Bongbong Marcos

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bongbong Marcos
Ferdinand R. Marcos Jr (cropped 2).jpg
Official portrait, 2022
17th President of the Philippines
Assumed office
June 30, 2022
Vice PresidentSara Duterte Carpio
Preceded byRodrigo Duterte
Secretary of Agriculture
in concurrent capacity as President of the Philippines
Assumed office
June 30, 2022
Preceded byWilliam Dar
Senator of the Philippines
In office
June 30, 2010 – June 30, 2016
Member of the
Philippine House of Representatives
from Ilocos Norte's 2nd congressional district
In office
June 30, 2007 – June 30, 2010
Preceded byImee Marcos
Succeeded byImelda Marcos
In office
June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1995
Preceded byMariano Nalupta Jr.
Succeeded bySimeon Valdez
Governor of Ilocos Norte
In office
June 30, 1998 – June 30, 2007
Preceded byRodolfo Fariñas
Succeeded byMichael Marcos Keon
In office
March 23, 1983 – February 25, 1986
Preceded byElizabeth Keon
Succeeded byCastor Raval (OIC)
Vice Governor of Ilocos Norte
In office
June 30, 1980 – March 23, 1983
GovernorElizabeth Keon
National Chairman of the Partido Federal ng Pilipinas
Assumed office
October 5, 2021
Party presidentReynaldo Tamayo Jr.
Preceded byAbubakar Mangelen
Personal details
Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos Jr.

(1957-09-13) September 13, 1957 (age 65)
Santa Mesa, Manila, Philippines[1]
Political partyPFP (since 2021)
Other political
Nacionalista (2009–2021)
KBL (1980–2009)
(m. 1993)
Children3, including Sandro
Parent(s)Ferdinand Marcos Sr.
Imelda Marcos
RelativesMarcos family
Malacañang Palace
Bahay ng Pagbabago
The Mansion
(summer residence)
EducationWorth School
Alma mater

Ferdinand "Bongbong" Romualdez Marcos Jr.[3][4][5] (UK: /ˈmɑːrkɒs/ MAR-koss, US: /-ks, -kɔːs/ -⁠kohss, -⁠kawss,[6][7] Tagalog: [ˈmaɾkɔs]; born September 13, 1957), commonly referred to by the initials PBBM or BBM, is a Filipino politician who is the 17th and current president of the Philippines.[8][9][10] He previously served as a senator from 2010 to 2016. He is the second child and only son of tenth president and dictator Ferdinand Marcos Sr. and former first lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos.[3][11]

In 1980, Marcos became Vice Governor of Ilocos Norte, running unopposed with the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party of his father, who was ruling the Philippines under martial law at the time.[12] He then became Governor of Ilocos Norte in 1983, holding that office until his family was ousted from power by the People Power Revolution and fled into exile in Hawaii in February 1986.[13] After the death of his father in 1989, President Corazon Aquino eventually allowed his family to return to the Philippines to face various charges.[14] Marcos and his mother, Imelda, are currently facing arrest in the United States for defying a court order to pay US$353 million (₱17,385,249,999.93 in 2023) in restitution to human rights abuse victims during his father's dictatorship.[15]

Marcos was elected as Representative of Ilocos Norte's 2nd congressional district from 1992 to 1995. He was elected Governor of Ilocos Norte again in 1998. After nine years, he returned to his previous position as Representative from 2007 to 2010, then became senator under the Nacionalista Party from 2010 to 2016.[16] In 2015, Marcos ran for vice president in the 2016 election. With a difference of 263,473 votes and a 0.64 percent difference in votes, Marcos lost to Camarines Sur representative Leni Robredo.[17] In response, Marcos filed an electoral protest at the Presidential Electoral Tribunal; his petition was later unanimously dismissed after the pilot recount resulted in Robredo widening her lead by 15,093 additional votes.[18][19]

In 2021, Marcos announced that he would run for President of the Philippines in the 2022 election, under the Partido Federal ng Pilipinas,[20] which he won by a landslide.[8] He received nearly 59% of the votes, becoming the first to be elected by a majority since the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 1986.[21][22] He was officially declared president-elect by Congress on May 25, 2022.[21] His win was also the largest since 1981, when his father won 88% of the votes due to a boycott by the opposition who protested the prior election.[23][24][25] He is the first Philippine candidate to lose a vice presidential campaign but win the presidency.

Marcos's presidential campaign received criticism from fact-checkers and disinformation scholars, who found his campaign to be driven by historical negationism aimed at revamping the Marcos brand and smearing his rivals.[26] His campaign has also been accused of whitewashing the human rights abuses and plunder that took place during his father's presidency.[26] The Washington Post has noted how the historical distortionism of the Marcoses has been underway since the 2000s, while The New York Times cited his convictions of tax fraud, including his refusal to pay his family's estate taxes, and misrepresentation of his education at the University of Oxford.[27][28][29][30]

Early life and education

Bongbong Marcos was born as Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos Jr. on September 13, 1957, at Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital in Santa Mesa, Manila, Philippines, to Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos. At the time of his birth, his father Ferdinand, Sr. was the representative for the Second District of Ilocos Norte, eventually becoming a senator just two years later. His godfathers included prominent personalities and future Marcos cronies Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco Jr.[31]: 286  and pharmaceuticals magnate Jose Yao Campos.[32]


Marcos first studied at the Institución Teresiana and La Salle Green Hills in Manila, where he obtained his kindergarten and elementary education, respectively.[33][34]

In 1970, Marcos was sent to England where he lived and studied at Worth School, an all-boys Benedictine institution in West Sussex.[3][35] He was studying there when his father declared martial law throughout the Philippines in 1972.[3][35]

He then enrolled at St Edmund Hall, Oxford, to study philosophy, politics and economics (PPE). However, despite his false claims that he graduated with a bachelor of arts in PPE,[36] he did not obtain such a degree.[37][38][39] Marcos had passed philosophy, but failed economics, and failed politics twice, thus making him ineligible for a degree.[40][41] Instead, he received a special diploma in social studies,[39] which was awarded mainly to non-graduates and is currently no longer offered by the university.[37][42] Marcos still falsely claims that he obtained a degree from the University of Oxford despite Oxford confirming in 2015 that Marcos did not finish his degree.[43]

Marcos enrolled in the Masters in Business Administration program at the Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, United States, which he failed to complete. Marcos asserts that he withdrew from the program for his election as Vice Governor of Ilocos Norte in 1980.[44] The Presidential Commission on Good Government later reported that his tuition, his US$10,000 (₱492,500 in 2023) monthly allowance, and the estate he lived in while studying at Wharton, were paid using funds that could be traced partly to the intelligence funds of the Office of the President, and partly to some of the fifteen bank accounts that the Marcoses had secretly opened in the US under assumed names.[45]

Early public roles

Marcos was thrust into the national limelight as early as when he was three years old, and the scrutiny became even more intense when his father first ran for President of the Philippines in 1965,[46] when he was eight years old.[3][35][31]

During his father's 1965 campaign, Marcos played himself in the Sampaguita Pictures film Iginuhit ng Tadhana: The Ferdinand E. Marcos Story, a biopic based on the novel For Every Tear a Victory.[47][46] The young Marcos was portrayed giving a speech towards the end of the film, in which he says that he would like to be a politician when he grows up.[48] The public relations value of the film is credited for having helped the elder Marcos win the 1965 Philippine elections.[49]

A young Bongbong Marcos and his sister Imee played a small role in the controversial "Manila incident" of the Beatles in July 1966, just six months after their father assumed the presidency.[50][51]: 200  Bongbong and Imee were among 400 children whom their mother Imelda brought to Malacañang Palace for a reception in which they expected the Beatles to show up.[50] The four band members claimed not to know about the event, and refused to attend. As the event went on without them, the Marcos children were interviewed. Bongbong, referring to the group's long hair, was quoted saying "I'd like to pounce on the Beatles and cut off their hair! Don't anybody dare me to do anything, because I'll do it, just to see how game the Beatles are."[50] Imee, meantime, was quoted saying "There is only one song I like from the Beatles, and it's Run for Your Life."[50]—a quote which media later associated with the way the Beatles scrambled out of Manila, receiving rough treatment at the Manila International Airport.[50]

Beatles lead guitarist George Harrison later accused the Marcoses of inciting Filipinos to mob the band as they tried to leave the country for not showing up at the reception, saying in a 1986 interview at NBC's Today Show that the Marcoses "tried to kill [them]."[52][53] Harrison further said that their plane was not allowed to leave Manila until their manager, Brian Epstein, refunded the concert ticket money.[52][53]

The Manila Bulletin reported in 2015 that Marcos had once invited Beatles drummer Ringo Starr to return to the Philippines "to bring closure" to the incident.[54]

The incident was brought up in the media again after a 2021 interview between Marcos and Toni Gonzaga, when he was asked about which musicians he idolized, and he casually mentioned that he was friends with Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones and members of the Beatles.[52]

Marcos was still a minor on the exact year that martial law was declared. Marcos turned 18 in 1975[55][56]—a year after he graduated from Worth School.[57]

Roles in the Marcos regime

Vice governorship and governorship in Ilocos Norte

Marcos's first formal role in a political office came with his election as Vice Governor of Ilocos Norte (1980–1983) at the age of 23. On March 23, 1983, he was installed as the Governor of Ilocos Norte, replacing his aunt, who had resigned from the post due to health reasons.[58] In 1983, he led a group of young Filipino leaders on a 10-day diplomatic mission to China to mark the tenth anniversary of Philippine-Chinese relations.[59] He stayed in office until the People Power Revolution in 1986.

