|Old Testament (Christianity)|
Ecclesiastes (//; Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, Hebrew: קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings"). Originally written c. 450–200 BCE, it is also among the canonical Wisdom Books in the Old Testament of most denominations of Christianity. The title Ecclesiastes is a Latin transliteration of the Greek translation of the Hebrew Kohelet, the pseudonym used by the author of the book.
In traditional Jewish texts, King Solomon is named as the author, although modern scholars reject this. Textually, the book is the musings of a King of Jerusalem as he relates his experiences and draws lessons from them, often self-critical. The author, who is not named anywhere in the book, or in the whole of the Bible, introduces a "teacher" whom he identifies as the son of David (1:1). The author does not use his own "voice" throughout the book again until the final verses (12:9–14), where he gives his own thoughts and summarises what "the teacher" has spoken.
The teacher discusses the meaning of life and the best way to live. He proclaims all the actions of man to be inherently hevel, meaning "vain" or "futile", ("mere breath"), as both the wise and the foolish end their lives in death. Kohelet clearly endorses wisdom as a means for a well-lived earthly life. In light of this senselessness, one should enjoy the simple pleasures of daily life, such as eating, drinking, and taking enjoyment in one's work, which are gifts from the hand of God. The book concludes with the injunction: "Fear God, and keep his commandments; for that is the whole duty of everyone" (12:13).
Ecclesiastes has had a deep influence on Western literature. It contains several phrases that have resonated in British and American culture, and was quoted by Abraham Lincoln addressing Congress in 1862. American novelist Thomas Wolfe wrote:
"[O]f all I have ever seen or learned, that book seems to me the noblest, the wisest, and the most powerful expression of man's life upon this earth—and also the highest flower of poetry, eloquence, and truth. I am not given to dogmatic judgments in the matter of literary creation, but if I had to make one I could say that Ecclesiastes is the greatest single piece of writing I have ever known, and the wisdom expressed in it the most lasting and profound."
Ecclesiastes is presented as biography of "Kohelet" (or "Qoheleth", meaning "Gatherer", but traditionally translated as "Teacher" or "Preacher"). Kohelet's story is framed by voice of the narrator, who refers to Kohelet in the third person, praises his wisdom, but reminds the reader that wisdom has its limitations and is not man's main concern. Kohelet reports what he planned, did, experienced and thought. His journey to knowledge is, in the end, incomplete. The reader is not only to hear Kohelet's wisdom, but to observe his journey towards understanding and acceptance of life's frustrations and uncertainties: the journey itself is important.
Few of the many attempts to uncover an underlying structure to Ecclesiastes have met with widespread acceptance; among them, the following is one of the more influential:
- Title (1:1)
- Initial poem (1:2–11)
- I: Kohelet's investigation of life (1:12–6:9)
- II: Kohelet's conclusions (6:10–11:6)
- Introduction (6:10–12)
- A: Man cannot discover what is good for him to do (7:1–8:17)
- B: Man does not know what will come after him (9:1–11:6)
- Concluding poem (11:7–12:8)
- Epilogue (12:9–14)
Verse 1:1 is a superscription, the ancient equivalent of a title page: it introduces the book as "the words of Kohelet, son of David, king in Jerusalem."
Most, though not all, modern commentators regard the epilogue (12:9–14) as an addition by a later scribe. Some have identified certain other statements as further additions intended to make the book more religiously orthodox (e.g., the affirmations of God's justice and the need for piety).
The ten-verse introduction in verses 1:2–11 are the words of the frame narrator; they set the mood for what is to follow: Kohelet's message is that all is meaningless.
