|Founded||1st century BC|
|• Lord Mayor||Ashok-Alexander Sridharan (CDU)|
|• Total||141.06 km2 (54.46 sq mi)|
|Elevation||60 m (200 ft)|
|• Density||2,300/km2 (5,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
The Federal City of Bonn (German pronunciation: [ˈbɔn] ( listen)) is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About 24 km (15 mi) south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants.
Because of a political compromise following German reunification, the German state maintains a substantial presence in Bonn, and the city is considered a second, unofficial, capital of the country. Bonn is the secondary seat of the President, the Chancellor, the Bundesrat and the primary seat of six federal government ministries and twenty federal authorities. The unique title of Federal City (German: Bundesstadt) reflects its important political status within Germany.
Founded in the 1st century BC as a Roman settlement, Bonn is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne. Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn in 1770. From 1949 to 1990, Bonn was the provisional capital ("temporary seat of the Federal institutions") of West Germany, and Germany's present constitution, the Basic Law, was declared in the city in 1949. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government – but no longer capital – of reunited Germany.
The headquarters of Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom, both DAX-listed corporations, are in Bonn. The city is home to the University of Bonn and a total of 20 United Nations institutions, including headquarters for Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the UN Volunteers programme.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Culture
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Sports
- 10 International relations
- 11 Notable residents
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Situated in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area with over 11 million inhabitants, Bonn lies within the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, close to the border with Rhineland-Palatinate. Spanning an area of more 141.2 km2 (55 sq mi) on both sides of the river Rhine, almost three quarters of the city lie on the river's left bank.
To the south and to the west, Bonn is bordering the Eifel region which encompasses the Rhineland Nature Park. To the north, Bonn borders the Cologne Lowland. Natural borders are constituted by the river Sieg to the north-east and by the Siebengebirge (also known as the Seven Hills) to the east. The largest extension of the city in north-south dimensions is 15 km (9 mi) and 12.5 km (8 mi) in west-east dimensions. The city borders have a total length of 61 km (38 mi). The geographical centre of Bonn is the Bundeskanzlerplatz (Chancellor Square) in Bonn-Gronau.
The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five governmental districts (German: Regierungsbezirk), and Bonn is part of the governmental district of Cologne (German: Regierungsbezirk Köln). Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an urban district in its own right. The urban district of Bonn is then again divided into four administrative municipal districts (German: Stadtbezirk). These are Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Hardtberg. In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before.
|Municipal district (Stadtbezirk)||Coat of arms||Population (as of December 2014)||Sub-district (Stadtteil)|
|Bad Godesberg||73.172||Alt-Godesberg, Friesdorf, Godesberg-Nord, Godesberg-Villenviertel, Heiderhof, Hochkreuz, Lannesdorf, Mehlem, Muffendorf, Pennenfeld, Plittersdorf, Rüngsdorf, Schweinheim|
|Beuel||66.695||Beuel-Mitte, Beuel-Ost, Geislar, Hoholz, Holtorf, Holzlar, Küdinghoven, Limperich, Oberkassel, Pützchen/Bechlinghoven, Ramersdorf, Schwarzrheindorf/Vilich-Rheindorf, Vilich, Vilich-Müldorf|
|Bonn||149.733||Auerberg, Bonn-Castell (known until 2003 as Bonn-Nord), Bonn-Zentrum, Buschdorf, Dottendorf, Dransdorf, Endenich, Graurheindorf, Gronau, Ippendorf, Kessenich, Lessenich/Meßdorf, Nordstadt, Poppelsdorf, Röttgen, Südstadt, Tannenbusch, Ückesdorf, Venusberg, Weststadt|
|Hardtberg||33.360||Brüser Berg, Duisdorf, Hardthöhe, Lengsdorf|
Bonn has an oceanic climate (Cfb). In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, Bonn is in one of Germany's warmest regions.
|Climate data for Bonn|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||61.0
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||51.0||76.0||110.0||163.0||190.0||195.0||209.0||194.0||141.0||104.0||55.0||41.0||1,529|
|Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst (Bonn-Rohleber, period 1971– 2010)|
Founding and Roman times
This section does not cite any sources. (February 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city. Even earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn. The Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the Eburoni. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of Caesar's War in Gaul. After several decades, the army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement. During the 1st century AD, the army then chose a site to the north of the emerging town in what is now the section of Bonn-Castell to build a large military installation dubbed Castra Bonnensis, i.e., literally, "Fort Bonn". Initially built from wood, the fort was eventually rebuilt in stone. With additions, changes and new construction, the fort remained in use by the army into the waning days of the Western Roman Empire, possibly the mid-5th century. The structures themselves remained standing well into the Middle Ages, when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by Frankish kings until they fell into disuse. Eventually, much of the building materials seem to have been re-used in the construction of Bonn's 13th-century city wall. The Sterntor (star gate) in the city center is a reconstruction using the last remnants of the medieval city wall.