During Marcos's term, at least two extrajudicial killings took place in Ilocos Norte, as documented by the Martial Law Victims Association of Ilocos Norte (MLVAIN).[60][61]

Chairmanship of PHILCOMSAT Board

Marcos was appointed by his father to be chairman of the board of the Philippine Communications Satellite Corporation (PHILCOMSAT) in early 1985.[62] In a prominent example of what Finance Minister Jaime Ongpin later branded "crony capitalism", the Marcos administration had sold its majority shares to Marcos cronies such as Roberto S. Benedicto,[63] Manuel H. Nieto,[63] Jose Yao Campos,[64] and Rolando Gapud[64] in 1982, despite being very profitable because of its role as the sole agent for the Philippines' link to global satellite network Intelsat.[63] President Marcos acquired a 39.9% share in the company through front companies under Campos and Gapud.[64] This allowed President Marcos to appoint his son as the chairman of the Philcomsat board in early 1985, allowing the young Marcos to draw a monthly salary "ranging from US$9,700 to US$97,000"[62][63] (₱477,725 to ₱4,777,250 in 2023) despite rarely visiting the office and having no duties there.[63][62] PHILCOMSAT was one of five telecommunications firms sequestered by the Philippine government in 1986.[63]

Ill-gotten Marcos family wealth

After the Marcos family went into exile in 1986, the Presidential Commission on Good Government found that the three Marcos children benefited significantly[62][45][65] from what the Supreme Court of the Philippines defined as "ill-gotten wealth" of the Marcos family.[66][67][68]

Aside from the tuition, US$10,000.00 (₱492,500 in 2023) monthly allowance, and the estates used by Marcos Jr. and Imee Marcos during their respective studies at Wharton and Princeton,[45] each of the Marcos children was assigned a mansion in the Metro Manila area, as well as in Baguio, the Philippines' designated summer capital.[45] Properties specifically said to have been given to Marcos Jr included the Wigwam House compound on Outlook Drive in Baguio[45] and the Seaside Mansion Compound in Parañaque.[45]

In addition, by the time their father was ousted from power in 1986, both Marcos Jr. and Imee held key posts in the Marcos administration.[62] Imee was already thirty when she was appointed as the national head of the Kabataang Barangay in the late 1970s,[62] and Marcos Jr was in his twenties when he took up the vice-gubernatorial post for the province of Ilocos Norte in 1980, and then became governor of that province from 1983 until the Marcos family was ousted from Malacañang in 1986.[62]

EDSA revolution and exile (1986–1991)

During the last days of the 1986 People Power Revolution, Bongbong Marcos, in combat fatigues to project his warlike stance,[69] pushed his father Ferdinand Marcos to give the order to his remaining troops to attack and blow up Camp Crame despite the presence of hundreds of thousands of civilians there. The elder Marcos did not follow his son's urgings.[70]

Fearful of a scenario in which Marcos's presence in the Philippines would lead to a civil war,[71] the Reagan administration withdrew its support for the Marcos government, and flew Marcos and a party of about 80 individuals[13] – the extended Marcos family and a number of close associates[72] – from the Philippines to Hawaii despite Marcos's objections.[71] Bongbong Marcos and his family were on the flight with his parents.[73][74]

Soon after arriving in Hawaii, Marcos Jr. participated in an attempt to withdraw US$200 million (₱9,849,999,999.96 in 2023) from a secret family bank account with Credit Suisse in Switzerland,[75] an act which eventually led to the Swiss government freezing the Marcoses' bank accounts in late March that year.[76]

The Marcoses initially stayed at Hickam Air Force Base at the expense of the US Government. A month after arriving in Honolulu, they moved into a pair of residences in Makiki Heights, Honolulu, which were registered to Marcos cronies Antonio Floirendo and Bienvenido and Gliceria Tantoco.[13]

Ferdinand Marcos eventually died in exile three years later, in 1989,[77] with Marcos Jr. being the only family member present at his father's deathbed.[78]

Return to the Philippines and later activities (1991–present)

After his father's death in 1989, President Corazon Aquino permitted the return of the remaining members of the Marcos family to the Philippines to face various charges.[14] Bongbong Marcos was among the first to return to the Philippines. He arrived in the country in 1991 and soon sought political office, beginning in the family's traditional fiefdom in Ilocos Norte.[79]

House of Representatives, first term

After Marcos returned to the Philippines in 1991, Marcos ran for and was elected representative of the second district of Ilocos Norte to the Philippine House of Representatives (1992–1995).[80] When his mother, Imelda Marcos, ran for president in the same election, he decided against supporting her candidacy, and instead expressed support for his godfather Danding Cojuangco.[81] During his term, Marcos was the author of 29 House bills and co-author of 90 more, which includes those that paved the way for the creation of the Department of Energy and the National Youth Commission.[82] He also allocated most of his Countryside Development Fund (CDF) to organizing the cooperatives of teachers and farmers in his home province.[83][84][better source needed] In October 1992, he led a group of ten representatives in attending the first sports summit in the Philippines, held in Baguio.[85] In late 1994, he was made president of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan party, which is known for its support for the Marcos regime.[86]

In 1995, Marcos ran for the Senate under the NPC-led coalition, but placed only 16th.[87]

Compromise deal attempt

In 1995, Bongbong Marcos pushed a deal to allow the Marcos family to keep a quarter of the estimated US$2 billion to US$10 billion (₱98,499,999,999.61 to ₱492,499,999,998.03 in 2023) that the Philippine government had still not recovered from them, on the condition that all civil cases be dropped – a deal that was eventually struck down by the Philippines' Supreme Court.[75]

Ilocos Norte governor, second term

Having previously served as Ilocos Norte governor from 1983 to 1986, Marcos was again elected as governor of Ilocos Norte in 1998, running against his father's closest friend and ally, Roque Ablan Jr. He served for three consecutive terms ending in 2007.[88]

House of Representatives, second term

In 2007, Marcos ran unopposed for the congressional seat previously held by his older sister Imee.[89] He was then appointed as deputy minority leader of the House of Representatives. During this term, Marcos supported the passage of the Philippine Archipelagic Baselines Law, or Republic Act No. 9522.[90] He also wrote his own version of the law, but the bill only remained in the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.[82][91] He also promoted the Republic Act No. 9502 (Universally Accessible Cheaper and Quality Medicines Act) which was enacted on 2009.[92]

Senate career

Senator Marcos during a Kapihan sa Senado forum in June 2014
Portrait during his stint as senator

Marcos made a second attempt for the Senate in 2010. On November 20, 2009, the KBL forged an alliance with the Nacionalista Party (NP) between Marcos and NP chair Senator Manny Villar at the Laurel House in Mandaluyong. Marcos became a guest senatorial candidate of the NP through this alliance.[93] Marcos was later removed as a member by the KBL National Executive Committee on November 23, 2009.[94] As such, the NP broke its alliance with the KBL due to internal conflicts within the party, however Marcos remained part of the NP senatorial lineup.[93] He was proclaimed as one of the winning senatorial candidates of the 2010 senate elections. He took office on June 30, 2010.

In the 15th Congress (2010–2013), Marcos authored 34 Senate bills. He also co-authored 17 bills of which seven were enacted into law[82] – most notably the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act whose principal author was Senator Vicente Sotto III; the Cybercrime Prevention Act whose principal author was Senator Edgardo Angara; and the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons and the National Health Insurance Acts, both of which were principally authored by Senator Loren Legarda.

In the 16th Congress (2013–2016), Marcos filed 52 bills, of which 28 were refiled from the 15th Congress. One of them was enacted into law: Senate Bill 1186, which sought the postponement of the 2013 Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) elections, was enacted as Republic Act 10632 on October 3, 2013.[82]

Marcos also co-authored 4 Senate bills in the 16th Congress. One of them, Senate Bill 712 which was principally authored by Ralph Recto, was enacted as Republic Act 10645, the Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010.[82][95]

He was the chair of the Senate committees on local government and public works. He also chaired the oversight committee on the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Organic Act, the congressional oversight panel on the Special Purpose Vehicle Act, and a select oversight committee on barangay affairs.[96][better source needed][dead link]

2014 PDAF Pork Barrel Scam

In 2014, Bongbong Marcos was implicated by Janet Lim Napoles[97] and Benhur Luy[98] in the Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF) Pork Barrel scam through agent Catherine Mae "Maya" Santos.[99] He allegedly channeled ₱100 million through 4 fake NGOs linked with Napoles.[100] Marcos claimed that the large amounts of money was released by the budget department without his knowledge and that his signatures were forged.[101] In connection to the PDAF scam, Marcos was also sued for plunder by iBalik ang Bilyones ng Mamamayan (iBBM), an alliance of youth organizations. The group cited Luy's digital files, which showed bogus NGOs with shady or non-existent offices.[102]

2016 Commission on Audit suit

In 2016, Marcos was also sued for plunder for funneling ₱205 million of his PDAF via 9 special allotment release orders (SARO) to the following bogus foundations from October 2011 to January 2013, according to Luy's digital files:[102]

  • Social Development Program for Farmers Foundation (SDPFFI) – ₱15 million
  • Countrywide Agri and Rural Economic Development Foundation (CARED) – ₱35 million
  • People's Organization for Progress and Development Foundation (POPDFI) – ₱40 million
  • Health Education Assistance Resettlement Training Services (HEARTS) – ₱10 million
  • Kaupdanan Para Sa Mangunguma Foundation (KMFI) – ₱20 million
  • National Livelihood Development Corporation (NLDC) – ₱100 million

These NGOs were found by the Commission on Audit (COA) as bogus with shady or non-existent offices.[102]

2016 vice presidential campaign

On October 5, 2015, Marcos announced via his website that he would run for vice president of the Philippines in the 2016 general election, stating "I have decided to run for vice president in the May 2016 elections."[17][103] Marcos ran as an independent candidate.[104] Prior to his announcement, he had declined an invitation by presidential candidate, Vice President Jejomar Binay, to become his running mate.[105] On October 15, 2015, presidential candidate Miriam Defensor Santiago confirmed that Marcos would serve as her running mate.[106]

Marcos placed second in the tightly contested vice presidential race losing to Camarines Sur Representative Leni Robredo, who won by a margin of 263,473 votes,[107][108] one of the closest since Fernando Lopez's victory in the 1965 vice presidential election.

