Innovia Monorail

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Bombardier Innovia Monorail)

Innovia Monorail
Innovia Monorail 300 in São Paulo, Brazil
In service1989–present
DesignerAlweg, Bombardier, WED Enterprises
Built at
Family nameInnovia

Innovia Monorail is a fully automated and driverless monorail system currently manufactured and marketed by Alstom as part of its Innovia series of fully automated transportation systems. Its straddle-beam design is based on the ALWEG monorail, which was first developed in the 1950s and later popularized by Disney at their theme parks.


Walt Disney World Monorail

In 1989, Walt Disney World got a new fleet of Mark VI monorail trains built by Bombardier Transportation.[1] Bombardier later supplied its first turnkey monorail system in 1991 to Tampa International Airport in Florida;[2] followed by a contract for JTA Skyway Monorail system in Jacksonville, Florida in 1994.[3] Shortly after, in 1996, Newark Liberty International Airport opened a Von Roll monorail system to connect all its terminals. Von Roll technology was sold to Adtranz and later acquired by Bombardier.[4] These early systems are now grouped under the name Innovia Monorail 100.

In July 2004, Las Vegas opened its 6-mile long Mark IV Las Vegas Monorail monorail system (technology now known Innovia Monorail 200 system).[5] The system suffered from repeated technical difficulties, including parts falling from a moving vehicle, in the first few months of service. The system was temporarily closed for 4 months and reopened in December 2004. Since then, the monorail carries 30,000 passengers daily, despite this it is still not meeting the original ridership estimates.[6]

In 2010, the cities of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and São Paulo, Brazil placed orders from Bombardier for its latest Innovia Monorail 300 system. As of 2015, both systems are still in delivery. The Riyadh system is for the new King Abdullah Financial District, which will be a car-free economic hub in the Middle East.[7] The São Paulo system will be part of the city's mass transit network and serve 17 stations between the residential districts of Vila Prudente and Cidade Tiradentes.[8] The line started its operations in August 2014 and currently includes ten stations.[9][10]

In November 2014, Bombardier signed a joint venture (JV) agreement with CSR (now CRRC) Puzhen in China to develop and manufacture Innovia Monorail and Innovia APM vehicles for the Chinese market.[11]

In August 2019, a consortium including Bombardier signed an agreement with the National Authority for Tunnels in Cairo, Egypt which included the development and build of 70 4-car monorail trains for $2.85 billion for two new lines, between East Cairo and the New Administrative Capital, and between Giza and 6th October City.[12]

Technical characteristics[edit]

Las Vegas Monorail

Driverless operation[edit]

Innovia Monorails are all fully automated and use a variety of train control technologies. However, the Riyadh and São Paulo monorails are both equipped with CITYFLO 650 communications-based train control.[13] Driverless operation offers many advantages including improved safety, high reliability, shorter headways between trains and lower maintenance costs.


These monorails operate on a narrow, elevated guidebeam. Pre-cast, post-tensioned guidebeams are constructed at an off-site location and later installed on the system. The guidebeams are 690 millimeters (27 in) wide.[14] The Innovia Monorail 300 was designed to navigate curves as tight as 46 m and a maximum grade of 6%. Monorail switches are either beam replacement or multi-position pivot switches.[15]


Innovia Monorail systems have evacuation walkways down the entire length of the guidebeam. These walkways allow passengers to escape any onboard hazard. The maintenance crew also uses these walkways for repairs and general maintenance to the system.[16]


Bombardier currently says the INNOVIA 300 has capacity for 40,000 passengers per hour per direction (pphpd), equivalent to the best monorails.[17] Bombardier has also stated the system can handle 49,600 pphpd with eight car trains at 75 second headways (48 trains per hour) with six passengers per square metre.[18] This is equivalent to the best rapid transit systems.


The three generations of Innovia Monorails have been assembled in different plants. Today, there are multiple production facilities which have produced the trains including Kingston, Canada;[19] Wuhu[20] and Liuzhou,[21] China; Hortolândia, Brazil[22] and Derby, United Kingdom.[23]

System implementations[edit]

Innovia Monorail 100 systems[edit]

Innovia Monorail 100 on the Jacksonville Skyway



Innovia Monorail 200 systems[edit]

Innovia Monorail 300 systems[edit]


Under construction[edit]


The Chicago Athenaeum organizes the Good Design Award competition every year. In 2014, the Innovia Monorail 300 was a winner of the Good Design Award in the Transportation 2014 category.[28]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