To date, Bonn's Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the ancient world, i.e. a fort built to accommodate a full-strength Imperial Legion and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of approximately 250,000 square metres (62 acres). Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers' quarters to barracks, stables and a military jail. Among the legions stationed in Bonn, the "1st", i.e. the Prima Legio Minervia, seems to have served here the longest. Units of the Bonn legion were deployed to theatres of war ranging from modern-day Algeria to what is now the Russian republic of Chechnya.
The chief Roman road linking the provincial capitals of Cologne and Mainz cut right through the fort where it joined the fort's main road (now, Römerstraße). Once past the South Gate, the Cologne–Mainz road continued along what are now streets named Belderberg, Adenauerallee et al. On both sides of the road, the local settlement, Bonna, grew into a sizeable Roman town. Bonn is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map.
In late antiquity, much of the town seems to have been destroyed by marauding invaders. The remaining civilian population then took refuge inside the fort along with the remnants of the troops stationed here. During the final decades of Imperial rule, the troops were supplied by Franci chieftains employed by the Roman administration. When the end came, these troops simply shifted their allegiances to the new barbarian rulers, the Kingdom of the Franks. From the fort, the Bonnburg, as well as from a new medieval settlement to the South centered around what later became the minster, grew the medieval city of Bonn. Local legends arose from this period that the name of the village came from Saint Boniface via Vulgar Latin *Bonnifatia, but this proved to be a myth.
Middle Ages and Early Modern times
Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the Romanesque style Bonn Minster was built, and in 1597 Bonn became the seat of the Archdiocese of Cologne. The city gained more influence and grew considerably. The city was subject to a major bombardment during the Siege of Bonn in 1689. The elector Clemens August (ruled 1723–1761) ordered the construction of a series of Baroque buildings which still give the city its character. Another memorable ruler was Max Franz (ruled 1784–1794), who founded the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg. In addition he was a patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven, who was born in Bonn in 1770; the elector financed the composer's first journey to Vienna.
In 1794, the city was seized by French troops, becoming a part of the First French Empire. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, Bonn became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Administered within the Prussian Rhine Province, the city became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. Bonn was of little relevance in these years.
20th century and time as the capital of West Germany
During the Second World War, Bonn acquired military significance because of its strategic location on the Rhine, which formed a natural barrier to easy penetration into the German heartland from the west. The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Bonn on 7 March 1945, and the US 1st Infantry Division captured the city during the battle of 8–9 March 1945.
Following the Second World War, Bonn was in the British zone of occupation. Following the advocacy of West Germany's first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, a former Cologne Mayor and a native of that area, Bonn became the de facto capital, officially designated the "temporary seat of the Federal institutions," of the newly formed Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. However, the Bundestag affirmed Berlin's status as the German capital. Bonn was chosen as the provisional capital and seat of government despite the fact that Frankfurt already had most of the required facilities and using Bonn was estimated to be 95 million DM more expensive than using Frankfurt. However, Adenauer and other prominent politicians intended to make Berlin the capital of the reunified Germany, and felt that locating the capital in a major city like Frankfurt or Hamburg would imply a permanent capital and weaken support in West Germany for reunification.
In 1949, the Parliamentary Council in Bonn drafted and adopted the current German constitution, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. As the political centre of West Germany, Bonn saw six Chancellors and six Presidents of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn's time as the capital of West Germany is commonly referred to as the Bonn Republic, in contrast to the Berlin Republic which followed reunification in 1990.
After German reunification in 1990
German reunification in 1990 made Berlin the nominal capital of Germany again. This decision did not mandate that the republic's political institutions would also move. While some argued for the seat of government to move to Berlin, others advocated leaving it in Bonn — a situation roughly analogous to that of the Netherlands, where Amsterdam is the capital but the Hague is the seat of government. Berlin's previous history as united Germany's capital was strongly connected with the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and more ominously with Nazi Germany. It was felt that a new peacefully united Germany should not be governed from a city connected to such overtones of war. Additionally, Bonn was closer to Brussels, headquarters of the European Economic Community. Former chancellor Willy Brandt caused considerable offence to the Western Allies during the debate by stating that France wouldn't have kept the seat of government at Vichy after Liberation.