Election results protest

Marcos challenged the results of the election, lodging an electoral protest against Leni Robredo on June 29, 2016, the day before Robredo's oathtaking.[109][110] President Rodrigo Duterte has stated several times that he would resign if Marcos would be his successor instead of Vice President Leni Robredo.[111]

A recount began in April 2018, covering polling precincts in Iloilo and Camarines Sur, which were areas handpicked by Marcos's camp. In October 2019, the tribunal found that Robredo's lead grew by around 15,000 votes – a total of 278,566 votes from Robredo's original lead of 263,473 votes – after a recount of ballots from the 5,415 clustered precincts in Marcos's identified pilot provinces.[112] On February 16, 2021, the PET unanimously dismissed Bongbong Marcos's electoral protest against Leni Robredo.[18][19][113][114]

2022 presidential campaign and election

Marcos (center) and his running mate Sara Duterte during a grand caravan in Quezon City in December 2021

Marcos officially launched his campaign for president of the Philippines on October 5, 2021, through a video post on Facebook and YouTube.[115][116] An interview with his wife Liza Marcos revealed that he decided to run for president while watching the film Ant-Man,[117][118] though Marcos admitted that he could not recall this moment.[119] He ran under the banner of the Partido Federal ng Pilipinas party, assuming chairmanship of the party on the same day,[120] while also being endorsed by his former party, the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan.[121] Marcos filed his certificate of candidacy before the Commission on Elections the following day.[122] On November 16, Marcos announced his running mate to be Sara Duterte, daughter of President Rodrigo Duterte and mayor of Davao City.[123] Under the campaign theme of unity, Marcos and Duterte's pairing was given the name "UniTeam".[123]

Seven petitions were filed against Marcos's presidential bid.[124][125] Three petitions aimed to cancel Marcos's certificate of candidacy (COC), one petition aimed to declare Marcos a nuisance candidate, and three petitions aim to disqualify him. Most petitions are based on Marcos's 1995 conviction for failing to file tax returns. Three disqualification petitions were consolidated and raffled to the commission's first division, while three other petitions were handed to the second division.[124][126] The final petition was also handed to the first division. Marcos dismissed the petitions as nuisance petitions with no legal basis and propaganda against him.[127]

Marcos won in 64 out of 81 provinces in the 2022 presidential election[128]

Marcos regularly maintained a wide lead in presidential surveys throughout the months leading up to the May 2022 election;[129][130] he was the first presidential candidate in the country to attain poll ratings of over 50% from surveys conducted by Pulse Asia since it began polling in 1999.[131] His refrainment from attending all but one of the presidential debates during the campaign season was widely criticized.[132][133][134][135]

In a joint session of the 18th Congress of the Philippines, overseen by Senate President Tito Sotto and House Speaker Lord Allan Velasco and stated by Senate Majority Leader Juan Miguel Zubiri and Majority Floor Leader Martin Romualdez, Marcos was proclaimed the president-elect of the Philippines on May 25, 2022, alongside his running-mate, Vice-President-elect Sara Duterte. Marcos received 31,629,783 votes, or 58.77% of the total votes cast, about 16.5 million votes ahead of his closest rival, Vice President Leni Robredo, who received over 15 million votes.[136] He became the first presidential candidate to be elected by a majority since the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 1986.[21][22][137] According to analysts, Marcos, together with Sara Duterte, "inherited" Rodrigo Duterte's popularity when they both won landslides in the election.[138] Historians noted the significance of his victory as a "full circle" of the Philippines from the People Power Revolution, which deposed his father from the presidency, thus marking the Marcos family's return to national power after 36 years.[8][139][140] His majority was the largest since 1981 (surpassing his father's 18,309,360 votes); as the opposition boycotted that election, it is the largest majority since 1969 for a competitive election, and his 31-percentage point margin over his nearest opponent was the greatest since Ramon Magsaysay scored a 38-point margin over incumbent President Elpidio Quirino in 1953. His vote count was not only the largest ever recorded in a presidential election, but close to the sum total of the two previous records combined.

On June 20, 2022, Marcos announced that he will serve as the Secretary of Agriculture in concurrent capacity.[141]

Presidency (2022–present)

Presidential styles of
Bongbong Marcos
Seal of the President of the Philippines.svg
Reference stylePresident Marcos Jr., His Excellency
Spoken styleYour Excellency
Alternative styleMr. President
Marcos delivering his inaugural address.
Marcos with Singaporean prime minister Lee Hsien Loong in September 2022
Marcos with United States president Joe Biden in September 2022

Early actions

On June 30, 2022, at 12:00 noon PST, Marcos Jr. took the oath of office as the 17th President of the Philippines at the National Museum of the Philippines and was administered the oath by Chief Justice Alexander Gesmundo.[142][143] At concurrent capacity, Marcos appointed himself as Secretary of Agriculture, in order to address inflation and personally monitor the food and agricultural sectors, while enacting efforts boost farm outputs through various loan programs, affordable pricing measures, and machinery assistance.[144] Marcos' first executive order as president were abolishing two offices, the Presidential Anti Corruption Commission and the Office of the Cabinet Secretary.[145]

The next day after his inauguration, Marcos signed a memorandum seeking to provide free train rides to students, and extends the free rides of the EDSA Carousel until the end of December 2022.[146] Twelve days later, on July 13, 2022, Marcos announced that the free train rides will only be limited to students using the LRT Line 2, due to the line's access points to the University Belt.[147]

Two days after his inauguration, on July 2, 2022, Marcos vetoed a bill that aimed to create a free economic zone within the New Manila International Airport. The bill was also known to be sponsored by his sister, Senator Imee Marcos. Marcos cited that the bill would cite "substantial fiscal risks", lacked coherences with existing laws, and the proposed economic zone's location near the existing Clark Freeport and Special Economic Zone. Marcos also called for further studies in establishing the planned economic zone.[148] On the same day, Marcos also ordered that the list of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program beneficiaries to be cleansed after receiving reports of unqualified beneficiaries receiving cash assistance grants and downturned calls to surrender their accounts.

On July 5, 2022, five days after his inauguration, Marcos held his first cabinet meeting, which was delayed during his inauguration, and laid out his first agenda, which primarily focuses on reviving the economy in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the meeting, Marcos led the discussions with his economic managers, Finance Secretary Benjamin Diokno, National Economic and Development Authority Secretary Arsenio Balisacan, and Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Governor Felipe Medalla, to give a briefing about the country's economic status, and to lay out plans to further revive the country's economy, while combating inflation.[149][150][151] Marcos also tackled issues regarding food security, transportation issues, and the reopening of face-to-face classes within the year.[149] On July 23, 2022, Marcos has vetoed a bill which seeks to strengthen the Office of the Government Corporate Counsel (OGCC), as he cited that several provisions of the bill are "inequitable".[152][153]

On July 25, 2022, the same day of his first State of the Nation Address, Marcos allowed Republic Act No. 11900, known as the Vaporized Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Products Regulation Act to lapse into law. The law became controversial, due to the hounding health risks regarding the usage of electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products.[154] In an effort to boost the country's booster shot campaign, Marcos launched the "PinasLakas" campaign to continue administering COVID-19 booster doses within the public, by targeting a total of at least 39 million Filipinos to get their booster shots.[155]

Two days after his first State of the Nation Address, following a meeting with Solicitor General Menardo Guevarra, Presidential Legal Adviser Juan Ponce Enrile, Executive Secretary Vic Rodriguez, Foreign Affairs Secretary Enrique Manalo, Justice Secretary Jesus Crispin Remulla, and former presidential spokesman and lawyer Harry Roque on July 27, 2022, Marcos expressed that the Philippines has no intention of rejoining the International Criminal Court, as the death cases linked to the country's drug war of his predecessor's administration are already being investigated by the government, and stated that the government is taking the necessary steps regarding the deaths.[156] On July 30, 2022, Marcos vetoed a bill which grants tax exemption on poll workers' honoraria and the creation of a transport safety board, stating that the honoraria "counters the objective of the government’s Comprehensive Tax Reform Program", while mentioning that the proposed creation of a transport safety board "undertakes the functions by the different agencies" within the transport sector.[157][158]

Court cases

Income and estate tax case convictions

On June 27, 1990, a special tax audit team of the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) investigated the tax liabilities and obligations of the late Ferdinand Marcos Sr, who died on September 29, 1989. The investigation disclosed in a 1991 memorandum that the Marcos family had failed to file estate tax returns and several income tax returns covering the years of 1982 to 1986 in violation of the National Internal Revenue Code.[159]

The BIR also issued a deficiency estate tax assessment against the estate of the late Ferdinand Marcos Sr. in 1991 for unpaid estate taxes from 1982 to 1985, and 1985 to 1986, totaling ₱23,293,607,638 (₱97,792,696,739 in 2022). Formal assessment notices were served to Bongbong Marcos at his office at the Batasang Pambansa Complex on October 20, 1992, who was then the representative of the 2nd District of Ilocos Norte. Several notices of levy were also issued by the BIR February 22, 1993, to May 26, 1993, to satisfy the deficiency of estate tax returns, to no avail.[159]

