The Book of Giants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Book of Giants)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The Book of Giants
Paradise Lost 1.jpg
An illustration of the War in Heaven for Milton's Paradise Lost by Gustave Doré.
ReligionJudaism, Manichaeism
LanguageAramaic, Syriac, Pahlavi
PeriodBefore 2nd Century BC

The Book of Giants is an apocryphal Jewish book which expands the Urzeit to Endzeit ('primeval creation' to 'end of time') narrative of the Hebrew Bible and, by its multifaceted elaborations on divine decrees of warning and doom, ties the ancient prophet Enoch (ḥanôk) closer to his generally recognized 'storyline' (as collectively put forth in various Enochic traditions) than does even the story's principal treatise of 1 Enoch.[1] Together with 1 Enoch's Book of Watchers, as Enochian scholar James C. VanderKam maintains, "it stands as an attempt to explain how it was that wickedness had become so widespread and muscular before the flood; in so doing, it also supplies the reason why God was more than justified in sending that flood."[2] The Giants discovery at Qumran dates the text's creation to before the 2nd century BC.[3]

The Book of Giants is an antediluvian (pre-Flood) narrative that was received primarily in Manichaean literature and known at Turfan.[4] However, the earliest known traditions for the book originate in Aramaic copies of a Book of Giants among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[5] References to the Giants mythology are found in: Genesis 6:1-4, the books of Enoch (Ethiopic, Slavonic, Hebrew, Greek), Jubilees, Genesis Apocryphon, 2 and 3 Baruch (Slavonic), the Damascus Document, and visions in Daniel 7:9-14.[1] This book tells of the background and fate of these ante-deluvial giants and their fathers, the Watchers (called grigori in the Slavonic 2 Enoch),[6][7] the 'sons of God' or 'holy ones' (Daniel 4:13, 17) who rebelled against heaven when — in forbidden violation of the strict "boundaries of creation"[8] — they commingled, in their lust, with the 'daughters of men.'[9][10]

Their even more corrupt offspring, the giants, were variously called thereafter nephilim, gibborim, or rephaim, being the earthly half-breed races that fought against God and his righteous followers whose numbers diminished as the world was overwhelmed with corruption and evil; the Manichaean fragments give these wicked ones the general name demons (Greek Enoch calls them bastards).[8] Though the terms for the Watchers and their offspring are often confused in their various translations and iterations, collectively these rebellious races are referred to as the "fallen angels" in the apocryphal sources, as also in the biblical narratives that reference them.[5]

Origins in ancient Jewish tradition[edit]

Since before the latter half of the twentieth century, the 'Book of Giants' had long been known as a 'Middle Iranian' work (which some scholars now believe was written originally in 'Eastern Aramaic') that circulated among the Manichaeans as a composition attributed to Mani (c. AD 216 – 274) — a Parthian citizen of southern Mesopotamia who appears to have been a follower of Elkesai, a Jewish-Christian prophet and visionary who lived in the early years of the second century.[8] Some scholars, concordant with supporting evidence for the ancient sect's geographical distribution, have posited both genetic and ritual-custom similarities between the Elcesaites and the earlier Second Temple Jewish sect of the Essenes (Essaioi 'Saints').[8][11]

During the twentieth century a number of finds shed considerable light on the literary evidence for the Book of Giants.[3] The 1943 publication by W. B. Henning of the Manichaean fragments from the Book of Giants discovered at Turfan in Western China (in what is now Xinjiang Province)[4] have substantiated the many references to its circulation among, and use by, the Manichaeans.[4][8] Further identification of the Manichaean Book of Giants was revealed in 1971 when Jósef T. Milik discovered several additional Aramaic fragments of Enochic works among the Dead Sea Scrolls; he astonished the scholarly world upon announcing that the fragments bore close resemblance to Mani's Book of Giants, then added to the astonishment his belief, too, that Giants was originally an integral part of 1 Enoch itself.[8] These fragmentary scrolls in Aramaic, which represented an Enochic tradition that was likely introduced to Mani in his sojourn with the Ecesaites, appeared to have been the primary source utilized by Mani in the compilation of his book, in which he made the legend of the Watchers and the giants "a cornerstone of his theological speculations."[8] And for many scholars, the Qumran fragments confirmed the Book of Giants to originally have been an independent composition from the Second Temple period.[5]