The heated debate that resulted was settled by the Bundestag (Germany's parliament) only on 20 June 1991. By a vote of 338–320, the Bundestag voted to move the seat of government to Berlin. The vote broke largely along regional lines, with legislators from the south and west favouring Bonn and legislators from the north and east voting for Berlin. It also broke along generational lines as well; older legislators with memories of Berlin's past glory favoured Berlin, while younger legislators favoured Bonn. Ultimately, the votes of the eastern German legislators tipped the balance in favour of Berlin.
From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government of reunited Germany. In recognition of its former status as German capital, it holds the name of Federal City (German: Bundesstadt). Bonn currently shares the status of Germany's seat of government with Berlin, with the President, the Chancellor and many government ministries maintaining substantial presences in Bonn. Over 8,000 of the 18,000 federal officials remain in Bonn. A total of 19 United Nations (UN) institutions operate from Bonn today.
The city council of Bonn used to be based in the Rococo-style and 1737 built Altes Rathaus (old city hall) adjacent to Bonn's central market square. However, due to the enlargement of Bonn in 1969 through the incorporation of Beuel and Bad Godesberg, it moved into the larger Stadthaus facilities further up north. This was necessary for the city council to accommodate the increased number of representatives. The mayor of Bonn still sits in the Altes Rathaus, which is also used for representative and official purposes.
As of the 2014–2020 election cycle, the Christian Democrats (CDU) hold the majority of mandates in the city council (27 seats), followed by the Social Democrats (SPD) with 20 seats, the Greens (Bündnis '90/Die Grünen) with 16 seats, the Liberals (FDP) with 7 seats, the Left (Die Linke) with 5 seats, the local Bürgerbund Bonn with 4 seats, the Alternative for Germany (AfD) with 3 seats, and independent candidates with a total of 4 seats. There are currently 86 seats in the city council of Bonn.
Four delegates represent the Federal city of Bonn in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia. The last election took place in May 2012. The current delegates are Bernhard von Grünberg (SPD),Renate Hendricks (SPD), Joachim Stamp (FDP) and Rolf Beu (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen).
The next Landtag elections take place in May 2017.
German federal election
Bonn's constituency is called Bundeswahlkreis Bonn (096). In the German federal election 2013, Ulrich Kelber (SPD) was elected a member of German Federal parliament, the Bundestag by direct mandate. It is his fourth term. Katja Dörner representing Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and Claudia Lücking-Michel of the CDU were elected from regional lists.
The next federal election takes place on 24 September 2017.
Beethoven's birthplace is located in Bonngasse near the market place. Next to the market place is the Old City Hall, built in 1737 in Rococo style, under the rule of Clemens August of Bavaria. It is used for receptions of guests of the city, and as an office for the mayor. Nearby is the Kurfürstliches Schloss, built as a residence for the prince-elector and now the main building of the University of Bonn.
The Poppelsdorfer Allee is an avenue flanked by chestnut trees which had the first horsecar of the city. It connects the Kurfürstliches Schloss with the Poppelsdorfer Schloss, a palace that was built as a resort for the prince-electors in the first half of the 18th century, and whose grounds are now a botanical garden (the Botanischer Garten Bonn). This axis is interrupted by a railway line and Bonn Hauptbahnhof, a building erected in 1883/84.
The three highest structures in the city are the WDR radio mast in Bonn-Venusberg (180 m or 590 ft), the headquarters of the Deutsche Post called Post Tower (162.5 m or 533 ft) and the former building for the German members of parliament Langer Eugen (114.7 m or 376 ft) now the location of the UN Campus.
- Bonn Minster
- Doppelkirche Schwarzrheindorf built in 1151
- Old Cemetery Bonn, one of the best known ones in Germany
- Kreuzbergkirche, built in 1627 with Johann Balthasar Neumann's Heilige Stiege, it is a stairway for Christian pilgrims
Castles and residences
- Bundesviertel (federal quarter) with lots of government structures including
- Post Tower, the tallest building in the state North Rhine-Westphalia, housing the headquarters of Deutsche Post/DHL
- Maritim Bonn, five-star hotel and convention centre
- Schürmann-Bau, headquarters of Deutsche Welle
- Langer Eugen, since 2006 the centre of the United Nations Campus, formerly housing the offices of the members of the German parliament
- Deutsche Telekom headquarters
- T-Mobile headquarters
- Kameha Grand, five-star hotel
Just as Bonn's other four major museums, the Haus der Geschichte or Museum of the History of the Federal Republic of Germany, is located on the so-called Museumsmeile ("Museum Mile"). The Haus der Geschichte is one of the foremost German museums of contemporary German history, with branches in Berlin and Leipzig. In its permanent exhibition, the Haus der Geschichte presents German history from 1945 until the present, also shedding light on Bonn's own role as former capital of West Germany. Numerous temporary exhibitions emphasize different features, such as Nazism or important personalities in German history.
