Bontang

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Bontang
City of Bontang
Kota Bontang
Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Factory Complex Area.jpg
2017-08-04 Kantor Walikota Bontang.jpg
2017-10-25 Badak NGL Headquarters.jpg
Jan 2018 Taman Wisata Graha Mangrove.jpg
Pulau Beras Basah March 2018.jpg
Clockwise: Pupuk Kalimantan Timur Fertiliser Factory, Badak NGL Headquarters, Beras Basah Island, Graha Mangrove Park, Bontang City Hall.
Coat of arms of Bontang
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
id : Kota Taman (Garden City)
Motto(s): 
Kutai: Bessai Berinta (Rowing Together)
Location within East Kalimantan
Location within East Kalimantan
Interactive Map of Bontang
Bontang is located in Kalimantan
Bontang
Bontang
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
Bontang is located in Indonesia
Bontang
Bontang
Bontang (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 0°08′N 117°30′E / 0.133°N 117.500°E / 0.133; 117.500Coordinates: 0°08′N 117°30′E / 0.133°N 117.500°E / 0.133; 117.500
Country Indonesia
Province East Kalimantan
Settled1826[1]
Administrative city1 December 1989[2]
City12 October 1999[3]
Government
 • MayorNeni Moerniaeni
 • Vice MayorBasri Rase
Area
 • Total497.57 km2 (192.11 sq mi)
Elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
 (2020[4])
 • Total178,917
 • Density360/km2 (930/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Postal Code
7531x, 7532x, 7538x[5]
Area code(+62) 548
HDI (2019)Increase 0.801 (Very High)
Websitebontangkota.go.id

Bontang is a city on the eastern coast of the island of Borneo in Indonesia, in the province of East Kalimantan. It occupies an area of 497.57 km2 (192.11 sq mi), and the population was 140,787 at the 2010 Census, and 178,917 as of 2020. It is also the third most densely populated place in the province after Balikpapan and Samarinda.[6]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Bontang refers to the town's traditional status throughout history as a humble village populated mostly by immigrants. ‘Bon’ can refer in Indonesian to ‘receipt’ and ‘tang’ to ‘debt.’ Alternately, the name of the town means group of visitors. A coastal town, Bontang was initially a settlement governed under the Kutai Sultanate based in Tenggarong.[7]

Colonial Era[edit]

In 1920 the village of Bontang was established as a sub-district town, which at that time was called the Onder Van Bontang District. Bontang was still a sub-district under the leadership of a wedana assistant who was a cleric in the government of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit, the 19th Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara (1921-1960).

Independence Era[edit]

Since 1954, a subdistrict head has taken office. After the enactment of Law Number 27 of 1959 concerning the establishment of the Regional Level (Dati) II in East Kalimantan it removed the status of self-government.[8] In 1972 the government of the Kutai regency recognized Bontang as a district. The major development of Bontang took place after two major companies were founded there in the 1970s, PT Badak Natural Gas Liquefaction and PT Pupuk Kaltim. PT Badak established early in 1974. PT Pupuk Kaltim, a company specializing in the production of ammonia and fertilizer, followed three years later. Since 1978 Bontang experienced rapid regional growth and development. As a positive impact arising from being made Bontang as an industrial area, both by PT Badak NGL and PT Pupuk Kaltim. The two companies were building facilities and infrastructure that were very important for the economic growth of the city, so the central government planned to upgrade the status of Bontang from the sub-district into an administrative city. In 1989 its status changed to administrative city (kota administratif - kotif), by government law of No. 20 of 1989 and followed up the expansion of the Kotif region from one sub-district to two sub-districts. Namely District of North Bontang and District of South Bontang District.[7] In 1999, Bontang upgrade status to autonomous independent city (kotamadya).

Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Southern Bontang

Bontang is located between 117° 23′ E and 117° 32′ E and 0° 01′ N and 0° 12′ N. It adminsters an area of 497.57 km2.[9]

Within this ares, only 29% is land. The city is dominated by flat lands ranging from 0 – 106 meters above sea level, but also includes several hills. Around 48% of the city's land area is located in coastal regions and has flat characteristics with 0 - 2% slope. It is bordered by East Kutai Regency in the north and west, Makassar Strait in the east, and Kutai Kartanegara Regency in the south. Soil formation in the city is dominated by podzol in the interior and alluvium sediments in the coastal region. As such, the city is prone to erosion and use of land for agriculture or development need soil stablizitation before it.[9][10]

The city is part of Kutai basin, and has several rock formations dominated by quartz sand and sandstone created by sediments of nearby rivers.[10]

Demographics[edit]

In 2019, population growth in the city was 2.02% from previous year's figures. The sex ratio as of 2019 was 100:110, which means there are 110 male population every 100 female. As with most of Indonesian cities, the population is young, with age 15 – 64 years making up around 70% of the city's population. The most dense district is North Bontang with density of 2,501 per square kilometer, and the least dense is South Bontang with density of 623 per square kilometer.[9]