Among the fragments discovered at Qumran, ten manuscripts of the Book of Giants are identified by Stuckenbruck. These fragments (1Q23 [1], 1Q24 [2], 2Q26 [3], 4Q203 [4], 4Q530 [5], 4Q531 [6], 4Q532 [7], 4Q556 [8], 4Q206 [9], and 6Q8 [10]) were found in caves 1, 2, 4, and 6 at the site.[5] These discoveries led to further classification of the Enochic works. In the third group of classification, ten Aramaic manuscripts contain parts of the Book of Giants which were only known through the Manichaean sources until the recognition of them at Qumran.[12]

There has been much speculation regarding the original language of the Book of Giants. It was generally believed to have had a Semitic origin. Indeed, the discovery of this text at Qumran led scholars, such as C. P. van Andel and Rudolf Otto, to believe that while these ancient Aramaic compositions of the book were the earliest known, the work probably had even earlier Hebrew antecedents.[12][13] It was of course the great R. H. Charles, translator and publisher in 1906 of The Book of Enoch, who asserted that Enoch was "built upon the debris of" an older Noah saga than that in Genesis which only cryptically refers to the Enoch myth.[14] But Milik himself offered his own hypothesis that Enoch's 'creation story' and law of God account naturally predate the Mosaic Sinai accounts in Genesis: He saw Genesis 6:1-4 — long a puzzling passage to biblical scholars — as a quotation from what he believed ultimately to have been the earlier Enoch source.[15] More recent scholarship, such as that of Klaus Beyer, indicates that the Book of Giants (parts of which have been found in Hebrew at Qumran) was "originally composed in Hebrew during the 3rd century BCE, while the names of the giants Gilgamesh and Hobabish betray a Babylonian provenance" — which Babylonian-origins claim based on the name appearances, however, is refuted by Martínez (Stuckenbruck [1997], pp. 5 note 22, 30, 208 note 273, 220 note 27; Martínez [2018/1992], p. 114). But whatever the reality, one thing remains certain: the Qumran books and their fragments are now the oldest known Enochic manuscripts in existence.[6]

Content of The Book of Giants in the Dead Sea Scrolls[edit]

The Book of Giants consists of a grouping of Aramaic fragments which began to be unearthed at Qumran in 1948. Because of the book's fragmentation, it was difficult for the documents' linguistic researchers and specialists to know, in its subsequently varied permutations, the exact order of the content. The 'Giants' work is closely related to the 1 Enoch analogue, which also tells a story of the giants, but one which is far more elaborate. The Qumran Book of Giants also bears resemblance to the Manichaean Book of Giants that came after it. Scholars, beyond their many questions of the Enochic tradition's oral or written transmission,[3][11] still don't know why the Qumran community considered the Enochic texts so important that they possessed and retained so many copies in comparison to other textual traditions found there.[1][16]

The Book of Giants[17] is an expansive narrative of the biblical story of the birth of 'giants' in Genesis 6.1-4. In this story, the giants came into being when the Watcher 'sons of God' (who, per the story's corroborative Jubilees[18] account [Jub 4:15; 5:6],[1][19] God originally dispatched to earth for the purpose of instructing and nurturing humanity "in proper ritual and ethical conduct," "to do what is just and upright upon the earth") were seduced by and had sexual intercourse with mortal women,[20] who then birthed a hybrid race of giants.[8] These Watchers (grigori) and giants (nephilim) engaged in destructive and grossly immoral actions which devastated humanity, including the revealing of heaven's holy "secrets" or "mysteries to their wives and children" and to mankind generally.[6][8][12] When Enoch heard of this, he was distressed and petitioned God,[21] who in his longsuffering and by divine revelation and counsel called Enoch to preach repentance unto them, that the earthly races might avoid God's wrath and destruction.[8][12] In his mercy, God chose also to give the fallen Watchers an additional chance to repent by transmitting dreams to several of their giant-sons, including two brothers named Ohyah and Hahyah who relayed the dreams to an assembly of their grigori and nephilim companions.[1] This assembly of Watcher-giant associates were perplexed by the dreams,[22] so they sent a giant named Mahway to Enoch’s abode and to the places of his preaching (for Mahway had been instructed that he must first "hear" the prophet speak before petitioning him for the "oracle"). Enoch, in his attempt to intercede on their behalf, provided not only the oracle that the Watchers and giants had requested, but also twin "tablets" that revealed the full meaning of their dreams and God’s future judgment against them.[8] When the Watchers and giants had at last heard heaven's response, many chose, in their transcendent pride and arrogance,[8][23] rather than to turn from their evil ways, to act in defiance against God.[24]