On March 12, 1993, lawyer Loreto Ata, representing Bongbong Marcos, called the attention of the BIR to notify them of any action taken by the BIR against his client. Bongbong Marcos then filed an instant petition on June 25, 1993, for certiorari and prohibition to contest the estate tax deficiency assessment.[159]

On July 27, 1995, Quezon City Regional Trial Court Judge Benedicto Ulep convicted Marcos to seven years in jail and a fine of US$2,812 (₱138,491 in 2023) plus back taxes for tax evasion in his failure to file an income tax return from the period of 1982 to 1985 while sitting as the vice governor of Ilocos Norte (1980–1983) and as governor of Ilocos Norte (1983–1986).[160] Marcos subsequently appealed the decision to the Court of Appeals over his conviction. However, in 1994, the Court of Appeals ruled that the estate tax deficiency assessment had become "final and unappealable", allowing it to be enforced.[161]

On October 31, 1997, the Court of Appeals affirmed its earlier decision with Marcos being convicted for the failure of the filing of an income tax return under Section 45 of the National Internal Revenue Code of 1977 while being acquitted of tax evasion under the charge of violating Section 50 of the same statute. In spite of the removal of the penalty of imprisonment, Marcos was ordered the payment of back income taxes to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) with interest and the issuance of corresponding fines of ₱2,000 per count of non-filing of income tax returns from 1982 to 1984 and ₱30,000 for 1985, plus the accrued interest.[162] Marcos later filed a petition for certiorari to the Supreme Court of the Philippines over the modified conviction imposed by the Court of Appeals but subsequently withdrew his petition on August 8, 2001, thereby declaring the ruling as final and executory.[163]

In 2021, the Quezon City Regional Trial Court certified that there were no records on file of Marcos settling the corresponding tax dues and fines.[164][165] However, according to Marcos's campaign team, documents issued by the Supreme Court, the BIR, and a receipt issued by the Land Bank of the Philippines state that the tax dues were paid,[166][167] while elections commissioner Rowena Guanzon noted that the documents Marcos submitted to the Commission on Elections were not receipts of taxes paid to the BIR but rather receipts from the Land Bank for lease rentals.[168][169] Nevertheless, the Commission on Elections ruled against the consolidated disqualification cases against Marcos and stated that “Further, to prove the absence of any ill-intention and bad faith on his part,” Marcos submitted a Bureau of Internal Revenue certification and an official receipt from the Landbank, showing his compliance with the CA decision directing him to pay deficiency income taxes amounting to a little over ₱67,000, including fines and surcharges.[170]

The estate tax deficiency assessment issued by the BIR has remained uncollected since the Supreme Court ruling on October 12, 1991. Since the ruling of the Supreme Court in 1997 which had junked the petition of Marcos to contest the estate tax deficiency assessment, under the Ramos, Arroyo, Aquino, and Duterte administrations, the BIR has issued renewed written demands on the Marcos family to pay the estate tax liabilities, which has remained unpaid. As a result, the estate tax deficiency assessment, with penalties, is estimated to have ballooned to ₱203,819,066,829 (₱203.819 billion) as of 2021.[171]

The unpaid estate tax return was used as grounds in one petition to cancel Marcos's certificate of candidacy for president in the 2022 elections. On March 1, 2022, presidential candidate and Manila mayor Isko Moreno said that he would implement the Supreme Court ruling ordering the Marcos family to pay their estate tax debts if elected, vowing to use the proceeds as relief aid (ayuda) for victims of the COVID-19 pandemic.[161] On March 28, 2022, Senator Aquilino Pimentel III filed Senate Resolution No. 998, stating an urgent and pressing need for the Senate to look into why the estate tax has remained uncollected for almost 25 years, which the amount has already been ruled to be due and demandable against the heirs of his father.[172]

2007 Payanig sa Pasig property case motion

On June 19, 2007,[173] Marcos Jr. filed a motion to intervene in, OCLP v. PCGG, Civil Case Number 0093 at the Sandiganbayan, the Philippines' anti-graft court.[173] The case had been filed by Ortigas & Company, Ltd. Partnership (OCLP) against the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) over the 18-hectare former Payanig sa Pasig property bordering Ortigas Avenue, Julia Vargas Avenue, and Meralco Avenue in Ortigas Center, Pasig City, which had been the site of the 'Payanig sa Pasig' theme park, but is now the location of various businesses, most notably the Metrowalk shopping and recreation complex.[174]

The PCGG considers the property the "crown jewel" among the properties sequestered from the Marcoses' ill-gotten wealth, estimating its minimum value to be about ₱16.5 billion in March 2015.[175] The property had been surrendered to the PCGG in 1986, as part of the settlement deal of Marcos crony Jose Yao Campos, who was holding the property under various companies on Marcos Sr.'s behalf.[176] Ortigas & Company countered that Marcos Sr. had coerced them to sell the property to him in 1968.[174] Marcos Jr.'s motion claimed that his father had bought the property legally, but the Sandiganbayan dismissed his motion on October 18, 2008, saying it had already dismissed a similar motion filed years earlier by his mother Imelda.[177]

2011 Hawaii contempt judgement

In 2011, the Hawaii District Court ruled Bongbong Marcos and his mother Imelda Marcos to be in contempt,[178] fining them US$353.6 million (₱17,414,799,999.93 in 2023) fine for not respecting an injunction from a 1992 judgement in a Human Rights Victims case, which commanded them not to dissipate the assets of Ferdinand Marcos's estate.[179][180] The ruling was upheld by the US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals on October 24, 2012, and is believed to be "the largest contempt award ever affirmed by an appellate court."[180] While the 1992 case was against Ferdinand Marcos, the 2011 judgment was against Imelda and Bongbong personally.[181] The judgement also effectively barred Imelda and Bongbong from entering any US territory.[178] However, on June 9, 2022, United States Deputy Secretary of State Wendy Sherman[182] clarified in a roundtable discussion with local reporters during a state visit, that as a head of state, Marcos enjoys diplomatic immunity in all circumstances, stating that he is welcome to visit the United States under his official role.[183]

Political views

Marcos has described his political views as "conservative" and "Machiavellian".[184] He has been described in media reports as a populist.[185][186]

In foreign policy, although he has sought closer ties with China,[187] he has been described as more pro-American than his predecessor, Duterte.[188]

Public profile

Historical distortionism

As with other Marcos family members who have stayed in the public eye since their return to the Philippines,[189][190][191] Marcos has received significant criticism for instances of historical denialism, and his trivialization of the human rights violations and economic plunder that took place during the Marcos administration, and of the role he played in the administration.[192][193][194] Specific criticisms have been leveled at Marcos for being unapologetic for human rights violations[192] and ill-gotten wealth[193] during his father's administration.[195][196][197][194] Of the human rights victims, Marcos Jr. said of them in 1999: "They don't want an apology, they want money."[198] He then proceeded to state that his family would apologize only if they had done something wrong.

When victims of human rights abuses during his father's administration commemorated the 40th year of the proclamation of martial law in 2012, Marcos Jr. dismissed their calls for an apology for the atrocities as "self-serving statements by politicians, self-aggrandizement narratives, pompous declarations, and political posturing and propaganda."[199][200] In the Sydney Morning Herald later that year, Bongbong cited the various court decisions against the Marcos family as a reason not to apologize for Martial Law abuses, saying "we have a judgment against us in the billions. What more would people want?"[3]

During his 2016 vice presidential campaign, Marcos responded to then-President Noynoy Aquino's criticism of the Marcos regime and call to oppose his election run. He dismissed the events, saying Filipinos should "leave history to the professors."[201][202][203] This prompted over 500 faculty, staff and history professors from the Ateneo de Manila University to immediately issue a statement condemning his dismissive retort as part of "an ongoing willful distortion of our history," and a "shameless refusal to acknowledge the crimes of the Martial Law regime."[204][205][206][207][208] More than 1,400 Catholic schools, through the Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP), later joined the call of the Ateneo faculty "against the attempt of [Marcos] to canonize the harrowing horrors of martial rule."[209][210] This was also followed by the University of the Philippines Diliman's Department of History, which released a statement of its own, decrying what they called a "dangerous" effort for Marcos to create "myth and deception."[211][212][213]

On September 20, 2018, Marcos Jr. released a YouTube video showing a tête-à-tête between him and former Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile, who had been his father's defense minister before playing a key role in his ouster during the 1986 EDSA revolution.[214] The video made a number of claims, which were quickly refuted and denounced by martial law victims, including former Senate President Aquilino Pimentel Jr., former Social Welfare Secretary Judy Taguiwalo, former Commission on Human Rights chair Etta Rosales, and writer Boni Ilagan, among others. Enrile later backpedaled from some of his claims, attributing them to "unlucid intervals."[215]

Online presence

According to research by Vera Files, Marcos benefited the most from fake news from the Philippines in 2017, along with President Rodrigo Duterte.[216] Most viral news were driven by shares on networks of Facebook pages.[216] Also, most Philippine audience Facebook pages and groups spreading online disinformation bore "Duterte", "Marcos" or "News" in their names and are pro-Duterte.[217]

In July 2020, Brittany Kaiser alleged in an interview that Marcos had approached the controversial firm Cambridge Analytica in order to "rebrand" the Marcos family image on social media.[218] Marcos's spokesperson Vic Rodriguez denied these allegations and stated that Marcos is considering filing libel charges against Rappler, which published Kaiser's interview.[219]

