfect script: Amitabh Bachchan on 42 years of the cult film". Hindustan Times. 29 January 2017.
- Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire's Bollywood Ancestors". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
- Stadtman, Todd (2015). Funky Bollywood: The Wild World of 1970s Indian Action Cinema. FAB Press. ISBN 9781903254776.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (1 October 2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK. p. 58. ISBN 9789352140084.
- Kaushik Bhaumik, An Insightful Reading of Our Many Indian Identities, The Wire, 12/03/2016
- Rachel Dwyer (2005). 100 Bollywood films. Lotus Collection, Roli Books. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7436-433-3. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Rajadhyaksa, 685
- Rajadhyaksa, 688
- "Amitabh Bachchan Hindi film industry's most expensive star, Hema Malini tops among women". India Today. 15 February 1983.
- "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average)". World Bank. 1983. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- Films in Review. Then and There Media, LCC. 1986. p. 368.
And then I had forgotten that lndia leads the world in film production, with 833 motion pictures (up from 741 the previous year).
- Chintamani, Gautam (2016). Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak: The Film That Revived Hindi Cinema. HarperCollins. ISBN 9789352640980.
- Ray, Kunal (18 December 2016). "Romancing the 1980s". The Hindu.
- Sen, Meheli (2017). Haunting Bollywood: Gender, Genre, and the Supernatural in Hindi Commercial Cinema. University of Texas Press. p. 189. ISBN 9781477311585.
- Joshi, Priya (2015). Bollywood's India: A Public Fantasy. Columbia University Press. p. 171. ISBN 9780231539074.
- "Impact of Bollywood on Indian Culture". DESIblitz. 15 January 2014.
- Cain, Rob. "Are Bollywood's Three Khans The Last of the Movie Kings?".
- After Aamir, SRK, Salman, why Bollywood's next male superstar may need a decade to rise, Firstpost, 16 October 2016
- "Why Aamir Khan Is The King of Khans: Foreign Media". NDTV.com.
- D'Cunha, Suparna Dutt. "Why 'Dangal' Star Aamir Khan Is The New King of Bollywood".
- Stacey Yount, Akshay Kumar on Filmi things, BollySpice, 2 March 2008 Archived 9 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Akshay Kumar meets Jackie Chan in Hong Kong". Bollywood Hungama. 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 23 March 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Aruti Nayar (16 December 2007). "Bollywood on the table". The Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
- Christian Jungen (4 April 2009). "Urban Movies: The Diversity of Indian Cinema". FIPRESCI. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Anita N. Wadhwani. "Bollywood Mania" Rising in United States Archived 20 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. US State Department. (9 August 2006). Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Rangan, Baradwaj (8 January 2017). "Masala redux". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Secret Superstar: A moving slice of life". The Asian Age. 2 November 2017.
- Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
- Matthew Jones (January 2010). "Bollywood, Rasa and Indian Cinema: Misconceptions, Meanings and Millionaire". Visual Anthropology. 23 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1080/08949460903368895. S2CID 144974842.
- Gooptu, Sharmistha (2010). Bengali Cinema: 'An Other Nation'. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 9781136912177.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. ISBN 9789352140084.
- Dwyer, Rachel (2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 9781134380701.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9789352140084.
- "Urdu pulp fiction: Where Gabbar Singh and Mogambo came from". Daily News and Analysis. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Bruce Lee storms Bombay once again with Return of the Dragon". India Today. 15 September 1979. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Heide, William Van der (2002). Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film: Border Crossings and National Cultures. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053565803.
- Morris, Meaghan; Li, Siu Leung; Chan, Stephen Ching-kiu (2005). Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema. Hong Kong University Press. p. 149. ISBN 9781932643190.
- Desai, Lord Meghnad (4 May 2013). "How Bollywood mirrors Indian realities". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Schulze, Brigitte (September 2002). "The Cinematic 'Discovery of India': Mehboob's Re-Invention of the Nation in Mother India". Social Scientist. 30 (9/10): 72–87. doi:10.2307/3517959. JSTOR 3517959.
