Bontang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bontang
City of Bontang
Kota Bontang
Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Factory Complex Area.jpg
2017-08-04 Kantor Walikota Bontang.jpg
2017-10-25 Badak NGL Headquarters.jpg
Jan 2018 Taman Wisata Graha Mangrove.jpg
Pulau Beras Basah March 2018.jpg
Clockwise: Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Fertiliser Factory, Badak NGL Headquarters, Beras Basah Island, Graha Mangrove Park, Bontang City Hall.
Official seal of Bontang
Seal
Etymology: Dutch: Bond and Indonesian: Pendatang
Nickname(s): 
id : Kota Taman (Garden City)
Motto(s): 
Kutai: Bessai Berinta (Rowing Together)
Anthem: March of Bontang City
Location within East Kalimantan
Location within East Kalimantan
Interactive Map of Bontang
Bontang is located in Kalimantan
Bontang
Bontang
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Bontang is located in Indonesia
Bontang
Bontang
Bontang (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 0°08′N 117°30′E / 0.133°N 117.500°E / 0.133; 117.500Coordinates: 0°08′N 117°30′E / 0.133°N 117.500°E / 0.133; 117.500
Country Indonesia
Province East Kalimantan
Settled1826[1]
Administrative city1 December 1989[2]
City12 October 1999[3]
Government
 • TypeCity
 • BodyCity of Bontang Government
 • MayorNeni Moerniaeni
 • Vice MayorBasri Rase
Area
 • Total497.57 km2 (192.11 sq mi)
Elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
 (2017[4])
 • Total170,611
 • Density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Bontangnese
GDP (2017)
 • Total (nominal)Rp58.79 trillion (US$4.35 billion)
 • Per capitaRp344,571,000 (US$25,523)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Postal Code
7531x, 7532x, 7538x[6]
Area code(+62) 548
HDI (2017)Increase 0.795 (High)
Websitebontangkota.go.id

Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan. It occupies an area of 497.57 km2, and the population was 140,787 at the 2010 Census, and the 2017 Civil Registry estimated the population of the city as 170,611. In 2010, Bontang is a municipality's highest GDP (nominal) per capita in Indonesia, with Rp375,407,000 (US$38,306) according to Statistics Indonesia.[7] However, the income and GDP per capita trend always decrease since 2015 because decline of coal mining and LNG production sector impact to negative economic growth.[8]

History[edit]

The etymology of Bontang refers to the town's traditional status throughout history as a humble village populated mostly by immigrants. ‘Bon’ can refer in Indonesian to ‘receipt’ and ‘tang’ to ‘debt.’ Alternately, the name of the town means group of visitors.[9] A coastal town, Bontang was initially a settlement governed under the Kutai Sultanate based in Tenggarong, a city in East Kalimantan.

In 1920 the village of Bontang was established as a sub-district town, which at that time was called the Onder of the Van Bontang District. Bontang was still a sub-district under the leadership of a wedana assistant who was a kiai (cleric) in the government of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit, the 19th Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara (1921-1960). Since 1954, a subdistrict head has taken office. After the enactment of Law Number 27 of 1959 concerning the establishment of the Regional Level (Dati) II in East Kalimantan it removed the status of self-government.[10]

In 1972 the government of the Kutai regency recognized Bontang as a district. The major development of Bontang took place after two major companies were founded there in the 1970s, PT Badak Natural Gas Liquefaction and PT Pupuk Kaltim. PT Badak established early in 1974. PT Pupuk Kaltim, a company specializing in the production of ammonia and fertilizer, followed three years later. Since 1978 Bontang experienced rapid regional growth and development. As a positive impact arising from being made Bontang as an industrial area, both by PT Badak NGL and PT Pupuk Kaltim. The two companies were building facilities and infrastructure that were very important for the economic growth of the city, so the central government planned to upgrade the status of Bontang from the sub-district into an administrative city. In 1989 its status changed to administrative city (kota administratif - kotif), by government law of PP No. 20 of 1989 and followed up the expansion of the Kotif region from one sub-district to two sub-districts. Namely District of North Bontang and District of South Bontang District.[9] In 1999, Bontang upgrade status to autonomous independent city (kotamadya).

Government[edit]

In 1920 the village of Bontang was established as a sub-district town, which at that time was called the Onder of the Van Bontang District. Bontang was still a sub-district under the leadership of a wedana assistant who was a kiai (cleric) in the government of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit, the 19th Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara (1921-1960). Since 1954, a subdistrict head has taken office. After the enactment of Law Number 27 of 1959 concerning the establishment of the Regional Level (Dati) II in East Kalimantan it removed the status of self-government.[10]

In 1972, administrative of Bontang upgrade to kota kecamatan (district town). In 1989 its status changed to administrative town (kota administratif - kotif), by government law of PP No. 20 of 1989 and followed up the expansion of the Kotif region from one kecamatan (district) to two districts. Namely District of North Bontang and District of South Bontang District.[9] In 1999, Bontang upgrade status to autonomous independent city (kotamadya). Bontang has a democratic city government. The current mayor is Neni Moerniaeni, the first female mayor in Bontang.