After the introduction come the words of Kohelet. As king he has experienced everything and done everything, but nothing is ultimately reliable. Death levels all. The only good is to partake of life in the present, for enjoyment is from the hand of God. Everything is ordered in time and people are subject to time in contrast to God's eternal character. The world is filled with injustice, which only God will adjudicate. God and humans do not belong in the same realm and it is therefore necessary to have a right attitude before God. People should enjoy, but should not be greedy; no-one knows what is good for humanity; righteousness and wisdom escape us. Kohelet reflects on the limits of human power: all people face death, and death is better than life, but we should enjoy life when we can. The world is full of risk: he gives advice on living with risk, both political and economic. Mortals should take pleasure when they can, for a time may come when no one can. Kohelet's words finish with imagery of nature languishing and humanity marching to the grave.
The frame narrator returns with an epilogue: the words of the wise are hard, but they are applied as the shepherd applies goads and pricks to his flock. The original ending of the book was probably the words: "The end of the matter" (12:13) but the text we have continues: "Fear God" (a phrase used often in Kohelet's speech) "and keep his commandments" (which he never uses), "for God will bring every deed to judgement."
The book takes its name from the Greek ekklesiastes, a translation of the title by which the central figure refers to himself: Kohelet, meaning something like "one who convenes or addresses an assembly". According to rabbinic tradition, Ecclesiastes was written by Solomon in his old age. (An alternative tradition that "Hezekiah and his colleagues wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes" probably means simply that the book was edited under Hezekiah.) Nevertheless, critical scholars have long rejected the idea of a pre-exilic origin. The presence of Persian loan-words and Aramaisms points to a date no earlier than about 450 BCE, while the latest possible date for its composition is 180 BCE, when another Jewish writer, Ben Sira, quotes from it. The dispute as to whether Ecclesiastes belongs to the Persian or the Hellenistic periods (i.e., the earlier or later part of this period) revolves around the degree of Hellenization (influence of Greek culture and thought) present in the book. Scholars arguing for a Persian date (c. 450–330 BCE) hold that there is a complete lack of Greek influence; those who argue for a Hellenistic date (c. 330–180 BCE) argue that it shows internal evidence of Greek thought and social setting.
Also unresolved is whether the author and narrator of Kohelet are one and the same person. Ecclesiastes regularly switches between third-person quotations of Kohelet and first-person reflections on Kohelet’s words, which would indicate the book was written as a commentary on Kohelet’s parables rather than a personally-authored repository of his sayings. Some scholars have argued that the third-person narrative structure is an artificial literary device along the lines of Uncle Remus, although the description of the Teacher in 12:8–14 seems to favour a historical person whose thoughts are presented by the narrator. The question, however, has no theological importance, and one scholar (Roland Murphy) has commented that Kohelet himself would have regarded the time and ingenuity put into interpreting his book as "one more example of the futility of human effort".
Genre and setting
Ecclesiastes has taken its literary form from the Middle Eastern tradition of the fictional autobiography, in which a character, often a king, relates his experiences and draws lessons from them, often self-critical: Kohelet likewise identifies himself as a king, speaks of his search for wisdom, relates his conclusions, and recognises his limitations. It belongs to the category of wisdom literature, the body of biblical writings which give advice on life, together with reflections on its problems and meanings—other examples include the Book of Job, Proverbs, and some of the Psalms. Ecclesiastes differs from the other biblical Wisdom books in being deeply skeptical of the usefulness of Wisdom itself. Ecclesiastes in turn influenced the deuterocanonical works, Wisdom of Solomon and Sirach, both of which contain vocal rejections of the Ecclesiastical philosophy of futility.
Wisdom was a popular genre in the ancient world, where it was cultivated in scribal circles and directed towards young men who would take up careers in high officialdom and royal courts; there is strong evidence that some of these books, or at least sayings and teachings, were translated into Hebrew and influenced the Book of Proverbs, and the author of Ecclesiastes was probably familiar with examples from Egypt and Mesopotamia. He may also have been influenced by Greek philosophy, specifically the schools of Stoicism, which held that all things are fated, and Epicureanism, which held that happiness was best pursued through the quiet cultivation of life's simpler pleasures.