- Raghavendra, M. K. (2014). The Politics of Hindi Cinema in the New Millennium: Bollywood and the Anglophone Indian Nation. Oxford Scholarship Online. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199450565.001.0001. ISBN 9780199450565.
- "Baahubali 2, Dangal's overseas box office success is a testimony to Indian film industry's soft power". Firstpost. 31 May 2017.
- "A window to India's rising soft power – Bollywood". The Indian Express. 13 April 2017.
- "Shah Rukh Khan as popular as Pope: German media". Daily News and Analysis. 10 February 2008.
- Swaminathan, Roopa (2017). Bollywood Boom: India's Rise as a Soft Power. Random House Publishers. ISBN 9789386495143.
- "Comedies". LiveAbout.
- "Guide Picks – Top Movie Musicals on Video/DVD". About.com. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Slumdog draws crowds, but not all like what they see". The Age. Melbourne. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
- "'Slumdog Millionaire' has an Indian co-director". The Hindu. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
- Mondal, Sayantan. "Amitabh Bachchan starrer 'Deewar' was remade in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam – and Cantonese". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- "The Brothers". Hong Kong Cinemagic. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- Morton, Lisa (2001). The Cinema of Tsui Hark. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0990-7.
- Volodzko, David (13 June 2015). "30 Years Later, This Chinese Film Still Echoes in Hollywood". The Diplomat.
- Banker, Ashok (2002). Bollywood. Penguin Group. p. 83. ISBN 9780143028352.
- Dominique Leone (19 July 2005). "Hosono & Yokoo: Cochin Moon". Pitchfork. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Truth Hurts". VH1. 19 September 2002. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- on YouTube
- Robin Denselow (2 May 2008). "Kalyanji Anandji, The Bollywood Brothers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
- Kalita, S. Mitra (2005). Suburban Sahibs: Three Immigrant Families And Their Passage from India to America. Rutgers University Press, p. 134. ISBN 0-8135-3318-X
- Dudrah, Rajinder Kumar (2006). Bollywood: Sociology Goes To the Movies. New Delhi: SAGE Publishing India. ISBN 9789352803026. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- Gangadhar, V. (13 April 2007). "Moving with the times". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 19 April 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- Gupta, Suman; Omoniyi, Tope (2001). The Cultures of Economic Migration: International Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-7546-7070-4.
- Khubchandani, Lata. "Memories of another day". mid-day.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018.
- A. Chatterji, Shoma (30 June 2007). "Where East meets West". The Tribune. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "Autralian actress Emma Brown chooses Bollywood over Hollywood". Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 10–18, 63. ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
- Bhaumik, Saba Naqvi (30 September 1996). "From nonsensical to sublime, Majrooh Sultanpuri still defines Bollywood frontiers". India Today. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- Virdi, Jyotika (2003). The cinematic imagiNation (sic): Indian popular films as social history. Rutgers University Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780813531915.
- "Soulful Urdu Words Used in Bollywood That You May Be Unaware Of". CNN-News18. CNN International. 4 August 2017.
- Desai, Jigna, Dudrah, Rajinder, Rai, Amit, "Bollywood Audiences Editorial", South Asian Popular Culture (October 2005), Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 79–82.
- Us Salam, Ziya (12 August 2007). "Assault of the mixed doubles". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- "Lagaan used synchronized sound". The Times of India. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.[permanent dead link]
- Samyabrata Ray Goswami (11 November 2014). "Women get makeup justice". The Telegraph. Kolkota. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Amit Anand Choudhary (21 April 2015). "Bollywood make-up artists' group inducts first woman after SC rap". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Anantharaman, Ganesh (2008). Bollywood Melodies: A History. Penguin Books India. p. 2. ISBN 9780143063407. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- Rao, Shakuntala (2010). ""I Need an Indian Touch": Glocalization and Bollywood Films". Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. 3: 1–19. doi:10.1080/17513050903428117.