Administration[edit]

Bontang is bordered by East Kutai Regency to the North, Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the South and West, by the Makassar Strait to the East. Bontang is divided into three districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their 2010 Census population:[11]

Name Population
Census 2010
Bontang Selatan
(South Bontang)
57,442
Bontang Utara
(North Bontang)
61,394
Bontang Barat
(East Bontang)
24,847

Subdistricts (Kelurahan)[edit]

Bontang is divided into 15 subdistricts (kelurahan):

Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Southern Bontang

Bontang is located between 117° 23′ E and 117° 32′ E and 0° 01′ N and 0° 12′ N. It occupies an area of 497.57 km2.[9]

The town is hilly and located on an ocean estuary. It is relatively swampy, with frequent flooding, especially in its north district. There is little to no tectonic activity in Bontang. A mangrove forest (600 ha) is located in the town.[9] Bontang gets its fresh water from the Api-Api River.

Climate[edit]

Bontang has a tropical rainforest climate. As such the temperature is warm and relatively stable throughout the year. Rainfalls are frequent and abundant. Two minor seasonal periods can be identified: one drier than the other. The so-called 'dry' season lasts approximately from May until September (but average lower precipitations remain above 80 mm per month). The 'rainy' season starts around November and ends around May.[12]

Climate data for Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30.2
(86.4)
30.4
(86.7)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30
(86)
29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.2
(86.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.6
(87.1)
30.3
(86.5)
30.3
(86.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
26.3
(79.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27
(81)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.2)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
23.1
(73.6)
23.3
(73.9)
23.8
(74.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23
(73)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 165
(6.5)
133
(5.2)
217
(8.5)
217
(8.5)
202
(8.0)
149
(5.9)
89
(3.5)
94
(3.7)
134
(5.3)
128
(5.0)
195
(7.7)
187
(7.4)
1,910
(75.2)
Average precipitation days 17 15 16 14 14 13 13 12 11 12 15 17 169
Average relative humidity (%) 84.7 84.5 84.3 85.3 84.8 84.8 84.4 82.7 83.4 83.2 84.6 84.7 84.3
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[13]
Source #2: Weatherbase (humidity)[14]

Demography[edit]

In 2002, the population of Bontang was 105,000, and was growing at a rate of 4% per year.[9] According to a survey done that year, there were slightly more males than females, with males accounting for 52.09% of the population. The same survey reported that the majority of people living in Bontang are young, with 42.6% of the population 19 and under, 47.3% between the ages of 20 and 44, and only 10.1% of the population over the age of 44. At the 2010 Census, the city population was enumerated at 140,787.

Economy[edit]

Fishing[edit]

Despite being located near the sea, the fishing industry in Bontang is small. It consists mainly of small-scale fish farming for local consumption in Bontang and nearby cities, such as Balikpapan. Small amount of the catch is being exported to Makassar, and Hong Kong.[15]

Agriculture[edit]

Only a small portion of the land in Bontang is available and/or suitable for farming. As such, only about 4% of Bontang residents are involved in agriculture.[15]

Manufacturing[edit]

PT Pupuk Kaltim was established in 1977. It is an Indonesian government-owned fertilizer company that manufactures ammonia and urea from the area's natural gas. The company operates four units of ammonia factory and five units of urea factory, producing 1,850,000 tons of ammonia and 2,980,000 tons of urea per year. Ammonia produced by Pupuk Kaltim is exported to countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and India, as well as used locally in Indonesia whilst urea is distributed to national paddy (rice) farmer and plantation (rubber,oil palm,etc.) . Pupuk Kaltim is currently the largest urea-producing factory in one location in the world.[15] There are also other manufacturing companies in Kaltim Industrial Estate near PT Pupuk Kaltim i.e. : PT. Kaltim Parna Industri that produces ammonia and PT, Kaltim Methanol Industri that produces methanol.

Energy[edit]

PT Badak LNG was established on November 26, 1974. The company is a joint-venture of Pertamina, Total S.A., Vico, and Jilco, and currently produces around 22 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per year. The majority of the LNG produced is exported to Japan.[16]

PT.GPK KALTIM2-2X100MW CFSPP in construction, estimated running time: 2020


Mining[edit]

PT Indominco, a coal mining company, was established in 1977. It is owned by a Thai company, Banpu, and extracts up to 11 million tons of coal per year. The majority of the coal is sold to electricity companies in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.[17]

Culture[edit]

The following is a summary of some of the traditional dances from this region.[18]

Gantar Dance[edit]

This dance mimics motions used in traditional Dayak methods of cultivating rice. It begins with the planting, moves onto harvesting and preparing the rice, and finishes with serving the rice to guests. The dance, which has several variations, is performed at the beginning of events.