The presence of Ecclesiastes in the Bible is something of a puzzle, as the common themes of the Hebrew canon—a God who reveals and redeems, who elects and cares for a chosen people—are absent from it, which suggests that Kohelet had lost his faith in his old age. Understanding the book was a topic of the earliest recorded discussions (the hypothetical Council of Jamnia in the 1st century CE). One argument advanced then was that the name of Solomon carried enough authority to ensure its inclusion, but other works which appeared with Solomon's name were excluded despite being more orthodox than Ecclesiastes. Another was that the words of the epilogue, in which the reader is told to fear God and keep his commands, made it orthodox; but all later attempts to find anything in the rest of the book which would reflect this orthodoxy have failed. A modern suggestion treats the book as a dialogue in which different statements belong to different voices, with Kohelet himself answering and refuting unorthodox opinions, but there are no explicit markers for this in the book, as there are, for example in the Book of Job. Yet another suggestion is that Ecclesiastes is simply the most extreme example of a tradition of skepticism, but none of the proposed examples match Ecclesiastes for a sustained denial of faith and doubt in the goodness of God. "In short, we do not know why or how this book found its way into such esteemed company," summarizes Martin A. Shields in his 2006 book The End of Wisdom: A Reappraisal of the Historical and Canonical Function of Ecclesiastes
Scholars disagree about the themes of Ecclesiastes. Is it positive and life-affirming, or deeply pessimistic? Is Kohelet coherent or incoherent, insightful or confused, orthodox or heterodox? Is the ultimate message of the book to copy Kohelet, the wise man, or to avoid his errors? At times Kohelet raises deep questions; he "doubted every aspect of religion, from the very ideal of righteousness, to the by now traditional idea of divine justice for individuals." Some passages of Ecclesiastes seem to contradict other portions of the Old Testament, and even itself. One suggestion for resolving the contradictions is to read the book as the record of Kohelet's quest for knowledge: opposing judgments (e.g., "the dead are better off than the living" (4:2) vs. "a living dog is better off than a dead lion" (9:4)) are therefore provisional, and it is only at the conclusion that the verdict is delivered (11–12:7). On this reading, Kohelet's sayings are goads, designed to provoke dialogue and reflection in his readers, rather than to reach premature and self-assured conclusions.
The subjects of Ecclesiastes are the pain and frustration engendered by observing and meditating on the distortions and inequities pervading the world, the uselessness of human deeds, and the limitations of wisdom and righteousness. The phrase "under the sun" appears thirty times in connection with these observations; all this coexists with a firm belief in God, whose power, justice and unpredictability are sovereign. History and nature move in cycles, so that all events are predetermined and unchangeable, and life has no meaning or purpose: the wise man and the man who does not study wisdom will both die and be forgotten: man should be reverent ("Fear God"), but in this life it is best to simply enjoy God's gifts.
In Judaism, Ecclesiastes is read either on Shemini Atzeret (by Yemenites, Italians, some Sepharadim, and the mediaeval French Jewish rite) or on the Shabbat of the Intermediate Days of Sukkot (by Ashkenazim). If there is no Intermediate Sabbath of Sukkot, even the Ashkenazim read it on Shemini Atzeret (or, for Ashkenazim in the Land of Israel, on the first Shabbat of Sukkot). It is read on Sukkot as a reminder to not get too caught up in the festivities of the holiday, as well as to carry over the happiness of Sukkot to the rest of the year by telling the listeners that, without God, life is meaningless. When the listeners take this to heart, then true happiness can be achieved throughout the year.
Ecclesiastes has been cited in the writings of past and current Catholic Church leaders. For example, doctors of the Church have cited Ecclesiastes. St. Augustine of Hippo cited Ecclesiastes in Book XX of City of God. Saint Jerome wrote a commentary on Ecclesiastes. St. Thomas Aquinas cited Ecclesiastes ("The number of fools is infinite.") in his Summa Theologica.