- BBC News: Kashmir beckons Bollywood (10 April 2003).
- Bollywood – The Indian Cinema and Switzerland (2002). Archived 18 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- The Hindu: Bollywood boosts Austria's tourism potential. (2008).
- "Top 10 Best Dancers in Bollywood". Mashtos. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- "Helen: Bollywood's Queen of Dance". The Huffington Post UK. 2 December 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "The Tragic ending of Cuckoo Moore – Helen remembers Cuckoo". cineplot.com. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Happy Birthday Parveen Babi". The Indian Express. 4 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "World Dance Day: Top 6 dancing queens of Bollywood!". Zee News. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "'Her Story' | Vinod Mehta | Aug 01,2013". www.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Shammi Kapoor". The Telegraph. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- The Times of India; movie report (6 November 2011). "It took me 20 years to be an overnight success: Shah Rukh Khan". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "I & B Ministry will help film industry". Rediff. 31 March 2001. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Singh, Vijay (1 October 2003). "Bharat Shah sentenced, but won't have to spend time in prison". Rediff.com. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- Ramanan, Manju (21 February 2005). "A different canvas". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- "Collectors can make good money with old Bollywood posters". The Economic Times. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "100 years of Indian cinema: Top 50 hand-painted Bollywood posters". CNN-IBN. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Jerry Pinto; Sheena Sippy (2008). Bollywood Posters. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28776-7. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Skelton, Tracey; Allen, Tim (1999). Culture and Global Change. Routledge. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-415-13917-5.
- Ferrao, Dominic (31 January 2003). "Bollywood wakes up to the power of Web". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- "Leo Entertainment capitalises on film placements". Indian Television. 14 January 2003. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- O'Neill, Patricia (2013). "Imagining global India: Bollywood's transnational appeal". Continuum. 27 (2): 254–266. doi:10.1080/10304312.2013.766309. S2CID 145444217.
- "Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Diaspora News & Network Ltd". Dnnworld.com. 4 March 2005. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Filmfare Awards Complete Winners List – BollywoodSoundtracks.com Archived 3 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Larkin, Brian (31 August 2002). "Bollywood Comes To Nigeria". Samarmagazine.org. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Desai, 38
- "Dangal underlines popularity of Indian films in China". China Daily. 20 July 2017.
- Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?. Business Week.
- "Bollywood's expanding reach". BBC News. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Despite official ban, Hindi movies are a craze in Pakistan". Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
- "Bollywood stumbles in Pak with Taj Mahal". The Indian Express. 14 May 2006. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- "Will it be curtains for Indian films in Pakistan?". ThaIndian. 9 January 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- "The Mirror is Watching". Outlook India. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
- Sudhakaran, Sreeju (10 June 2017). "Aamir Khan in China, Shah Rukh Khan in Germany - 7 Bollywood stars who have massive fan following in other countries". Bollywood Life.
- "Bollywood set to cross LoC". Hindustan Times. 27 January 2006.
- "It's Bollywood all the way in Afghanistan". @businessline. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007.
- "CNN World: Kabul TV bans 'explicit' Indian films, soaps". 29 August 2002. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "BBC: Bollywood eyes Afghan market". BBC News. 27 November 2001. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Yogendra Singh (19 November 2008). "Bollywood in Southeast Asia". Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- Tambunan, Shuri Mariasih Gietty (23 December 2012). "Bollywood in Indonesia: The Kuch Kuch Hota Hai effect". Owsa. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Matsuoka, Tamaki (2008). Asia to Watch, Asia to Present: The Promotion of Asian/Indian Cinema in Japan (PDF). Senri Ethnological Studies, Reitaku University. p. 246. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011.
- Kohli-Khandekar, Vanita (2013). The Indian Media Business. SAGE Publications. p. 188. ISBN 9788132117889.