Impostor urban legend

Between the late 70s and early 80s, an urban legend became popular claiming that Marcos Jr. was stabbed and died during a scuffle while studying abroad. The Marcos family allegedly looked for Bongbong’s look-alike to replace him. This was later debunked by Marcos in one of his vlogs. The origins of this urban legend remain unknown.[220]

Tallano gold myth

In 1990, during a coverage of Imelda Marcos's trial in New York, Inquirer journalist Kristina Luz interviewed then-33-year-old exiled Bongbong Marcos and asked where the Marcos wealth came from. Marcos responded "only I know where the gold is and how to get it". This was corroborated in a 1992 report by the Associated Press that quoted Imelda Marcos saying that her husband’s wealth came "from the Japanese and other gold he found after World War II, and not from the Philippine coffers." In 2007, Marcos informed the anti-graft court Sandiganbayan that his father's wealth came from trading "precious metals more specifically gold from the years 1946 to 1954" when he tried to win back the Ortigas Payanig property in Pasig from the national government.[221]

The myth surrounding the gold allegedly owned by the Marcos family has been the subject of various misinformation, as in 2011, a Facebook post claimed that a certain "Tallano clan" had paid Ferdinand Marcos Sr. in gold for his legal services. Several years later, supporters of the Marcos family in a Facebook page called "Marcos Cyber Warriors" also claimed that Marcos Sr.’s wealth came from his former law client, the "Maharlikan Tallano family".[222]

This has resulted in a long-running belief that should Bongbong Marcos win as president, he will give Filipinos a share of this gold. However during his Philippine presidential election campaign in the 2022 elections, when asked over One News to verify the mythical "Tallano gold" or the long-believed tale that they got a share of the Japanese Yamashita gold, Marcos denied knowledge of it, even joking that "people should let him know if they see any of that gold". The urban myth had allegedly been suggested or carried by various social media pages being run by Marcos supporters in order to engage more people to support his presidential bid.[222]

Personal life

Marcos is married to lawyer Louise "Liza" Cacho Araneta, a member of the prominent Araneta family. Marcos and Araneta were married in Fiesole, Italy, on April 17, 1993. They have three sons: Ferdinand Alexander III "Sandro" (born 1994), Joseph Simon (born 1995) and William Vincent "Vinny" (born 1997).[223][224][225] Although he is Ilocano by ethnic ancestry, he was brought up in a Manileño household and does not speak the Ilocano language.[226][227] The Marcos family maintains a residence in Forbes Park, Makati.[228]

Aside from his common nickname "Bongbong", Marcos is known by his peers as "Bonggets".[48] Marcos is an avid listener of rock and roll, rhythm and blues, and jazz music. He once held a record collection in Malacañang Palace that he described as "the best record collection in the Philippines" but left it when his family was exiled from the country in 1986. He is a fan of the Beatles, citing Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band as his favorite album of theirs, and often collects the band's memorabilia. Marcos can also play the saxophone.[229]

Marcos exercises regularly and claims to abstain from consuming confections and soft drinks.[48] Marcos is also an avid reader, a cinephile, and a gun enthusiast, where he holds a competition under his name.[48][54][230] He follows Formula One racing as a supporter of Scuderia Ferrari; during his presidency, he attended the 2022 Singapore Grand Prix with Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and other foreign dignitaries.[231][232]

On March 31, 2020, Marcos's spokesperson confirmed that Marcos had tested positive for COVID-19.[233] Prior to getting tested, Marcos was reportedly experiencing chest pains after coming home from a trip to Spain. He has since recovered from the disease after testing negative on a RT-PCR test on May 5, 2020, a month after testing positive for COVID-19.[234] On July 8, 2022, Marcos's press secretary confirmed that Marcos had tested positive again for COVID-19 after experiencing slight fever.[235]

Alleged cocaine usage

On November 18, 2021, President Rodrigo Duterte claimed in a televised speech that a certain candidate for the 2022 Philippine presidential election is allegedly using cocaine, hinting at the candidate using male pronouns on several instances. Furthermore, Duterte alleged that the candidate eluded law enforcement authorities by doing drugs on a private yacht and a plane.[236] Although he did not name the candidate, it was alluded that Duterte was referring to Marcos after he continued on his speech that the male candidate is a "weak leader" and has been "capitalizing on his father's accomplishments".[237] Prior to that, Duterte previously named Marcos a "weak leader who had done nothing" and a "spoiled child for being an only son".[238]

Days after Duterte's allegation, Marcos took a cocaine drug test through a urine sample at St. Luke's Medical Center and submitted the negative result to law enforcement authorities with a follow up online memo by the medical institution confirming the legitimacy of the test.[239]

Marcos responded that he did not feel that he was the one alluded to by President Duterte. According to health care provider American Addiction Centers, after the last use, cocaine or its metabolites can show up on a blood or saliva test for up to two days, a urine test for up to three days, and a hair test for months to years.[240] In an interview with CNN Philippines in April 2022, Marcos responded to Duterte's remarks on him being a "spoiled" and "weak leader", saying that the president was "playing politics" and was "always making sure everybody's thinking hard about what they're doing".[241]

In an interview with ANC in May 2022, former senator Nikki Coseteng, who claimed to personally know Marcos, alleged that Marcos was a "lazy individual" who frequented discos and got high on illegal substances along with his socialite friends during his youth.[242] Marcos has neither denied nor confirmed Coseteng's allegations.[243]