The twentieth-century Catholic theologian and cardinal-elect Hans Urs von Balthasar discusses Ecclesiastes in his work on theological aesthetics, The Glory of the Lord. He describes Qoheleth as "a critical transcendentalist avant la lettre", whose God is distant from the world, and whose kairos is a "form of time which is itself empty of meaning". For Balthasar, the role of Ecclesiastes in the Biblical canon is to represent the "final dance on the part of wisdom, [the] conclusion of the ways of man", a logical end-point to the unfolding of human wisdom in the Old Testament that paves the way for the advent of the New.
The book continues to be cited by recent popes, including Pope John Paul II and Pope Francis. Pope John Paul II, in his general audience of October 20, 2004, called the author of Ecclesiastes "an ancient biblical sage" whose description of death "makes frantic clinging to earthly things completely pointless." Pope Francis cited Ecclesiastes on his address on September 9, 2014. Speaking of vain people, he said, "How many Christians live for appearances? Their life seems like a soap bubble."
Influence on Western literature
Ecclesiastes has had a deep influence on Western literature. It contains several phrases that have resonated in British and American culture, such as "eat, drink and be merry," "nothing new under the sun," "a time to be born and a time to die," and "vanity of vanities; all is vanity." American novelist Thomas Wolfe wrote: "[O]f all I have ever seen or learned, that book seems to me the noblest, the wisest, and the most powerful expression of man's life upon this earth—and also the highest flower of poetry, eloquence, and truth. I am not given to dogmatic judgments in the matter of literary creation, but if I had to make one I could say that Ecclesiastes is the greatest single piece of writing I have ever known, and the wisdom expressed in it the most lasting and profound."
- Abraham Lincoln quoted Ecclesiastes 1:4 in his address to the reconvening Congress on December 1, 1862, during the darkest hours of the American Civil War: "'One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever.' ... Our strife pertains to ourselves—to the passing generations of men; and it can without convulsion be hushed forever with the passing of one generation."
- The opening of William Shakespeare's Sonnet 59 references Ecclesiastes 1:9–10.
- Leo Tolstoy's Confession describes how the reading of Ecclesiastes affected his life.
- Robert Burns' "Address to the Unco Guid" begins with a verse appeal to Ecclesiastes 7:16.
- The title of Ernest Hemingway's first novel The Sun Also Rises was taken from Ecclesiastes 1:5.
- The title of Edith Wharton’s novel House of Mirth was taken from Ecclesiastes 7:4 ("The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning; but the heart of fools is in the house of mirth.").
- The title of Laura Lippman's novel, Every Secret Thing, and of its film adaptation, come from Ecclesiastes 12:14, ("For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.")
- The main character in George Bernard Shaw's novel The Adventures of the Black Girl in her Search for God meets Koheleth "known to many as Ecclesiastes".
- The title and theme of George R. Stewart's post-apocalyptic novel Earth Abides is from Ecclesiastes 1:4.
- In the dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury's main character, Montag, memorizes much of Ecclesiastes and Revelation in a world where books are forbidden and burned.
- Pete Seeger's cautionary song "Turn! Turn! Turn!" takes many of its lyrics from the Book of Ecclesiastes.
- Christianson 2007, p. 70.
- Seow 2007, p. 944.
- Fox 2004, p. xiii.
- Fox 2004, p. xvi.
- Longman 1998, pp. 57–59.
- Fox 2004, p. xvii.
- Seow 2007, pp. 946–57.
- Seow 2007, pp. 957–58.
- Gilbert 2009, pp. 124–25.
- Brown 2011, p. 11.
- Smith 2007, p. 692.
- Fox 2004, p. x.
- Bartholomew 2009, pp. 50–52.
- Fox 2004, p. xiv.
- Bartholomew 2009, pp. 54–55.
- Bartholomew 2009, p. 48.
- Ingram 2006, p. 45.
- Brettler 2007, p. 721.
- Fox 2004, pp. x–xi.
- Gilbert 2009, p. 125.
- Diderot, Denis (1752). Canon. pp. 601–04.
- Shields 2006, pp. 1-5.
- Bartholomew 2009, p. 17.
- Enns 2011, p. 21.