Economy[edit]

Port in Bontang city

In 2010, Bontang was a municipality's highest GDP (nominal) per capita in Indonesia, with Rp375,407,000 (US$38,306) according to Statistics Indonesia.[11] However, the income and GDP per capita trend have been decreasing since 2015 due to the decline of coal mining and LNG production sector impact to negative economic growth.[12]

Fishing & Agriculture[edit]

Despite being located near the sea, the fishing industry in Bontang is small. It consists mainly of small-scale fish farming for local consumption in Bontang and nearby cities, such as Balikpapan. Small amount of the catch is being exported to Makassar, and Hong Kong.[13] Only a small portion of the land in Bontang is available and/or suitable for farming. As such, only about 4% of Bontang residents are involved in agriculture.[13]

Manufacturing[edit]

PT Pupuk Kaltim was established in 1977. It is an Indonesian government-owned fertilizer company that manufactures ammonia and urea from the area's natural gas. The company operates four units of ammonia factory and five units of urea factory, producing 1,850,000 tons of ammonia and 2,980,000 tons of urea per year. Ammonia produced by Pupuk Kaltim is exported to countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and India, as well as being used locally in Indonesia whilst urea is distributed to national rice farmers and plantations (rubber, oil palm, etc.). There are also other manufacturing companies in Kaltim Industrial Estate near PT Pupuk Kaltim i.e.: PT. Kaltim Parna Industri that produces ammonia and PT Kaltim Methanol Industri that produces methanol.[14] As of 2015, the city is the biggest producer of urea and ammonia in South East Asia.[15]

Energy & Mining[edit]

PT Badak LNG was established on 26 November 1974. The company is a joint-venture of Pertamina, Total S.A., Vico, and Jilco, and currently produces around 22 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per year. The majority of the LNG produced is exported to Japan.[16] PT Indominco, a coal mining company, was established in 1977. It is owned by a Thai company, Banpu, and extracts up to 11 million tons of coal per year. The majority of the coal is sold to electricity companies in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.[17]

Governance[edit]

Bontang city parliament building (Bontang People's Representative Council)

Local Government[edit]

As with all of Indonesian cities, it is a second-level administrative division run by a mayor and vice mayor together with the city parliament, and it is equivalent to regency.[18] Executive power lies in the mayor and vice mayor, while legislation duties are carried by local parliament. Mayor, vice mayor, and parliament members are democratically elected by people of the city in an election.[19] Meanwhile, head of districts are appointed directly by city mayor with recommendation by the city secretary.[20][21]

Politics[edit]

The city is part of 6th electoral district in provincial level, together with Berau Regency and East Kutai Regency, having 12 out of 55 representatives in provincial parliament of East Kalimantan. In city level, the city parliament consisted of 25 representatives from 3 electoral districts. Last election for representatives was in 2019 and the next one will be on 2024.[22]

Electoral District Region Representatives
Bontang 1st South Bontang District 10
Bontang 2nd West Bontang District 4
Bontang 3rd North Bontang District 11
Total 25

Administrative Division[edit]

Bontang is bordered by East Kutai Regency to the North, Kutai Kartanegara Regency to the South and West, by the Makassar Strait to the East. Bontang is divided into three districts (kecamatan).[9] Below also includes population figure as of 2020.[23]

  • North Bontang District (82,121)
  • South Bontang District (67,142)
  • West Bontang District (29,654)

Infrastructures[edit]

Education[edit]

There are 61 elementary schools, 34 junior highschools, and 27 senior highschools (including vocational) in the city as of 2019. There's no public university in the city. However, the city has four higher education institutions, all of which are private. The most notable of these is Bontang Industrial Technology College (STTIB, short for Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Industri Bontang).[24][23] School participation rate as of 2020 was 99%.[23] The only higher education institution with university status in the city is Trunajaya University, which is also private.[25][26]

Health[edit]

Taman Husada Bontang Regional Hospital

As of 2019, there are five hospitals in the city, 6 puskesmas, 13 clinics, and 119 healthcare centers. One of the hospitals, Taman Husada Bontang Regional Hospital is a public hospital owned by the city government. It is categorized as a B-class hospital by Ministry of Health.[23][6][27][28] Another new unnamed public hospital is currently under construction as of August 2020 and expected to be a new public hospital categorized as D-class.[29]

Place of Worships[edit]

There are exactly 218 mosques, 58 churches, and one Hindu temple in the city as of 2020.[23]

Transportation[edit]

Drainage system construction beside a road in Bontang

Bontang city has 204.4 kilometers of road, of which around 100.05 kilometers have been paved with asphalt. The city also has six public transport terminals used mainly by buses and angkots as of 2020. The only airport in the city is PT Badak Bontang Airport, which is a private airport owned by Badak NGL. Main seaport serving the city is Loktuan Port, which as of 2020 undergo a massive expansion to support new Indonesian capital in Kalimantan and relieve traffics from crowded port of Balikpapan.[23][30] Online motorcycle and conventional taxis provided by Gojek and Grab already established presence in the city.[31] A toll road connecting the city to Samarinda is already planned and expected to start construction in late 2021.[32]