- "Japan is going gaga over Bollywood". Quartz. 11 December 2014.
- "3 Idiots to race for Japan Academy Awards". 27 January 2014.
- Chaerim Oh (4 December 2011). "Embrace Your Nerdiness with 3 Idiots". KAIST Herald. KAIST. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Aamir: I couldn't really enjoy the food in China". Rediff. 21 May 2015.
- "Aamir Khan: the second coming of Tagore?". South China Morning Post. 28 January 2018.
- "Lagaan released in China". The Tribune. Press Trust of India. 20 November 2002. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
- Cain, Rob. "How A 52-Year-Old Indian Actor Became China's Favorite Movie Star".
- Anil K. Joseph (20 November 2002). "Lagaan revives memories of Raj Kapoor in China". Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Rahman's 'Lagaan' cast a spell on me". Sify. 13 February 2004. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- "Q&A: Aamir Khan on what it takes to crack China's box office". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- 内地总票房排名 ("All-Time Domestic Box Office Rankings"). 中国票房 (China Box Office) (in Chinese). Entgroup.
- Cain, Rob (12 June 2017). "'Dangal' Tops $300 Million, Becoming The 5th Highest-Grossing Non-English Movie Ever". Forbes. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Miller, Lee (28 January 2018). "Bollywood Hit Beats 'Star Wars' at China's Box Office". Bloomberg News.
- Miller, Lee (29 January 2018). "China Picks Bollywood Over Hollywood". Bloomberg News.
- Miller, Lee (29 January 2018). "How Aamir Khan's Secret Superstar beat 'Star Wars' at China's Box Office". Business Standard.
- "印度的良心阿米尔·汗如何用电影改变国家". Sina Corp. 19 May 2017.
- "《摔跤吧！爸爸》主演阿米尔·汗被誉为"印度刘德华"-中新网". China News Service. 11 May 2017.
- "Meet the Secret Superstar of China, from India". South China Morning Post. 28 January 2018.
- "China Box Office: Bollywood's 'Secret Superstar' Beats 'Ferdinand' and 'Jumanji'". The Hollywood Reporter. 22 January 2018.
- "Secret Superstar: Aamir Khan's film becomes second Indian movie to cross Rs 500 cr in China, next only to his Dangal". Firstpost. 2 February 2018.
- "5 big stories from the week gone by". Filmfare. 29 January 2018.
- Gao, Charlotte. "Aamir Khan: India's Soft Power in China". The Diplomat.
- "Significant Digits For Tuesday, Jan. 30, 2018". FiveThirtyEight. 30 January 2018.
- "Headlines from China: Tencent Acquires Stake in Hollywood Studio Skydance Media". China Film Insider. 26 January 2018.
- Tripathi, Rajat. "Irrfan Khan's Hindi Medium BEATS the first day collections of Dangal and Bajrangi Bhaijaan in China". Bollywood Life. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Bollywood clubs popular among Australians". The Times of India. Indo-Asian News Service. 15 September 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- Phillips, Mark (13 May 2005). "Bollywood on Bourke Street". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
- "Australian PM says Salaam Namaste to Bollywood". bonza.rmit.edu.au. 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- Ramachandran, Arjun (23 May 2008). "Tania Zaetta's Bollywood career in doubt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- Sanskar Shrivastava (1 August 2013). "Influence of Bollywood in Former Soviet Union; Why India and Russia Need to Target Bollywood Diplomacy and Business". The World Reporter. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Indian Films in Soviet Cinemas: The Culture of Movie-going After Stalin, page 75, Indiana University Press, 2005
- Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 44, Cornell University Press, 2011
- Behind The Scenes Of Hindi Cinema: A Visual Journey Through The Heart Of Bollywood, page 138, Royal Tropical Institute, 2005
- "With love from India to Russia". Russia Beyond. 22 October 2009.
- The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War, page 357, Routledge, 2014
- Rajagopalan, Sudha (16 August 2018). "A Taste for Indian Films: Negotiating Cultural Boundaries in Post-Stalinist Soviet Society". Indiana University – via Google Books.