The Kunstmuseum Bonn or Bonn Museum of Modern Art is an art museum founded in 1947. The Kunstmuseum exhibits both temporary exhibitions and its permanent collection. The latter is focused on Rhenish Expressionism and post-war German art. German artists on display include Georg Baselitz, Joseph Beuys, Hanne Darboven, Anselm Kiefer, Blinky Palermo and Wolf Vostell. The museum owns one of the largest collections of artwork by Expressionist painter August Macke. His work is also on display in the August-Macke-Haus, located in Macke's former home where he lived from 1911 to 1914.
The Bundeskunsthalle (full name: Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland or Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany), focusses on the crossroads of culture, arts, and science. To date, it attracted more than 17 million visitors. One of its main objectives is to show the cultural heritage outside of Germany or Europe. Next to its changing exhibitions, the Bundeskunsthalle regularly hosts concerts, discussion panels, congresses, and lectures.
The Museum Koenig is Bonn's natural history museum. Affiliated with the University of Bonn, it is also a zoological research institution housing the Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere. Politically interesting, it is on the premises of the Museum Koenig where the Parlamentarischer Rat first met. The Deutsches Museum Bonn, affiliated with one of the world's foremost science museums, the Deutsches Museum in Munich, is an interactive science museum focusing on post-war German scientists, engineers, and inventions. Other museums include the Beethoven House, birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven, the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn (Rhinish Regional Museum Bonn), the Bonn Women's Museum, the Rheinisches Malermuseum and the Arithmeum.
There are several parks, leisure and protected areas in and around Bonn. The de:Rheinaue is Bonn's most important leisure park, with its role being comparable to what Central Park is for New York. It lies on the banks of the Rhine and is the city's biggest park intra muros. The Rhine promenade and the Alter Zoll (Old Toll Station) are in direct neighbourhood of the city centre and are popular amongst both residents and visitors. The Arboretum Park Härle is an arboretum with specimens dating to back to 1870. The Botanischer Garten (Botanical Garden) is affiliated with the university and it is here where Titan arum set a world record. The natural reserve of Kottenforst is a large area of protected woods on the hills west of the city centre. It is about 40 square kilometres (15 square miles) in area and part of the Rhineland Nature Park (1,045 km2 or 403 sq mi).
In the very south of the city, on the border with Wachtberg and Rhineland-Palatinate, there is an extinct volcano, the Rodderberg, featuring a popular area for hikes. Also south of the city, there is the Siebengebirge which is part of the lower half of the Middle Rhine region. The nearby upper half of the Middle Rhine from Bingen to Koblenz is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with more than 40 castles and fortresses from the Middle Ages and important German vineyards.
Named after Konrad Adenauer, the first post-war Chancellor of West Germany, Cologne Bonn Airport is situated 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) north-east from the city centre of Bonn. With around 10.3 million passengers passing through it in 2015, it is the seventh-largest passenger airport in Germany and the third-largest in terms of cargo operations. By traffic units, which combines cargo and passengers, the airport is in fifth position in Germany. As of March 2015, Cologne Bonn Airport had services to 115 passenger destinations in 35 countries. The airport is one of Germany's few 24-hour airports, and is a hub for Eurowings and cargo operators FedEx Express and UPS Airlines.
The federal motorway (Autobahn) A59 connects the airport with the city. Long distance and regional trains to and from the airport stop at Cologne/Bonn Airport station. Other major airports within a one-hour drive by car are Frankurt International Airport and Düsseldorf International Airport.
Rail and bus system
Bonn's central railway station, Bonn Hauptbahnhof, serves urban (S-Bahn, U-Bahn, sharing the same network with the neighbouring city of Cologne), regional (Regionalbahn), and long distance destinations (ICE) such as Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Zurich, Vienna, Brussels, Amsterdam and Paris. Daily, more than 67,000 people travel via Bonn Hauptbahnhof. In late 2016, around 80 long distance and more than 165 regional trains departed to or from Bonn every day. The other major railway station (Siegburg/Bonn) lies on the high-speed rail line between Cologne and Frankfurt.