The only city in the world to have an Innovia 300 monorail in operation, São Paulo has had its system break-down on multiple occasions, due to problems in implementation and on the train project itself, ever since it started operating commercially. In 2016, a train departed from the Oratório station with its doors open, which luckily caused no accidents, due to an error in the programming made by Bombardier on the train's computers.[29] It's worth noting that those trains operate on unprotected 15-meter (45-feet) high tracks. In January 2019, two trains collided on the to-be-opened Jardim Planalto station,[30] causing both to become unusable for the remainder of the year. According to the metro workers' union, this accident was caused because there's a gap in the system: if one train is shut down, it disappears from the control system and is not seen by others, which could (and supposedly did) cause crashes.[31][32] In January 2020, due to poor constructing, screws fell from one of the line's track-switches, causing the line to operate precariously for five days.[33] The section in which this took place (in the vicinity of the São Lucas station) had been opened only two years prior. In February 2020, the worst accident so far happened: a tire from the train M20 exploded, causing the system to completely shut down while Bombardier technicians looked into what happened, partially reopening ninety-four days later (on June 1)[34] and fully reopening 111 days after the incident, on June 18.[35] According to a preliminary report by the São Paulo State's Research Institute, what caused the incident were hundreds[36] of imperfections on the concrete rails, which caused strong vibrations that, in turn, made the tire's runflat mechanism touch the rubber from inside the wheel, causing premature wear and consequent rupture.[37] After investigating, it was found out that all 23 operational trains from the line's fleet had been affected by this issue.[38]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Walt Disney World Monorail System". Big Florida Country. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  2. ^ "Monorails of North America". The Monorail Society. Monorail Society. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Jacksonville's Automated Skyway Express Downtown Peoplemover". Innovative Transportation Technologies. Jerry Schneider. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  4. ^ "Von Roll/Adtranz". The Monorail Society. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  5. ^ "OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE". Las Vegas Monorail. Las Vegas Monorail Company. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  6. ^ "Monorail! Could Disney dream be Toronto's reality?". The Toronto Star. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  7. ^ "King Abdullah Financial District monorail revealed". Railway Gazette.
  8. ^ "São Paulo awards monorail metro contract". Railway Gazette.
  9. ^ "São Paulo awards monorail metro contract". Railway Gazette.
  10. ^ "Estação Vila Prudente – Linha 15-Prata | Metrô São Paulo". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Bombardier Announces Joint Venture for China". Net News Ledger. 6 November 2014.
  12. ^ "Consortium of Bombardier Transportation, Orascom Construction and Arab Contractors wins contract to supply and operate two monorail lines in Egypt". 5 August 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  13. ^ "Bombardier named systems supplier of the year – INNOVIA Monorail 300 system and CITYFLO 650 technology are winners in Sao Paulo". Purchasing B2B. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  14. ^ "ALWEG - Bombardier Innovia Monorail 300". The Monorail Society - Technical Page. The Monorail Society. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015.
  15. ^ "INNOVIA Monorail 300 System: a mass transport solution for the megacity of São Paulo" (PDF). CG/LA Infrastructure, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  16. ^ "URBAN MONORAIL TRACK". Monorail Australia. The Monorail Society.
  17. ^ "INNOVIA monorail system – mass transit capabilities with iconic aesthetics". Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  18. ^ "INNOVIA Monorail 300 Technology" (PDF). Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  19. ^ "King Abdullah Financial District monorail revealed". veeoz. Railway Gazette. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  20. ^ 网易 (8 December 2020). "芜湖轻轨开通时间传来新消息!赶紧上车"探秘"跨座式单轨、全自动驾驶、玻璃钢座椅…". Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  21. ^ "最新消息!"柳州造"首列轻轨列车开始动态测试 将出口东南亚_产业". Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  22. ^ "Bombardier opens Hortolândia monorail factory". Railway Gazette.
  23. ^ "Bombardier in Derby to build monorail trains for Cairo". BBC News. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  24. ^ "China's first fully automated and driverless elevated monorail provided by Alstom's Chinese joint venture enters service in Wuhu". Alstom. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  25. ^ 今报记者. "激动!坐这车游柳州,原来更有feel!想体验吗?". Weixin Official Accounts Platform. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  26. ^ "Cairo Monorail System in Egypt". Railway Technology. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  27. ^ "Santiago de los Caballeros monorail contract signed". Railway Gazette. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  28. ^ "Good Design – INNOVIA Monorail 300 System – 2012". The Chicago Athenaeum.
  29. ^ disse, Diego (14 October 2016). "Monotrilho da Linha 15-Prata sai da estação com as portas abertas". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  30. ^ disse, Bruno (1 February 2019). "Metrô inicia remoção dos trens que colidiram na Linha 15". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  31. ^ "Sindicato dos Metroviários diz que acidente com monotrilho foi causado por ausência de sistema de comunicação". Diário do Transporte (in Brazilian Portuguese). 7 February 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  32. ^ "Metrô de São Paulo diz que mantém cobrança de consórcio por monotrilho inoperante e que pode mover novo processo se plano de retomada não for satisfatório". Diário do Transporte (in Brazilian Portuguese). 6 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  33. ^ "Problema "exclusivo" do monotrilho faz Linha 15-Prata operar em dois trechos". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). 3 January 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  34. ^ "Monotrilho da Linha 15-Prata voltou a operar entre Vila Prudente e Jd. Planalto no fim da tarde desta segunda (01)". Diário do Transporte (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  35. ^ "Linha 15-Prata retoma operação até a estação São Mateus". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). 18 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  36. ^ "Baldy revela erros graves do consórcio responsável pela implantação da Linha 15-Prata". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). 22 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  37. ^ "Os bastidores do incidente que fez a Linha 15-Prata ser paralisada há dois meses". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). 24 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  38. ^ "Problema em pneu faz Metrô suspender operação da Linha 15-Prata do monotrilho". Metrô CPTM (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 March 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.