- Hecht, Jennifer Michael (2003). Doubt: A History. New York: Harper Collins. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-06-009795-0.
- Brown 2011, pp. 17–18.
- Fox 2004, p. ix.
- Augustine, The City of God, Book XX. Accessed 2015-06-28.
- Jerome, Commentary on Ecclesiastes. Accessed 2015-09-09.
- Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica. Accessed 2015-09-09.
- von Balthasar, Hans Urs (1991). The Glory of the Lord. Volume VI: Theology: The Old Covenant. Translated by Brian McNeil and Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. pp. 137–43.
- Manhardt, Laurie (2009). Come and See: Wisdom of the Bible. Emmaus Road Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 9781931018555.
- Pope Francis, "Pope Francis: Vain Christians are like soap bubbles". Accessed 2015-09-09.
- Hirsch, E.D. (2002). The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 8. ISBN 0618226478.
- Foote, Shelby (1986). The Civil War, a narrative, vol. 1. Vintage Books. pp. 807–08. ISBN 9780307744678.
- 1856-1950., Shaw, Bernard, (2006). The adventures of the black girl in her search for God. London: Hesperus. ISBN 1843914220. OCLC 65469757.
- Bartholomew, Craig (2009). Ecclesiastes. Baker Academic Press. ISBN 9780801026911.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2007). "The Poetical and Wisdom Books". In Coogan, Michael D. The New Oxford Annotated Bible (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Brown, William P. (2011). Ecclesiastes: Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664238247.
- Christianson, Eric S. (2007). Ecclesiastes Through the Centuries. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780631225294.
- Coogan, Michael D. (2008). The Old Testament: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199719464.
- Diderot, Denis (1752). Canon.
- Eaton, Michael (2009). Ecclesiastes. IVP Academic.
- Enns, Peter (2011). Ecclesiastes. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802866493.
- Fredricks, D.C. (2010). Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs. IVP Academic.
- Fox, Michael V. (2004). The JPS Bible Commentary: Ecclesiastes. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 9780827609655.
- Gilbert, Christopher (2009). A Complete Introduction to the Bible: A Literary and Historical Introduction to the Bible. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809145522.
- Hecht, Jennifer Michael (2003). Doubt: A History. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-009795-0.
- Ingram, Doug (2006). Ambiguity in Ecclesiastes. Continuum.
- Krüger, Thomas (2004). Qohelet: A Commentary. Fortress.
- Longman, Tremper (1998). The Book of Ecclesiastes. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802823663.
- Miller, Adam S. (2016). Nothing Under the Sun. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1530872800.
- Rudman, Dominic (2001). Determinism in the Book of Ecclesiastes. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 9780567215635.
- Seow, C.L. (2007). "Ecclesiastes". In Coogan, Michael D. The New Oxford Annotated Bible (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Shields, Martin A. (2006). The End of Wisdom: A Reappraisal of the Historical and Canonical Function of Ecclesiastes. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061023.
- Smith, James (1996). The Wisdom Literature and Psalms. College Press. ISBN 9780899004396.
- Ranston, Harry (1925). Ecclesiastes and the Early Greek Wisdom Literature. First ed. Epworth Press.
- Shapiro, Rabbi Rami Translation & Annotation, Foreword by Rev. Barbara Cawthrone Crafton (2010). Ecclesiastes Annotated & Explained. Skylight Paths Publishing
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- Kohelet – Ecclesiastes (Judaica Press) translation [with Rashi's commentary] at Chabad.org
- Ecclesiastes: New Revised Standard Version
- Ecclesiastes: Douay Rheims Bible Version
- Ecclesiastes at Wikisource (Authorised King James Version)
- Ecclesiastes at United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (New American Bible)
- Ecclesiastes at Bible Gateway (New King James Version)
- A Metaphrase of the Book Of Ecclesiastes by Gregory Thaumaturgus.
- Introduction to Ecclesiastes a Forward Movement publication
- Ecclesiastes public domain audiobook at LibriVox – Various versions
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