The bus system of Bonn is composed of roughly 30 lines which operate on a regular basis. During peaks, buses usually run every 5 minutes; off-peak buses run every 20 minutes. Several lines offer night services, especially during the weekends. Bonn is part of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (Rhine-Sieg Transport Association) which is the public transport association covering the area of the Cologne/Bonn region.
Four German Autobahns run through or are adjacent to Bonn: the A59 (right bank of the Rhine, connecting Bonn with Düsseldorf and Duisburg), the A555 (left bank of the Rhine, connecting Bonn with Cologne), the A562 (connecting the right with the left bank of the Rhine south of Bonn), and the A565 (connecting the A59 and the A555 with the A61 to the southwest). Three Bundesstraßen, which have a general 100 kilometres per hour (62 miles per hour) speed limit in contrast to the Autobahn, connect Bonn to its immediate surroundings (Bundesstraßen B9, B42 and B56).
With Bonn being divided into two parts by the Rhine, three bridges are crucial for inner-city road traffic: the Konrad-Adenauer-Brücke (A562), the Friedrich-Ebert-Brücke (A565), and the Kennedybrücke (B56). In addition, regular ferries operate between Bonn-Mehlem and Königswinter, Bonn-Bad Godesberg and Niederdollendorf, and Graurheindorf and Mondorf.
Located in the northern sub-district of Graurheindorf, the inland harbour of Bonn is used for container traffic as well as oversea transport. The annual turnover amounts to around 500,000 t (490,000 long tons; 550,000 short tons). Regular passenger transport occurs to Cologne and Düsseldorf.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2017)
The Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn (University of Bonn) is one of the largest universities in Germany. It is also the location of the German research institute Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) offices and of the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst – DAAD).
- Aloisiuskolleg, a Jesuit private school in Bad Godesberg with boarding facilities
- Amos-Comenius-Gymnasium, a Protestant private school in Bad Godesberg
- Bonn International School (BIS), a private English-speaking school set in the former American Compound in the Rheinaue, which offers places from kindergarten to 12th grade. It follows the curriculum of the International Baccalaureate.
- King Fahd Academy (DE), a private school in Mehlem, Bad Godesberg, which also includes a mosque
- Libysch Schule, private Arabic high school
- Independent Bonn International School, (IBIS) private primary school (serving from kindergarten, reception, and years 1 to 6)
- École de Gaulle - Adenauer, private French-speaking school serving grades pre-school ("maternelle") to grade 4 (CM1)
- Ernst-Kalkuhl-Gymnasium (DE), private boarding and day school
- Otto-Kühne-Schule Godesberg ("PÄDA") (DE), private day school
- Collegium Josephinum Bonn ("CoJoBo") (DE), private day school
- Akademie fuer Internationale Bildung, private higher educational facility offering programs for international students Additionally there are six private Catholic schools.
- Jugenddorf-Christophorusschule Königswinter (CJD), private Christian school serving grades Kindergarten to 13
As of 2011[update], Bonn had a population of 327,913. About 70% of the population was entirely of German origin, while about 100,000 people, equating to roughly 30%, were at least partly of non-German origin. The city is one of the fastest-growing municipalities in Germany and the 18th most populous city in the country. Bonn's population is predicted to surpass the populations of Wuppertal and Bochum before the year 2030.
Bonn is home of the Telekom Baskets Bonn, the only basketball club in Germany that owns its arena, the Telekom Dome. The club is a regular participant at international competitions such as the Eurocup.
The city also has an amateur football team Bonner SC which was formed in 1965 through the merger of Bonner FV and Tura Bonn.
The Headquarter of the International Paralympic Committee have since 1999 been located in Bonn
Since 1983, the City of Bonn has established friendship relations with the City of Tel Aviv, Israel, and since 1988 Bonn, in former times the residence of the Princes Electors of Cologne, and Potsdam, Germany, the formerly most important residential city of the Prussian rulers, have established a city-to-city partnership.
Central Bonn is surrounded by a number of traditional towns and villages which were independent up to several decades ago. As many of those communities had already established their own contacts and partnerships before the regional and local reorganisation in 1969, the Federal City of Bonn now has a dense network of city district partnerships with European partner towns.
