Bone state

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Bone (also Boni, or Bone Saoraja) was a sultanate in the south-west peninsula of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), now part of modern-day Indonesia. Covering an area of 2,600 square kilometres (1,000 sq mi), Bone's chief town Boni, lay 130 kilometres (81 mi) northeast of the city of Makassar, home to the Bugis people.

A black and white picture of a thatched roof building on stilts
Palace of the Sultan of Bone, c. 1900-1920

The Bone state was an adat-based Bugis kingdom which was founded by ManurungngE Rimatajang in 1330.[1][2] It later entered an alliance with the Wajo and Soppeng kingdoms for mutual defence. This alliance became known as LaMumpatue Ri Timurung.[1]

In 1605, during the reign of the tenth king of Bone Latenri Tuppu Matinro Ri Sidenreng, Islam entered Bone and caused a change in local culture, including a renaming of various aspects of the regal system.[2] Bone State later enjoyed a period of prosperity in the middle of the 17th century.[1]

Once the most powerful state of Sulawesi, Boni came under Dutch influence in 1666 as they sought to protect themselves from neighbouring belligerent states. Boni remained under Dutch control until 1814 when the British temporarily gained power of the region, but returned to Dutch rule in 1816 by the European treaties concluded on the downfall of Napoleon. Dutch influence was increasingly resisted by the Boni however, and numerous Dutch expeditions to Boni were repelled during the 19th century. Boni became part of Indonesia upon the country's independence.

As in other native states in Sulawesi, succession to the throne through the female line held precedence over the male line.

In May 1950, the people held demonstrations in Watampone against the royalty and Bone's membership in the State of East Indonesia. This caused the sultan to step down and join Indonesia.[2]

See also[edit]


  • For the wars in Boni, see Perelaer, De Bonische Expedition, 1859 (Leiden, 1872) (in Dutch); and Meyers, in the Militaire Spectator (1880).
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boni" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–206.

External links[edit]