- Sergey Kudryavtsev. "Зарубежные популярные фильмы в советском кинопрокате (Индия)".
- Sergey Kudryavtsev. "Зарубежные фильмы в советском кинопрокате".
- "Bollywood re-enters Russian homes via cable TV". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 43, Cornell University Press, 2011
- Do you remember Jimmy Jimmy?, SBS, 18 March 2017
- Ashreena, Tanya. "Promoting Bollywood Abroad Will Help to Promote India". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- "RussiaToday Features: Bollywood challenges Hollywood in Russia". 3 August 2007. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008.
- "After Kama Sutra, it is Bollywood and SRK in Poland". Daily News and Analysis. 7 December 2008.
- "9 Countries Where Bollywood Is Badshah". The Times of India. 15 October 2017.
- Oct 26, Mumbai Mirror | Updated; 2019; Ist, 10:25. "Epic battle for climax of Rinzing Denzongpa's film Squad". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 20 March 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Bollywood films gaining popularity in Gulf countries". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 8 October 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- "Indian films swamp Israel". The Tribune. Press Trust of India. 16 November 2004. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- "Bollywood craze grows ever stronger with audiences in the Middle East | The National". The National. Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "Living the spectacle: Why Egyptians worship Bollywood - Entertainment - Arts & Culture - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- Bradley, Matt (30 September 2013). "Bollywood Rides Back to Egypt on Chennai Express". WSJ Blogs - Middle East Real Time. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "Egypt's Amitabh Bachchan mania". The Times of India. 2 December 2005.
- "Barfi! making inroads for Bollywood in Turkey | The National". The National. Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- Louise Hidalgo (24 October 1998). "World: Bollywood stirs Uzbek passions". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
Indian films are known for their all singing all dancing formula.
- Monica Whitlock & Rahim Rahimian (23 June 2004). "Bollywood bowls Tajiks over". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- "HugeDomains.com - Swarit.com is for sale (Swarit)". hugedomains.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Cite uses generic title (help)
- Global Bollywood – Anandam P. Kavoori, Aswin Punathambekar
- Firdaus Ashraf, Syed (15 September 2006). "Will Hrithik's Dhoom 2 prove lucky for Brazil?". Rediff.com. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- "Bollywood Comes to Latin America". Fox News Channel. 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rajinder, Dudrah; Jigna, Desai (2008). The Bollywood Reader. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 65. ISBN 9780335222124.
- Balchand, K. (26 September 2004). "Lalu Prasad, at home". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 16 November 2004. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- "Bollywood in Africa – Is it getting too Western? – How the World Works". Salon. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Baru, Sanjaya (2013). Strategic Consequences of India's Economic Performance. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-134-70973-1.
- Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet (2006). Ethiopia & Eritrea. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-74104-436-2.
- Carter, Sandra Gayle (2009). What Moroccan Cinema?: A Historical and Critical Study. Lexington Books. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7391-3187-9.
- "Mehboob's AAN (1952) – Indian Cinema's entry into Europe". 11 January 2017.
- "Dilip Kumar ke aashiq hum bhi the". filmfare.com.
- Gaur, Madan (1973). Other Side of the Coin: An Intimate Study of Indian Film Industry. Trimurti Prakashan [distributed through Universal Book Service, Delhi]. p. 122.
- Chatterjee, Gayatri (2002). Mother India. British Film Institute. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-85170-917-8.
- Jha, Lata (10 February 2017). "Why Shah Rukh Khan remains the ultimate NRI hero". Live Mint.