The city district of Bonn is a partner of the English university city of Oxford, England, UK (since 1947), of Budafok, District XXII of Budapest, Hungary (since 1991) and of Opole, Poland (officially since 1997; contacts were established 1954).
The district of Bad Godesberg has established partnerships with Saint-Cloud in France, Frascati in Italy, Windsor and Maidenhead in England, UK and Kortrijk in Belgium; a friendship agreement has been signed with the town of Yalova, Turkey.
Moreover, the city of Bonn has developed a concept of international co-operation and maintains sustainability oriented project partnerships in addition to traditional city twinning, among others with Minsk in Belarus, Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia, Bukhara in Uzbekistan, Chengdu in China and La Paz in Bolivia.
Twin towns — sister cities
Bonn city district has partnerships with:
- Oxford, United Kingdom, since 1947
- Budapest, Budafok, Hungary, since 1991
- Opole, Poland, since 1997
- Saint-Cloud, France, since 1957
- Frascati, Italiy, since 1957
- Kortrijk, Belgium, since 1957
- Windsor and Maidenhead, United Kingdom, since 1960
The city of Bonn also has project partnerships with:
Up to the 19th century
- Johann Peter Salomon *? (baptized 20 February 1745), † 25 November 1815 in London, musician
- Franz Anton Ries, * November 10, 1755 † 1 November 1846 in Bonn, violinist and violin teacher
- Ludwig van Beethoven, * December 16, 1770 † 26 March 1827 in Vienna, composer
- Salomon Oppenheim, Jr., * June 19, 1772 † November 8, 1828 in Mainz, banker
- Peter Joseph Lenné, * September 29, 1789 † 23 January 1866 in Potsdam, gardener and landscape architect
- Friedrich von Gerolt, * March 5, 1797 † July 27, 1879 in Linz, German diplomat
- Karl Joseph Simrock * August 28, 1802, † 18 July 1876 in Bonn, writer and specialist in German
- Wilhelm Neuland, * July 1806 in Bonn, † December, 28, 1889 in Bonn, composer and conductor
- Johanna Kinkel, * July 8, 1810 † 15 November 1858 in London, composer and writer
- Moses Hess, * June 21, 1812, † April 6, 1875 in Paris, philosopher and writer
- Johann Gottfried Kinkel, * August 11, 1815, † 12 November 1882 in Zürich, theologian, writer and politician
- Alexander Kaufmann, * May 14, 1817; † 1 May 1893 in Wertheim, author and archivist
- Leopold Kaufmann, * March 13, 1821, † 27 February 1898 in Bonn, mayor
- Julius von Haast, * May 1, 1822 † 16 August 1887 in Christchurch, New Zealand, professor of geology
- Dietrich Brandis, * March 31, 1824 † 28 May 1907 in Bonn, botanist
- Balduin Möllhausen * 27 January 1825, † 28 May 1905 in Berlin, traveler and writer
- Maurus Wolter, * June 4, 1825 † July 8, 1890 in Beuron, Benedictine, founder and first abbot of the Abbey of Beuron and Beuronese Congregation
- August Reifferscheid, * October 3, 1835 in Bonn; † 10 November 1887 in Strasbourg, philologist
- Antonius Maria Bodewig, * November 2, 1839 † January 8, 1915 in Rome, Jesuit missionary and Founder
- Nathan Zuntz, * October 7, 1847 † 23 March 1920 in Berlin, physicians
- Alexander Koenig, * February 20, 1858 in St. Petersburg; † July 16, 1940 in Good Blücherhof, Klocksin, Mecklenburg, German zoologist and founder of today's Museum Koenig in Bonn
- Alfred Philippson * January 1, 1864, † 28 March 1953 in Bonn, geographer
- Johanna Elberskirchen, * April 11, 1864, † 17 May 1943 in Rüdersdorf, feminist writer and activist
- Max Alsberg * October 16, 1877, † 10 September 1933, lawyer
- Kurt Wolff * March 3, 1887, † 21 October 1963, publisher
- Hans Riegel (senior), * April 3, 1893 in Friesdorf village (now part of Bonn), † 31 March 1945, entrepreneur
- Eduard Krebsbach, * August 8, 1894 † May 28, 1947 in Landsberg am Lech, doctor in the concentration camp Mauthausen
- Paul Kemp, * May 20, 1896 in Bad Godesberg (now part of Bonn), † 13 August 1953 in Bonn, actor
- Hermann Josef Abs * October 15, 1901, † February 5, 1994 in Bad Soden am Taunus, Board member of the Deutsche Bank
- Paul Ludwig Landsberg, born December 3, 1901 † April 2, 1944 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, philosopher