  1. ^ "Personal Timeline – Bongbong Marcos".
  2. ^ "Bongbong takes a bride". Manila Standard. Kamahalan Publishing Corp. April 19, 1993. p. 4. Retrieved October 10, 2021. Rep. Ferdinand (Bongbong) Marcos II wed his fiancee, Louise 'Lisa' Araneta Saturday [April 17] at the Church of St. Francis in Siesole [sic], Italy.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "A dynasty on steroids". The Sydney Morning Herald. November 24, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  4. ^ "Senator Ferdinand "Bongbong" R. Marcos Jr". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  5. ^ "Who is Ferdinand Marcos Jr,President-Elect of Philippines". The Informant247. May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  6. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). "Marcos". Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  7. ^ The New Webster's Dictionary of the English Language. Lexicon Publications, Inc. 1994. p. 609. ISBN 0-7172-4690-6.
  8. ^ a b c "The son of late dictator Marcos has won the Philippines' presidential election". Associated Press. Manila. NPR. May 10, 2022. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  9. ^ Cabato, Regine; Westfall, Sammy (May 10, 2022). "Marcos family once ousted by uprising wins Philippines vote in landslide". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  10. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (June 30, 2022). "It's official: Bongbong Marcos sworn in as PH's 17th President".
  11. ^ "Dictator's son Ferdinand Marcos Jr. takes oath as Philippine president". NPR. Associated Press. June 30, 2022. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  12. ^ Ellison, Katherine W. (2005). Imelda, steel butterfly of the Philippines. Lincoln, Nebraska.
  13. ^ a b c Holley, David (February 28, 1986). "Speculation Grows: Marcos May Stay at Luxurious Hawaii Estate". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on September 21, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  14. ^ a b Mydans, Seth (November 4, 1991). "Imelda Marcos Returns to Philippines". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  15. ^ Robles, Alan (May 2, 2022). "Philippine election: Who is Bongbong Marcos, what's his platform and China views, and why can't he visit the US?". South China Morning Post.
  16. ^ "List of Committees". Senate of the Philippines. February 5, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  17. ^ a b "Bongbong Marcos running for vice president in 2016". CNN. October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  18. ^ a b "Marcos heir loses bid to overturn Philippine VP election loss". The South China Morning Post. Agence France-Presse. February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  19. ^ a b "Supreme Court unanimously junks Marcos' VP poll protest vs Robredo". CNN Philippines. February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ "Dictator's son Bongbong Marcos files candidacy for president". RAPPLER. October 6, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  21. ^ a b c Verizon, Cliff (May 25, 2022). "Marcos officially declared Philippines' next president". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  22. ^ a b Morales, Neil Jerome (May 25, 2022). "hilippines Congress proclaims Marcos as next president". Reuters. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  23. ^ "Martial Law Museum". Martial Law Museum. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  24. ^ Kamm, Henry (February 6, 1981). "PHILIPPINE OPPOSITION TO BOYCOTT PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  25. ^ Kamm, Henry (June 17, 1981). "MARCOS IS VICTOR BY A HUGE MAJORITY". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Filipinos fall for fake history". The Standard (Hong Kong). Agence France-Presse. March 30, 2022.
  27. ^ Cabato, Regine; Mahtani, Shibani (April 12, 2022). "How the Philippines' brutal history is being whitewashed for voters". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  28. ^ Wee, Sui-Lee (May 1, 2022). "'We Want Change': In the Philippines, Young People Aim to Upend an Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  29. ^ "Protestas en Filipinas en rechazo a la victoria no oficial de Ferdinand Marcos Jr". France 24. May 11, 2022. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  30. ^ "Filipino Community Protests Philippine Presidential Election Results". South Seattle Emerald. May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  31. ^ a b Seagrave, Sterling (1988). The Marcos dynasty. New York ...[etc.]: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060161477. OCLC 1039684909.
  32. ^ Wilson Lee Flores (May 8, 2006). "Who will be the next taipans?". The Philippine Star.
  33. ^ "Resume of Senator Ferdinand "Bongbong" R. Marcos, Jr". Senate of the Philippines. Archived from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  34. ^ "Vote PH 2016; Bongbong Marcos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  35. ^ a b c Legaspi, Amita O. (September 21, 2014). "Where was Bongbong Marcos when martial law was declared in 1972?". GMA News and Public Affairs. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  36. ^ "Marcos: Special diploma from Oxford is same as bachelor's degree". January 21, 2016.
  37. ^ a b "Oxford: Bongbong Marcos' special diploma 'not a full graduate diploma'". RAPPLER. October 26, 2021. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  38. ^ "Resume of Senator Ferdinand "Bongbong" R. Marcos Jr". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  39. ^ a b "Oxford group: Marcos received special diploma, no college degree". cnn. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  40. ^ "Marcos Pa Rin! The Legacy and the Curse of the Marcos Regime". Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies. 28: 456. 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2021.
  41. ^ Collas-Monsod, Solita (November 6, 2021). "Yes, I tutored Bongbong in Economics". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  42. ^ Ariate, Joel F.; Reyes, Miguel Paolo P.; Del Mundo, Larah Vinda (November 1, 2021). "The documents on Bongbong Marcos' university education (Part 1- Oxford University)". Vera Files.
  43. ^ Gonzales, Catherine (February 5, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos maintains he's a graduate of Oxford". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  44. ^ "Bongbong Marcos: Oxford, Wharton educational record 'accurate'". Rappler. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Manapat, Ricardo (2020). Some are smarter than others : the history of Marcos' crony capitalism (Annotated ed.). Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-926-8. OCLC 1226800054.
  46. ^ a b "Bongbong Marcos: Iginuhit ng showbiz". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  47. ^ Gomez, Buddy (August 26, 2015). "A romance that began with deception". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  48. ^ a b c d Geronimo, Gee Y. (October 12, 2015). "9 things to know about Bongbong Marcos". Rappler. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  49. ^ Garcia, Myles (March 31, 2016). Thirty Years Later . . . Catching Up with the Marcos-Era Crimes. ISBN 9781456626501.
  50. ^ a b c d e Reyes, Oliver X.A. (May 24, 2017). "The Beatles' Worst Nightmare in Manila". Esquire Magazine Philippines. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  51. ^ Seagrave, Sterling (1988). The Marcos dynasty. New York ...[etc.]: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060161477. OCLC 1039684909.
  52. ^ a b c Salva, Romio Armisol (October 18, 2021). "Bongbong Marcos Claimed He Was 'Friends' with The Beatles. Was He Really?". Esquire. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  53. ^ a b "Ex-Beatle Recalls Marcos As 'Twit' Who Took Back Money for Concert". AP News. Associated Press. April 12, 1986. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  54. ^ a b Amio, Armin; Distor, Tessa (September 14, 2015). "25 things you probably didn't know about Bongbong Marcos". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 21, 2022 – via PressReader.
  55. ^ "Is Bongbong Marcos Accountable?". The Martial Law Chronicles Project. March 7, 2018. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  56. ^ Sauler, Erika (February 5, 2016). "'Carmma' to hound Bongbong campaign".
  57. ^ "Elections 2016". Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  58. ^ Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia (April 1983). "Marcos Lantik Puteranya Jadi Gubernur" [Marcos Installs His Son as Governor]. Mimbar Kekaryaan. No. 148. p. 70. Retrieved April 14, 2022. Presiden Filipina Ferdinand Marcos tgl 23 Maret melantik puteranya yang berusia 24 tahun Ferdinand R Marcos Jr sebagai Gubernur propinsi Ilocos Norie [sic] di Filipina bagian utara. Marcos muda itu menggantikan bibinya Ny. Elizabeth M. Rocka yang karena kesehatannya mengundurkan diri sebagai Gubernur. Marcos muda terpilih sebagai wakil gubernur dalam pemilihan umum 1980. Dalam pemilu itu pula bibinya memenangkan jabatan gubernur.
  59. ^ "The Profile Engine". The Profile Engine. Archived from the original on April 28, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  60. ^ "Why is it difficult for Bongbong Marcos to apologize?". Rappler. April 14, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2022.
  61. ^ Salvador, Lenville (February 26, 2016). "Ilocos Martial Law victims say no to Bongbong Marcos". Northern Dispatch Weekly. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g Punzalan, Jamaine (November 25, 2016). "No 'Martial Law' babies: Imee, Bongbong held key posts under dad's rule". ABS CBN News.
  63. ^ a b c d e f Scott, Ann (March 17, 1986). "U.S. auditors to examine documents related to Philippines' alleged diverted funds". UPI. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  64. ^ a b c Butterfield, Fox (March 30, 1986). "Marcos's Fortune: Inquiry in Manila Offers Picture of How it Was Acquired". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  65. ^ Garcia, Myles (2016). Thirty Years Later... Catching Up with the Marcos-Era Crimes. ISBN 9781456626501.
  66. ^ Imelda Romualdez-Marcos, vs. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 189505 (Supreme Court of the Philippines April 25, 2012).
  67. ^ Tiongson-Mayrina, Karen and GMA News Research (September 21, 2017). "The Supreme Court's rulings on the Marcoses' ill-gotten wealth".
  68. ^ R., Salonga, Jovito (2000). Presidential plunder: the quest for the Marcos ill-gotten wealth. [Quezon City]: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy. ISBN 9718567283. OCLC 44927743.
  69. ^ de Mund o, Fernando (February 25, 2013). "US set 5 conditions to save Marcos". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  70. ^ Lustre, Philip Jr. (February 25, 2016). "Ferdinand Marcos: His last day at the Palace". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016.
  71. ^ a b Duet for EDSA: Chronology of a Revolution. Manila, Philippines: Foundation for Worldwide People Power. 1995. ISBN 9719167009. OCLC 45376088.
  72. ^ "The Marcos Party in Honolulu". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 11, 1986. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  73. ^ Holley, David (February 27, 1986). "Marcos Party Reaches Hawaii in Somber Mood". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  74. ^ "The End of an Era – Handholding Ferdinand Marcos in Exile". Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  75. ^ a b "Marcos' son still eyes share of loot". South China Morning Post. September 24, 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017.
  76. ^ Parry, John (March 26, 1986). "Swiss Freeze Marcos' Bank Accounts, Citing Withdrawal Attempt Monday". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  77. ^ Richburg, Keith B.; Branigin, William (September 29, 1989). "Ferdinand Marcos Dies in Hawaii at 72". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  78. ^ Aruiza, Arturo C. (1991). Ferdinand E. Marcos : Malacañang to Makiki. Quezon City, Philippines: ACA Enterprises. ISBN 9718820000. OCLC 27428517.
  79. ^ Dizon, David (January 21, 2016). "If Marcos wins, PH will be laughingstock of the world: Osmena". ABS CBN News. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  80. ^ "Smell good, Feel good". Blackwater. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015.
  81. ^ Bocobo, Ariel (December 17, 1991). "Public is victim in Senate coup". Manila Standard. Kamahalan Publishing Corp. p. 11. Retrieved December 14, 2021.
