Bombay Stock Exchange
|Founded||9 July 1875|
|Currency||Indian rupee (₹)|
|No. of listings||5,439|
|Market cap||₹276.713 lakh crore (US$3.5 trillion) (Jan 2022)|
S&P BSE SmallCap
S&P BSE MidCap
S&P BSE LargeCap
BSE Limited, also known as the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), is an Indian stock exchange and is the leading stock exchange under the ownership of Ministry of Finance, Government of India. It is located on Dalal Street in Mumbai. Established in 1875 by cotton merchant Premchand Roychand, a Jain businessman, it is the oldest stock exchange in Asia, and also the tenth oldest in the world. The BSE is the 8th largest stock exchange with an overall market capitalisation in the world with more than ₹276.713 lakh crore, as of January 2022.
Unlike countries like the United States where nearly 70% of the country's GDP is derived from large companies in the corporate sector like Apple and Tesla, the corporate sector in India accounts for only 12–14% of the national GDP (as of October 2016). Of these only 7,400 companies are listed of which only 4000 trade on the stock exchanges at BSE and NSE. Hence the stocks trading at the BSE and NSE account for only around 4% of the Indian economy, which derives most of its income-related activity from the unorganized sector and household spending.
The Economic Times estimates that as of April 2018, 6 crore (60 million) retail investors had invested their savings in stocks in India, either through direct purchases of equities or through mutual funds. Earlier, the Bimal Jalan Committee report estimated that barely 1.3% of India's population invested in the stock market, as compared to 27% in the United States and 10% in China.
Bombay Stock Exchange was started by Premchand Roychand in 1875. While BSE Limited is now synonymous with Dalal Street, it was not always so. In the 1850s, five stock brokers gathered together under a Banyan tree in front of Mumbai Town Hall, where Horniman Circle is now situated. A decade later, the brokers moved their location to another leafy setting, this time under banyan trees at the junction of Meadows Street and what was then called Esplanade Road, now Mahatma Gandhi Road. With a rapid increase in the number of brokers, they had to shift places repeatedly. At last, in 1874, the brokers found a permanent location, the one that they could call their own. The brokers group became an official organization known as "The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association" in 1875.
The Bombay Stock Exchange continued to operate out of a building near the Town Hall until 1928. The present site near Horniman Circle was acquired by the exchange in 1928, and a building was constructed and occupied in 1930. The street on which the site is located came to be called Dalal Street in Hindi (meaning "Broker Street") due to the location of the exchange.
On 31 August 1957, the BSE became the first stock exchange to be recognized by the Indian Government under the Securities Contracts Regulation Act. Construction of the present building, the Phiroze Jeejeebhoy Towers at Dalal Street, Fort area, began in the late 1970s and was completed and occupied by the BSE in 1980. Initially named the BSE Towers, the name of the building was changed soon after occupation, in memory of Sir Phiroze Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy, chairman of the BSE since 1966, following his death.
In 1986, the BSE developed the S&P BSE SENSEX index, giving the BSE a means to measure the overall performance of the exchange. In 2000, the BSE used this index to open its derivatives market, trading S&P BSE SENSEX futures contracts. The development of S&P BSE SENSEX options along with equity derivatives followed in 2001 and 2002, expanding the BSE's trading platform.
Historically an open outcry floor trading exchange, the Bombay Stock Exchange switched to an electronic trading system developed by Cmc ltd. in 1995. It took the exchange only 50 days to make this transition. This automated, screen-based trading platform called BSE On-Line Trading (BOLT) had a capacity of 8 million orders per day.
The BSE is also a Partner Exchange of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchange initiative, joining in September 2012.
BSE established India INX on 30 December 2016. India INX is the first international exchange of India.
BSE became the first stock exchange in the country to launch commodity derivatives contract in gold and silver in October 2018.
Demutualization and listing
- National Stock Exchange of India
- List of South Asian stock exchanges
- List of stock exchanges in the Commonwealth of Nations
- SEBI Regulation 45(1) of Securities Contracts (Regulation) (Stock Exchanges and Clearing Corporations) Regulations, 2018 prohibits self-listing of a stock exchange in India.
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