- Heinrich Lützeler, born January 27, 1902, † 13 June 1988 in Bonn, philosopher, art historian, literary scholar
- Theodor Schieffer * June 11, 1910 (Bad Godesberg), † April 9, 1992, historian and medievalist
- Irene Sänger-Bredt born Bredt, born April 24, 1911 † 20 October 1983 in Stuttgart, mathematician and physicist
- Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, born August 16, 1911 † 4 September 1977 in the train between Geneva and Lausanne, economist
- Klaus Barbie * October 25, 1913 (Bad Godesberg), † 25 September 1991 in Lyon, the "Butcher of Lyon"
- Karl-Theodor Molinari, born February 7, 1915 † 11 December 1993 in Dortmund, General and Founding Chairman of the German Armed Forces Association
- Karlrobert Kreiten, born June 26, 1916 in Bad Godesberg, † September 7, 1943 in Berlin-Plotzensee, pianist
- Hannjo Hasse, born August 31, 1921 † February 5, 1983 in Falkirk, German actor
- Walter Gotell, March 15, 1924, actor † 5 May 1997
- Walter Eschweiler, born September 20, 1935 football referees
- Alexandra Cordes, born November 16, 1935 † 27 October 1986 in Châteauneuf-du-Pape, writer
- Joachim Bißmeier, born November 22, 1936 actor
- Roswitha Esser * born 18 January 1941, canoeist, gold medal winner at the Olympic Games in 1964 and 1968 Sportswoman of the Year 1964
- Heide Simonis * born July 4, 1943, former Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein, since 2005 honorary chairman of UNICEF Germany
- Paul Alger * born August 13, 1943, football player
- Johannes Mötsch * July 8, 1949, archivist and historian in Meiningen
- Klaus Ludwig * born October 5, 1949, race car driver
1951 up to present
- Günter Ollenschläger, born March 3, 1951 in Beuel, medical and science journalist
- Hans "Hannes" Bongartz * October 3, 1951, former professional football player, football coach
- Christa Goetsch * August 28, 1952, politician (Alliance '90 / The Greens).
- Thomas de Maizière * 21 January 1954, politician (CDU), former Minister of Defence, Minister of the Interior
- Olaf Manthey, * April 21, 1955, former touring car racing driver
- Michael Kühnen * June 21, 1955; † April 25, 1991 in Kassel, neo-Nazi
- Roger Willemsen * August 15, 1955, † 7 February 2016 in Wentorf, publicist, author, essayist and presenter
- Norman Rentrop * October 26, 1957, publisher, author and investor
- Markus Maria Profitlich, * March 25, 1960, carpenter, comedian, actor
- Nikolai Grube, * 1962, Professor for Ancient American Studies and Anthropology
- Mathias Dopfner * 15 January 1963, Chief Executive Officer of Axel Springer AG
- Johannes B. Kerner, born December 9, 1964 Moderator, his Abitur at the Aloisiuskolleg and studied in Bonn
- Anthony Baffoe, born May 25, 1965 Sports presenter, former football player and actor
- Sonja Zietlow born May 13, 1968, TV presenter
- Burkhard Garweg * September 1, 1968, member of the Red Army Faction
- Sabriye Tenberken born September 19, 1970, founder of the organization Braille Without Borders, Tibetologist
- Thorsten Libotte * July 20, 1972, writer
- Silke Bodenbender * 31 January 1974, actress
- Juli Zeh * June 30, 1974, writer
- Markus Dieckmann born 7 January 1976, beach volleyball player
- Bernadette Heerwagen born June 22, 1977, actress
- Sebastian Stahl born September 20, 1978, German race car driver
- Sonja Fuss * November 5, 1978, soccer player
- Andreas Tölzer born 27 January 1980, Judoka
- Jens Hartwig born April 16, 1980, actor
- Natalie Horler * September 23, 1981, front woman of the Dance Project Cascada
- Marcel Ndjeng born May 6, 1982, football player
- Marc Zwiebler born 13 March 1984, badminton player
- Benjamin Barg * September 15, 1984, football player
- Alexandros Margaritis born September 20, 1984, Greek-German race car driver
- Ken Miyao born March 16, 1986, pop singer
- Julia Reda * born 1987, politician
- Célia Okoyino da Mbabi born June 27, 1988, football player
- Luke Mockridge born March 21, 1989, comedian and author
- Jonas Wohlfarth-Bottermann born February 20, 1990, basketball player
- Levina born in May 1, 1991, singer
- Bienvenue Basala-Mazana born January 2, 1992, football player
- "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.