Climate[edit]

Bontang has a tropical rainforest climate. As such the temperature is warm and relatively stable throughout the year. Rainfalls are frequent and abundant. Two minor seasonal periods can be identified: one drier than the other. The so-called 'dry' season lasts approximately from May until September (but average lower precipitations remain above 80 mm per month). The 'rainy' season starts around November and ends around May.[33]

Climate data for Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30.2
(86.4)
30.4
(86.7)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30
(86)
29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.2
(86.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.6
(87.1)
30.3
(86.5)
30.3
(86.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.1)
26.3
(79.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27
(81)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.2)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
23.1
(73.6)
23.3
(73.9)
23.8
(74.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23
(73)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 165
(6.5)
133
(5.2)
217
(8.5)
217
(8.5)
202
(8.0)
149
(5.9)
89
(3.5)
94
(3.7)
134
(5.3)
128
(5.0)
195
(7.7)
187
(7.4)
1,910
(75.2)
Average precipitation days 17 15 16 14 14 13 13 12 11 12 15 17 169
Average relative humidity (%) 84.7 84.5 84.3 85.3 84.8 84.8 84.4 82.7 83.4 83.2 84.6 84.7 84.3
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[33]
Source 2: Weatherbase (humidity)[34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sejarah Bontang". Website Resmi Pemerintah Kota Bontang. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  2. ^ Bontang, Kota. "Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 20 Tahun 1989". hukumonline.com/pusatdata (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  3. ^ Bontang, Kota. "Sejarah Keadministrasian". Website Resmi Pemerintah Kota Bontang (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  4. ^ (in Indonesian) https://bontangkota.bps.go.id/publication/2021/02/26/3bbe7f00ba6302f9a204246c/kota-bontang-dalam-angka-2021.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Kode Pos Kota Bontang - Kalimantan Timur". carikodepos.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  6. ^ a b "BPS Kota Bontang". bontangkota.bps.go.id. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  7. ^ a b Potret Lingkungan Hidup Kota Bontang. Pemerintah Kota Bontang: Kelompok Kerja Program Pengelolaan SDA. Bontang: 2003.
  8. ^ "Klik Bontang - Pemerintahan Bontang dari Masa ke Masa". klikbontang.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "Profil Kota Bontang" (PDF).
  10. ^ a b "Profil Kota Bontang Final" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia 2010-2014" [Gross Regional Domestic Product of Regencies/Municipalities in Indonesia] (PDF). Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/Kotamadya di Indonesia = Gross Regional Domestic Product of Regencies/Municipalities in Indonesia (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Statistics Indonesia. 07140 (1507): 167. 1 December 2015. ISSN 1907-8242.
  12. ^ "Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Kaltim Negatif, Ini yang Dilakukan Kepala Daerah". Kaltim Post (in Indonesian). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b Taman Nasional Kutai
  14. ^ "Pupuk Kaltim Ekspansi Pabrik Baru".
  15. ^ "Pupuk Kaltim-5 Produsen Amoniak dan Urea Terbesar di Asia Tenggara".
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "UU 22 1999" (PDF).
  19. ^ "UU 8 2015" (PDF).
  20. ^ "PP No. 17 Tahun 2018 tentang Kecamatan [JDIH BPK RI]". peraturan.bpk.go.id. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  21. ^ Government Law No.19 1998
  22. ^ "Keputusan KPU Kaltim No. 286" (PDF).
  23. ^ a b c d e f "BPS Kota Bontang". bontangkota.bps.go.id. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  24. ^ "4 Universitas Terbaik dan Terbesar di kota Bontang Kalimantan Timur". Kuwaluhan.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  25. ^ "Universitas Trunajaya Bontang | Universitas Pilihan Terbaik | AyoKuliah.id". Ayo Kuliah (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  26. ^ "Informasi Lengkap Universitas Trunajaya Bontang | Biaya Kuliah, Jurusan, dll". maukuliah.id. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  27. ^ "RSUD Taman Husada Bontang – Melayani Sepenuh Hati". Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  28. ^ "Informasi SDM Kesehatan Nasional". bppsdmk.kemkes.go.id. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  29. ^ "Digelontor Rp 11,6 Miliar, Pembangunan RS Tipe D Dilanjutkan | BontangPost.ID" (in Indonesian). 13 August 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  30. ^ Anwar, Muhammad Choirul. "Ada Ibu Kota Baru, Pelabuhan Loktuan Bontang Diguyur Rp 38 M". news (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  31. ^ "Ojek Online Bontang Terima Bantuan".
  32. ^ "Pembangunan Jalan Tol Samarinda-Bontang". KPPIP (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  33. ^ a b "Bontang Climate (Indonesia)". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 25 October 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  34. ^ "BONTANG, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 21 January 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links[edit]