- "Darr". Box Office India. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Desai, Lord Meghnad (25 November 2007). "Bollywood needs to change its act". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- Francis C. Assisi. Bollywood Culture Binds Global Indian Diaspora Archived 14 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Lehmann, Ana (5 December 2004). "Bollywood in Germany". The Tribune. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- Shah, Arjun. "Is Bollywood Unlawfully Copying Hollywood? Why? What has Been Done About It? And How Can It Be Stopped?". law.emory.edu. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
- Shedde, Meenakshi (18 May 2003). "Plagiarism issue jolts Bollywood". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- Ayres, Alyssa; Oldenburg, Philip (2005). India briefing: takeoff at last. M.E. Sharpe. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-7656-1593-0.
- "Cloning Hollywood". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 3 August 2003. Archived from the original on 22 April 2004. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
- "Partner may face $30 mn Hitch". The Times of India. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Copycat filmmaker lacks creativity". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 20 January 2006. Archived from the original on 26 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
- Blakely, Rhys (7 August 2009). "Plagiarism case could stop Bollywood borrowing from Hollywood". The Times. Retrieved 12 November 2010.[dead link]
- Orion Pictures produce official remake to Wedding Crashers, Bollywood Hungama Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Amit Baruah, R. Padmanabhan (6 September 1997). "The stilled voice". The Hindu, Frontline. Archived from the original on 30 December 2001.
- Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2018). Bioscope: A Frivolous History of Bollywood in Ten Chapters. Hachette. p. 93. ISBN 9789351952299.
- "A rare encounter with Ustad Nusrat Ali Khan". Rediff. 1997. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Srinivasan, Karthik (16 October 2018). "How Guinean Singer Mory Kanté's Music Was Lifted To Create 'Tamma Tamma Loge' and 'Jumma Chumma De De'". Film Companion. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Alter, Stephen. Fantasies of a Bollywood Love-Thief: Inside the World of Indian Moviemaking. ISBN 0-15-603084-5.
- Begum-Hossain, Momtaz. Bollywood Crafts: 20 Projects Inspired by Popular Indian Cinema, 2006. The Guild of Mastercraftsman Publications. ISBN 1-86108-418-8.
- Bose, Mihir, Bollywood: A History, New Delhi, Roli Books, 2008. ISBN 978-81-7436-653-5.
- Dwyer, Rachel. Bollywood's India: Hindi Cinema as a Guide to Contemporary India (Reaktion Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2014) 295 pages
- Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood, Routledge, New York and London, 2004.
- Ganti, Tejaswini. Producing Bollywood: Inside the Contemporary Hindi Film Industry (Duke University Press; 2012) 424 pages; looks at how major changes in film production since the 1990s have been influenced by the liberal restructuring of India's state and economy.
- Gibson, Bernard. 'Bollywood'. Passing the Envelope, 1994.
- Jolly, Gurbir, Zenia Wadhwani, and Deborah Barretto, eds. Once Upon a Time in Bollywood: The Global Swing in Hindi Cinema, TSAR Publications. 2007. ISBN 978-1-894770-40-8.
- Joshi, Lalit Mohan. Bollywood: Popular Indian Cinema. ISBN 0-9537032-2-3.
- Kabir, Nasreen Munni. Bollywood, Channel 4 Books, 2001.
- Mehta, Suketu. Maximum City, Knopf, 2004.
- Mishra, Vijay. Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. ISBN 0-415-93015-4.
- Pendakur, Manjunath. Indian Popular Cinema: Industry, Ideology, and Consciousness. ISBN 1-57273-500-7.
- Prasad, Madhava. Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-565295-9.
- Raheja, Dinesh and Kothari, Jitendra. Indian Cinema: The Bollywood Saga. ISBN 81-7436-285-1.
- Raj, Aditya (2007) "Bollywood Cinema and Indian Diaspora" in Media Literacy: A Reader edited by Donaldo Macedo and Shirley Steinberg New York: Peter Lang
- Rajadhyaksa, Ashish (1996), "India: Filming the Nation", The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-811257-2.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Oxford University Press, revised and expanded, 1999.
- Jha, Subhash and Bachchan, Amitabh (foreword). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. ISBN 978-81-7436-378-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bollywood.|