  82. ^ a b c d e Bueza, Michael (February 25, 2015). "Highlights: Bongbong Marcos as legislator". Rappler. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  83. ^ Maganes, Virgilio Sar. "'Bongbong' says Urdaneta close to his heart". Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  84. ^ "About Bongbong Marcos". Bongbong Marcos. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  85. ^ "Solons, gov't execs join cast for Sports Summit". Manila Standard. Kamahalan Publishing Corp. October 21, 2021. p. 22. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  86. ^ Maragay, Fel V. (December 26, 1994). "Wanted: Senatorial candidates for NPC". Manila Standard. Kamahalan Publishing Corp. p. 24. Retrieved November 10, 2022. Rep. Marcos was recently installed as president of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan, a move which puzzled even the NPC leaders.
  87. ^ "Marcos hits alleged election cheating". United Press International. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  88. ^ "Ferdinand Bongbong R. Marcos Jr. Biography in California". digwrite. Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  89. ^ "Priest's rival claims victory". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 17, 2007. Archived from the original on February 22, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
  90. ^ "HINDI TOTOO: Si Marcos Jr. ang may-akda ng Philippine Baselines Law". RAPPLER. January 15, 2022. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  91. ^ "R.A. 9522". Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  92. ^ "G.R. No. 190837, March 05, 2014 – Republic of the Philippines, Represented by the Bureau of Food and Drugs (Now Food and Drug Administration), Petitioner, v. Drugmaker's Laboratories, Inc. and Terramedic, Inc., Respondents. : March 2014 – Philippine Supreme Court Jurisprudence". Chanrobles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  93. ^ a b Mendez, Christina (December 9, 2009). "Nacionalista Party breaks alliance with Kilusang Bagong Lipunan". The Philippine Star.
  94. ^ Echeminada, Perseus (November 24, 2009). "Bongbong ousted from KBL after joining Nacionalista Party". The Philippine Star.
  95. ^ Marcelo, Elisabeth (November 11, 2014). "PNoy signs law for automatic PhilHealth coverage for senior citizens". GMA News and Public Affairs. Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  96. ^ "Ferdinand 'Bongbong' Marcos". Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  97. ^ Santos, Matika (May 26, 2014). "20 senators, 100 congressmen named on Napoles' long list". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  98. ^ Carvajal, Nancy (May 14, 2014). "25 senators on Luy list". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  99. ^ Napoles, Janet Lim. "Affidavit of Janet Lim Napoles" (PDF). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  100. ^ Cabacungan, Gil (September 23, 2013). "Abad should have checked with me–Marcos". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  101. ^ Macaraig, Ayee (September 10, 2013). "Marcos: Fund misuse may be beyond PDAF". Rappler.
  102. ^ a b c Cayabyab, Marc Jayson (April 6, 2016). "Bongbong Marcos sued for plunder over pork barrel scam". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  103. ^ Lozada, Aaron (October 5, 2015). "Bongbong to run for VP". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  104. ^ Antiporda, Jefferson (October 5, 2015). "Marcos throws hat in VP derby". The Manila Times. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  105. ^ Torregoza, Hannah (October 6, 2015). "Bongbong declares VP bid in 2016, gets Duterte's assurance of support". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  106. ^ Hegina, Aries Joseph (October 15, 2015). "Miriam Santiago confirms Bongbong Marcos is her vice president". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  107. ^ Rosario, Ben; Santos, Jel (May 27, 2016). "Duterte victory affirmed; Robredo wins VP race on husband's birthday". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
  108. ^ Pasion, Patty (May 27, 2016). "Duterte, Robredo to be proclaimed next week". Rappler. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
  109. ^ "Marcos poll protest prompted years-long battle with falsehoods on social media". VeraFiles. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  110. ^ Batino, Clarissa; Calonzo, Andreo (August 15, 2018). "Philippines' Duterte Won't Stop Talking About Quitting". India: Bloomberg Quient. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  111. ^ Nicolas, Bernadette D. (August 16, 2018). "Duterte may resign if Bongbong wins protest". BusinessMirror. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
  112. ^ "Electoral tribunal orders Comelec to comment on VP poll protest". CNN. September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  113. ^ Navallo, Mike (February 16, 2021). "SC junks Bongbong Marcos' poll protest vs Vice President Robredo". ABS CBN News and Public Affairs. Retrieved February 16, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  114. ^ Torres-Tupas, Tetch (February 16, 2021). "PET dismisses Marcos poll protest vs Robredo, stresses 'entire' case junked". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  115. ^ Bongbong Marcos Official Announcement, retrieved June 9, 2022
  116. ^ Bongbong Marcos Official Announcement, retrieved June 9, 2022
  117. ^ CNN Philippines Staff (March 10, 2022). "Marcos decides to run for president while watching 'Ant-Man', wife reveals". CNN Philippines. {{cite news}}: |last1= has generic name (help)
  118. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (March 10, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos was watching 'Ant Man' when he decided to run for president, says wife". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  119. ^ One News PH (March 15, 2022). Did 'Ant-Man' inspire Bongbong Marcos to run for president?. Retrieved April 23, 2022. I'll tell you the truth. I didn't remember that. Because my thoughts were far away. It wasn't just when we were watching in theaters that I was pondering [things].... Actually, when the Boy Abunda interview came out, she mentioned Ant-Man, when we saw each other again, I asked her 'Is that true?'
  120. ^ Sharma, Akanksha; Westcott, Ben (October 6, 2021). "Ferdinand 'Bongbong' Marcos, son of late dictator, announces Philippines presidential bid". CNN. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  121. ^ Punzalan, Jamaine (September 24, 2021). "Kilusang Bagong Lipunan nominates Bongbong Marcos as 2022 presidential bet". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  122. ^ Patinio, Ferdinand (October 6, 2021). "Bongbong Marcos files candidacy for president". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  123. ^ a b Mercado, Neil Arwin (November 16, 2021). "It's official: Bongbong Marcos, Sara Duterte running in tandem in 2022 elections". Inquirer News. Manila, Philippines: Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  124. ^ a b "LIST: Petitions against Bongbong Marcos' 2022 presidential bid". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on December 9, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  125. ^ "LIST: Petitions seeking to block Bongbong Marcos' 2022 presidential bid". RAPPLER. November 23, 2021. Archived from the original on January 2, 2022. Retrieved January 17, 2022.
  126. ^ News, G. M. A. "Marcos Jr. Eleksyon 2022 disqualification case raffled to Comelec First Division". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on November 30, 2021. Retrieved November 30, 2021. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  127. ^ Corrales, Nestor (November 17, 2021). "Bongbong Marcos: No legal basis to disqualify me". Archived from the original on November 30, 2021. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  128. ^ Peña, Kurt Dela (May 17, 2022). "From 2016 to 2022: Provinces' flip key to Marcos win". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 17, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  129. ^ Baclig, Cristina Eloisa (February 18, 2022). "The complex role of surveys, public opinion in PH elections". Inquirer News. Manila, Philippines: Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  130. ^ Ruiz, Ellalyn de Vera (April 6, 2022). "Bongbong, Sara still survey frontrunners — Pulse Asia". Manila Bulletin. Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  131. ^ Ranada, Pia (December 22, 2021). "Marcos outstrips rivals, Robredo clear second placer in Pulse Asia survey". Rappler. Manila, Philippines: Rappler Inc. Retrieved April 23, 2022. This is the first time in a Pulse Asia survey that a presidential aspirant got a 'majority vote' equivalent in survey ratings, Pulse Asia executive director Ana Tabunda told Rappler
  132. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (March 14, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos shuns Comelec debates, cites 'preferred mode of communication with people'". Inquirer News. Manila, Philippines: Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  133. ^ Galvez, Daphne (March 20, 2022). "Bello wants Comelec to 'penalize' Bongbong Marcos, Sara Duterte for skipping debates". Inquirer News. Manila, Philippines: Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  134. ^ Carreon, Frencie; Cantal-Albasin, Grace (March 20, 2022). "Some Mindanaoans jeer at Marcos for skipping Comelec debate". Rappler. Zamboanga City, Philippines: Rappler Inc. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  135. ^ Galvez, Daphne (April 22, 2022). "Pacquiao keen on attending Comelec debate, if Bongbong Marcos shows up". Inquirer News. Manila, Philippines: Retrieved April 23, 2022.
  136. ^ "Marcos Jr. officially proclaimed president-elect". CNN Philippines. May 25, 2022. Retrieved May 25, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  137. ^ Galvez, Daphne (May 25, 2022). "VP-elect Sara Duterte mum on why family members absent during proclamation". The Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  138. ^ Manahan, Job (May 10, 2022). "Duterte's popularity, regionalism crystalized votes for Marcos Jr., Sara Duterte: analysts". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022.
  139. ^ "Biden, Xi congratulate Marcos Jr on Philippine presidential win". Al Jazeera. May 12, 2022. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  140. ^ Cabato, Regine; Westfall, Sammy (May 10, 2022). "Marcos family once ousted by uprising wins Philippines vote in landslide". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 10, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  141. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (June 20, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos to head agriculture department in concurrent post". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
  142. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (June 30, 2022). "Marcos Jr. sworn in as PH's 17th president". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on June 30, 2022. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  143. ^ "Marcos officially declared Philippines' next president". Nikkei Asia.
  144. ^ "Marcos Names Himself Agriculture Chief to Tackle Food Cost". June 20, 2022.
  145. ^ "Executive Order No. 1, s. 2022" (PDF). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. June 30, 2022. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
  146. ^ Cordero, Ted. "DOTr: Free train rides for students now only on LRT2". GMA News Online.
  147. ^ Camus, Miguel R. (July 2, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos vetoes bill on Bulacan Airport City ecozone".
  148. ^ a b "President Marcos focuses on PH economy in first Cabinet meeting".
  149. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (July 5, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos holds first Cabinet meeting".
  150. ^ "Marcos holds first Cabinet meeting; focus on PH economy". Manila Bulletin. July 5, 2022.
  151. ^ Pinlac, Beatrice (July 23, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos vetoes bill strengthening OGCC".
  152. ^ Valente, Catherine S. (July 24, 2022). "BBM vetoes bill for govt lawyers". The Manila Times.
  153. ^ Manahan, Job. "Controversial bill lowering the age for vape access lapses into law: Palace".
  154. ^ "PinasLakas administers 3.4M 1st booster dose in 100 days".
  155. ^ "PH has no intention of rejoining ICC: Marcos".
  156. ^ Sarao, Zacarian (July 30, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos vetoes transport safety board, tax-free poll workers' honoraria bills".
  157. ^ "Marcos explains veto on bill making tax-exempt teachers' poll service pay". Manila Bulletin. August 1, 2022.