- Cowell, Alan (2011-06-23). "In Germany's Capitals, Cold War Memories and Imperial Ghosts". The New York Times.
- Bundestag, Deutscher. "Deutscher Bundestag: Berlin-Debatte / Antrag Vollendung der Einheit Deutschlands, Drucksache 12/815". webarchiv.bundestag.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-02-19.
- "Wohnberechtigte Bevölkerung in der Stadt Bonn am 31.12.2014". bonn.de (in German). Stadt Bonn. Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
- Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 76.
- Caborn, Joannah (2006). Schleichende Wende. Diskurse von Nation und Erinnerung bei der Konstituierung der Berliner Republik. p. 12.
- "Bonn to Berlin move still controversial", The Local, "Published 11 June 2011". Retrieved 01-02-12.
- "Nationalatlas aktuell", "Hauptstadtbeschluss" by Sebastian Lentz, "Published 17 Juni 2011". Retrieved 9-20-12.
- Laux, Hans-Dieter, "Berlin oder Bonn? Geographische Aspekte eine Parlamentsentscheidung", "Geographische Rundschau", 43:12, 740–743, 1991.
- Thompson, Wayne C. (2008). The World Today Series: Nordic, Central and Southeastern Europe 2008. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-887985-95-6.
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Neuer Oberbürgermeister: CDU-Kandidat in Bonn gewählt – SPIEGEL ONLINE – Politik". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- Bonn, Bundesstadt. "Stadt Bonn – NRW-Landtagswahl 2017 findet am 14. Mai statt". www.bonn.de. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "Das Bonner Münster @ Kirche in der City". Bonner-muenster.de. Archived from the original on 2009-02-15. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- de:Alter Friedhof Bonn
- "Bonn Region – Sightseeing – Fortresses and castles – Godesburg mit Michaelskapelle (Fortress Godesburg with St. Michael Chapel)". Web.archive.org. 2005-05-25. Archived from the original on 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Home". Hdg.de. 2008-06-13. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Kunstmuseum Bonn – Overview". Kunstmuseum.bonn.de. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "MUSEUMSMEILE BONN". www.museumsmeilebonn.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-02-03.
- "Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany – Bonn – English Version". Kah-bonn.de. Archived from the original on 2009-05-09. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- de:Museum Koenig
- "MUSEUMSMEILE BONN". www.museumsmeilebonn.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-02-03.
- Fraunhofer-Institut für Medienkommunikation IMK (2002-03-26). "Beethoven digitally". Beethoven-haus-bonn.de. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- de:Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn
- de:Freizeitpark Rheinaue
- de:Botanischer Garten Bonn
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
- "Sommerflugplan 2015: Sieben neue Ziele ab Flughafen Köln/Bonn". airliners.de. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Sanierung geht in die heiße Phase, General-Anzeiger, 4. November 2016
- Schöne Aussichten im Hauptbahnhof Bonn Archived 2016-11-06 at the Wayback Machine., Deutsche Bahn, 4. November 2016
- "Deutsche Telekom facts and figures Archived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.." T-Mobile. Retrieved on 8 November 2009.
- "CJD Jugenddorf-Christophorusschule Kцnigswinter – CJD Kцnigswinter" (in German). Koenigswinter.cjd.de. 2011-08-29. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "IHK Bonn/Rhein-Sieg: Bonn wächst weiter". 2012-11-29. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- "Eckzahlen der aktuellen Bevölkerungsstatistik (Stichtag 31.12.2015)". www2.bonn.de. Statistikstelle der Bundesstadt Bonn. Retrieved 2016-04-17.
- "Telekom Baskets Bonn – Telekom Dome – Übersicht" Archived October 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Telekom-Baskets-Bonn.de. Retrieved 8 March 2014. (in German)
- "City Twinnings". Stadt Bonn. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "Oxford's International Twin Towns". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 2013-08-17. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- "Opole Official Website – Twin Towns". (in English and Polish) © 2007–2009 Urząd Miasta Opola. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- Bonn, Bundesstadt. "Stadt Bonn – Städtepartnerschaft". www.bonn.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-28.
- "Cape Coast signs sister-city partnership with Bonn". Ghana News Agency (GNA). April 13, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bonn.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bonn.|