Perang/War Dance[edit]

This is a dance from the Dayak Kenyah tribe. It tells the story of a hero going to war and fighting his enemies. The dancers dance quickly and joyfully, shouting throughout the dance. They wear traditional Dayak Kenyah clothing, and don a shield and Mandau (a traditional Dayak sword). The dance is performed to the Sak Paku, a song played on the Sampe, a traditional instrument.

Kancet Ledo/Gong Dance[edit]

This is the opposite of the War Dance. It tells the story of a beautiful, gentle girl who dances like a rice plant waving in the wind. The dancers, all women, wear Dayak traditional clothing and hold five eagle feathers in each hand; each feather represents one finger. The dance derives its name from the location: it is usually performed near a gong.

Hudoq Dance[edit]

Dancers wear wooden masks carved to look like wild animals, and cover their bodies in banana or coconut leaves. It is closely related to a ceremonial dance from the Dayak Bahau and Modang tribes. The dance is thought to provide the community with the power to prevent crop destruction by animals, as well as to bless the community with fertile soil and bountiful food.

Serumpai Dance[edit]

This is a traditional dance of the Dayak Benuaq tribe meant to prevent people from falling ill, and to cure those who have been bitten by mad dogs. The name of the dance is derived from one of the instruments used in it, the serumpai (a flute-like instrument).

Kuyang Dance[edit]

A Dayak Belian dance, it serves to protect communities from the evil spirits that live in trees, so that if someone cuts down a tree they will not be haunted by an evil spirit.

Education[edit]

There are a variety of parochial and secular private schools in Bontang.

There are three post-secondary institutions in Bontang, STITEK (Sekolah Tinggi Teknik), STTIB (Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Industri Bontang), and Trunojoyo.

Students can begin preschool at age 3, though it is not an obligatory, then go to Taman Kanak-Kanak (Kindergarten) for two years. The Government's rule is a mandatory to go onto Sekolah Dasar (Elementary School) at age 6 for approximately six years, then continue to Junior High School and Senior High School. Students usually graduate from high school at age 17 or 18.

Media[edit]

Kaltim Post (owned by Jawa Pos Group) and Tribun Kaltim (owned by Kompas-Gramedia Group) are Bontang's two major daily newspapers. Although they are printed in Balikpapan, they cover news of Bontang, indeed there is local newspaper named "Bontang Post". The city is also served by other publications such as Jawa Pos, Kompas, Republika, Jakarta Post, and Tempo.

Bontang has many radio stations. Major FM radio stations include EsKa's FM 103.9 MHz, Nada Bontang Indah 103.1 MHz, Radio Suara Imanuel FM 88.9 MHz, RY FM 90.5 MHz, Buana FM, and Bhayangkara FM 99.5 MHz.

There are two major television stations, (Publik Khatulistiwa Televisi) PKTv and LNGTv. The city is also served by stations representing every major Indonesian Network, include RCTI, Metro TV, SCTV, Trans TV, Trans 7, Indosiar, ANTV, TVRI (Public Station), TV One, and Global TV.

Sports[edit]

Popular sports in Bontang include soccer, badminton, futsal (indoor soccer), softball, and volleyball. Soccer is by far the most prominent sport. The town has its own 3 professional soccer club called Bontang FC, and PS PU Bontang. Bontang FC(owned by the company Pupuk Kaltim past, now by the city government), which is one of only two professional clubs in East Kalimantan. Bontang has three major soccer stadiums, Mulawarman Stadium (owned by PKT), Taman Lestari Stadium, and Besai Berrinta Stadium. US Major League Baseball player Tom Mastny was born in Bontang.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sejarah Bontang". Website Resmi Pemerintah Kota Bontang. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  2. ^ Bontang, Kota. "Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 20 Tahun 1989". hukumonline.com/pusatdata (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  3. ^ Bontang, Kota. "Sejarah Keadministrasian". Website Resmi Pemerintah Kota Bontang (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Bontang Dalam Angka 2018". Website Resmi Pemerintah Kota Bontang (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia 2013-2017". Statistics Indonesia.
  6. ^ "Kode Pos Kota Bontang - Kalimantan Timur". carikodepos.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  7. ^ Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia 2010-2014 [Gross Regional Domestic Product of Regencies/Municipalities in Indonesia] (PDF) (in Indonesian). 07140.1507. Jakarta: Statistics Indonesia. 1 December 2015. p. 167. ISSN 1907-8242.
  8. ^ "Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Kaltim Negatif, Ini yang Dilakukan Kepala Daerah". Kaltim Post (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Potret Lingkungan Hidup Kota Bontang. Pemerintah Kota Bontang: Kelompok Kerja Program Pengelolaan SDA. Bontang: 2003.
  10. ^ a b "Klik Bontang - Pemerintahan Bontang dari Masa ke Masa". klikbontang.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  11. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  12. ^ http://en.climate-data.org/location/47109/
  13. ^ "Climate: Bontang". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  14. ^ "BONTANG, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  15. ^ a b c Taman Nasional Kutai
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ http://www.kutaikartanegara.com/erau/sejarah_erau.html

External links[edit]