  158. ^ a b c "G.R. No. 120880". Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  159. ^ "Marcos Jr. sentenced to 7 years in jail". United Press International. July 31, 1995.
  160. ^ a b "Isko to go after P200-B Marcos estate tax debt if elected president". RAPPLER. February 28, 2022. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  161. ^ "1995 tax evasion case could send Bongbong Marcos to jail". The Manila Times. November 6, 2004.
  162. ^ "RECORDS: Bongbong Marcos' 1997 tax conviction hounds him in 2022 campaign". Rappler. November 3, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  163. ^ "Court: No record of Marcos complying with tax judgment". Rappler. December 3, 2021.
  164. ^ Mendoza, John Eric (December 3, 2021). "Court records show Bongbong Marcos did not pay penalty in tax evasion case – petitioners". Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  165. ^ Canlas, Jomar (December 6, 2021). "BBM paid taxes, documents show". The Manila Times. Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  166. ^ Patag, Kristine Joy. "Marcos team answers petitioners' court certificate with BIR document of payment in tax case". Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  167. ^ "FALSE: Marcos Jr. submitted correct receipt for tax deficiencies payment". Rappler. February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  168. ^ "FACT-CHECK: Guanzon's claim that Marcos Jr submitted a fake receipt of tax payment is accurate". News 5. January 28, 2022. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  169. ^ "EXPLAINER: Comelec ruling on consolidated disqualification cases vs Marcos". February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  170. ^ Carpio, Antonio T. (September 30, 2021). "Tax debt of the Marcos estate". Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  171. ^ Romero, Paolo. "Pimentel seeks probe on failure to collect Marcos estate tax". Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  172. ^ a b Araneta, Sandy. "HR victims file claim for Payanig property". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  173. ^ a b "Gov't blocks Marcos appeal in Payanig property dispute". ABS CBN News and Public Affairs. January 13, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  174. ^ Yee, Jovic (March 26, 2015). "PCGG to sell P16.5B 'Payanig sa Pasig' land soon". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  175. ^ Ronda, Rainier Allan (November 22, 2007). "FM heirs want crony's assets returned". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on August 9, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  176. ^ "Marcos son appeals ruling on Payanig property". The Philippine Star. December 1, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  177. ^ a b "Marcoses lose US appeal". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 29, 2012. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  178. ^ "Imelda, 'Bongbong' Marcos Ordered To Pay $354M Fine". Honolulu Civil Beat. October 27, 2012. Archived from the original on June 19, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  179. ^ a b "Group wants US order vs Imelda, Bongbong enforced". ABS CBN News an Public Affairs. July 2, 2015. Archived from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  180. ^ Inquirer, Philippine Daily (November 4, 2012). "Marcoses in contempt". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  181. ^ "Deputy Secretary Sherman's Travel to the ROK, Philippines, Laos, and Vietnam". US embassy & consulate in Vietnam. June 10, 2022. Retrieved June 12, 2022.
  182. ^ Ramos, Christia Marie (June 9, 2022). "Bongbong Marcos 'welcome' to US given his 'diplomatic immunity'- top official". Retrieved June 12, 2022.
  183. ^ "Marcos says he's an optimist, conservative, Machiavellian".
  184. ^ "Duterte vs Marcos' brand of populism: How do they differ?". CNN. June 30, 2022.
  185. ^ "Marcos bids to be man of the Filipino farmer". June 27, 2022.
  186. ^ "New Philippine President Seeks Deeper Ties with China".
  187. ^ "Philippines Chased Dictator Marcos Billions for Years. Now His Son Could End up in Charge". May 5, 2022.
  188. ^ "EDSA People Power: Inadequate Challenge to Marcos Revisionism". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. March 10, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  189. ^ Hernando-Malipot, Merlina (September 7, 2018). "UP faculty vows to fight historical revisionism". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  190. ^ de Ynchausti, Nik (September 23, 2016). "Why has Marcos' propaganda lived on?". Esquire Magazine Philippines. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  191. ^ a b "Report of an Amnesty International Mission to the Republic of the Philippines 22 November – 5 December 1975" (PDF). Amnesty International Publications. September 1976.
  192. ^ a b "PCGG welcomes Singapore court decision on Marcos' Swiss funds". Rappler. January 4, 2015.
  193. ^ a b Macaraig, Ayee (August 26, 2015). "Marcos on dad's regime: What am I to apologize for?". Rappler.
  194. ^ Elizabeth Marcelo (February 10, 2016). "Bongbong Marcos unfazed by anti-Martial Law critics". GMA News Online.
  195. ^ Ayee Macaraig (August 16, 2015). "Bongbong on 2016: No downside to being a Marcos".
  196. ^ Elizabeth Marcelo (February 29, 2016). "Bongbong Marcos to critics: Allow young voters to make own judgment". GMA News Online.
  197. ^ Arzadon, Cristina (February 24, 1999). "Bongbong: Apology? They only want money". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  198. ^ Tan, Kimberly Jane (September 21, 2012). "Martial Law in the eyes of the late strongman Marcos' son". GMA News.
  199. ^ Quimpo, Susan (October 14, 2012). "Enrile's memoir gives me sleepless nights". GMA News.
  200. ^ Leila B. Salaverria (February 27, 2016). "Bongbong: Let historians, not politicians, judge Marcos rule". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  201. ^ Elizabeth Marcelo (February 26, 2016). "Leave it to Professors – Bongbong to PNoy: Let history judge Marcos era". GMA News Online.
  202. ^ "Bongbong: Let historians judge my father's regime". ABS-CBN News. February 27, 2016.
  203. ^ "Ateneo de Manila Community Stands Up Against Historical Revisionism of Martial Law". Ateneo de Manila University. March 3, 2016. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  204. ^ "We are not blind to the darkness and oppression of Marcos years! Statement of concerned members of the Ateneo de Manila University on the Martial Law regime and Bongbong Marcos' revision of history" (PDF). Ateneo de Manila University. March 4, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 14, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  205. ^ Paterno Esmaquel II (March 7, 2016). "Ateneo presidents slam Bongbong Marcos 'revision of history' – Heads of Jesuit-run universities join nearly 530 other signatories against 'the darkness and oppression of the Marcos years'". Rappler.
  206. ^ Yuji Vincent Gonzales (March 2, 2016). "Ateneo professors slam Bongbong Marcos' 'revision of history'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  207. ^ Filane Mikee Z. Cervantes (March 2, 2016). "Ateneo professors thumb down historical distortion of martial law regime". Archived from the original on March 7, 2016.
  208. ^ "1,400 Catholic schools back call vs 'Marcos snares, Imeldific lies'". Rappler. March 8, 2016.
  209. ^ "1,400 Catholic schools slam 'Marcos snares, Imeldific lies'". ABS-CBN News. March 8, 2016.
  210. ^ University of the Philippines Department of History (March 28, 2016). "Malakas at Maganda: Marcos Reign, Myth-Making and Deception in History". Facebook.
  211. ^ Aries Joseph Hegina (March 30, 2016). "Marcos deception seeks to evade accountability—UP Dept. of History". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  212. ^ Rosette Adel (March 30, 2016). "UP history profs slam 'mythical' golden era under martial law". The Philippine Star.
  213. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes (September 21, 2018). "Fact-checking Enrile's tete-a-tete with Bongbong Marcos". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  214. ^ Romero, Paolo (October 26, 2018). "Enrile apologizes to Martial Law victims, blames 'unlucid intervals'". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  215. ^ a b "VERA Files Yearender: Who benefited most from fake news, and other questions, answered in three charts". Vera Files. December 22, 2017.
  216. ^ Samson, Celine Isabelle (December 30, 2018). "VERA FILES FACT CHECK YEARENDER: Ads reveal links between websites producing fake news". Vera Files. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  217. ^ "Rappler Talk: Brittany Kaiser on protecting your data". Rappler. July 15, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  218. ^ "Bongbong Marcos asked Cambridge Analytica to 'rebrand' family image". Rappler. July 15, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  219. ^ Mendoza, John Eric (November 25, 2021). "Is Bongbong really dead? Comelec asked to junk COC of Marcos 'impostor'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  220. ^ Buan, Lian (March 7, 2022). "If Marcos never saw gold, why tell court gold was their source of wealth?". Rappler. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  221. ^ a b Gonzales, Cathrine (February 5, 2022). "'Walang ginto': Bongbong Marcos seeks closure on Tallano gold myth". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  222. ^ "Bongbong Marcos marks silver anniversary with wife Liza". ABS-CBN News. April 22, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  223. ^ "Son of Bongbong Marcos earns master's degree from London university". cnn. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  224. ^ Basco, Karl Cedrick (March 9, 2022). "Vinny Marcos describes childhood in Ilocos — 'Never influenced by money'". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  225. ^ "WASAK EP 028 BONG BONG MARCOS". News5. August 3, 2013.
  226. ^ Buan, Lian (November 8, 2021). "Solid North still a rock for Bongbong Marcos, but some students speaking up". Rappler.
  227. ^ Gonzales, Iris (April 26, 2021). "Billionaires are selling their sprawling Forbes homes". Property Report PH. PhilStar Media Group. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  228. ^ "The other side of Bongbong".
  229. ^ "Filipino politicians, guns, and power". RAPPLER. December 15, 2012.
  230. ^ "Need for speed: Ferrari fanatic Bongbong Marcos arrives in time for Singapore Grand Prix final practi". Bilyonaryo. October 1, 2022. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  231. ^ Sarne, Vernon (October 1, 2022). "President Bongbong Marcos is a Formula 1 fan". VISOR. Retrieved November 18, 2022.
  232. ^ Galvez, Daphne (March 31, 2020). "Breaking: Bongbong Marcos Tests Positive for COVID-19". Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  233. ^ "Former Senator Bongbong Marcos confirms he is now COVID-19 free". CNN Philippines. May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  234. ^ "ONE News". Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  235. ^ Galvez, Daphne (November 22, 2021). "Duterte: Cocaine-using presidential bet elude cops by doing drugs on yacht, plane". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  236. ^ "Philippines' Duterte says cocaine user among presidential election candidates". CNN. Reuters. November 19, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  237. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (November 19, 2021). "Duterte takes jab at Bongbong Marcos anew, calls him 'weak leader'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  238. ^ Cabalza, Dexter; Aning, Jerome; Aurelio, Julie M. (November 24, 2021). "Marcos gets self tested for cocaine, submits results to PDEA, PNP, NBI". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  239. ^ Atienza, Kyle Aristophere T (November 23, 2021). "Marcos takes drug test after Duterte claim on a cocaine-user presidential candidate". BusinessWorld. Retrieved November 23, 2021.
  240. ^ Quismorio, Ellson (April 26, 2022). "Marcos finally responds to Duterte's 'spoiled brat', 'weak leader' tags". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved May 24, 2022.
  241. ^ "Ex-Sen. Coseteng joins calls to prevent Marcoses from returning to Malacañang". Archived from the original on May 14, 2022. Retrieved May 14, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  242. ^ "'ALWAYS HIGH': Former senator joins calls to block Marcos' possible return to Malacañang". TV5 Network. News5. May 6, 2022. Retrieved May 6, 2022.

External links

Marcos Family