While the Qumran fragments are incomplete at this point, the Manichaean fragments tell of the hosts of God subduing the fallen-angel races in battle.[8]

Much of the content in the Book of Giants is similar, and most closely relates, to 1 Enoch 7:3-6, a passage which sheds light on the characterizing features of the giants. It reveals that the giants were born of the Watcher 'sons of God' and the 'daughters of men.' The giants, as their 'prostituted' half-breed offspring, began to devour the works of what they perceived to be a lesser race and went on to kill and to viciously exploit them in slavery and sexual debauchery.[6] They also sinned against nature, in the most defiling and violent of ways against the beasts and birds of the sky, creeping things and the fish of the sea, but also against one another. They murdered on a massive scale, and also aborted their own children.[8] The Qumran documents also mention that the giants devoured the flesh of those they exploited and of one another, and drank the blood [7]. This act of drinking blood would have horrified the people [8]. Evidence of such extreme offence is found in Leviticus 17:10-16, wherein strict rules are laid forth regarding the blood of animals and all living creatures; verses 10 and 11 warn, “I will set my face against any Israelite or any foreigner residing among them who eats blood and I will cut them off from the people. For the life of the creature is in the blood.”

Fallen Angels among Men: a genesis of evil[edit]

The Qumran texts that make up its so-called Book of Giants seem to offer, for various faiths, a more complete picture of the beginnings of evil than perhaps its rather truncated counterpart — the biblical Eden story — is able to give.[16][25][26] The Genesis story we read today, as is well known, was greatly altered by ancient Deuteronomist scribes and historians[27][28] (and others)[29] according to their own religious and political agendas and does not, therefore, represent the pristine form of whatever may have been its primordial message.[30] And while the Book of Giants cannot, by any means, heal that breach, it does begin to answer questions, fill in gaps, and make more clear, perhaps, what was originally intended.[16]

The Qumran fragments that began to be discovered in 1948 relate how a small cadre of giants – offspring of the 'fallen angels' called Watchers – including Ohyah and Hahyah (alternately, 'Ohya' and 'Hahya'), who were both sons of Shemihazah, chieftain of the Watchers,[22] and also Mahway, giant-son of the Watcher Baraq'el,[6][22][31] experience dreams that foresee the biblical Flood [9]. These disturbing omens are told to the assembly of fallen angels that had originally organized their secret society upon Mount Hermon[32] as a body of 200 members, bound together by a dark combination of clandestine oaths and operational pacts by which they might ruthlessly achieve their personal and collective aims.[6] A brief mention of the giant Ohya (Ohyah), is found in the Babylonian Talmud (Nidah, Ch 9), which gives the following: "סיחון ועוג אחי הוו דאמר מר סיחון ועוג בני אחיה בר שמחזאי הוו" ("Sihon and Og [from the Book of Numbers] were brothers, as they were the sons of Ohia the son of Samhazai [alternately, 'Shemihazah' or 'Semiazus,' chieftain of the fallen angels in the Book of Enoch].")[8] Thus are provided, it would seem, the names of the sons of Ohyah, grandsons of Shemihazah.[6] "Og king of Bashan," ostensibly a giant, presumably escaped the flood (Num 13; Deut 2:2, 3:11, 13; Josh 12:4).[6][8][25]

Fallen 'Son of God': The Qumranic Book of Giants tells the story of pre-diluvian origins of evil and the fate of the Watchers and their giant offspring. Fallen Angel by Odilon Redon, 1872.

The giant Mahway, an associate of Ohyah, is summoned to the assembly of the fallen angels and put under secret oath 'under pain of death' to approach Enoch, the "distinguished scribe"[33] and "apostle from the south" (Milik, p. 307; see Jubilees 4:25-6), in order to obtain prophetic interpretation of their sons' ominous visions of what appears threateningly to them as an imminent catastrophe: "An oracle [I have come to ask you] here," declares Mahway, after listening to Enoch's message to the people. "From you, a second time, [I] ask[34] for the oracle: [We shall listen to] your words, all the nephilim of the earth also. If God is going to take away ... from the days of their [existence][35] ... that they may be punished ... [we, of these portents,] should like to know from you their explanation."[6]

The elements of Hahyah's troubling dream include 200 garden-trees and gardeners, an Emperor, mighty winds, water, and fire. Enoch obliges the messenger of the Shemihazah-led assembly with his interpretation of the dreams: the 200 (female) trees watered by corrupt angelic 'gardeners' are, against their original nature, demon-defiled and unfruitful (producing bad fruit) — their waterers are the Watchers (once-good 'protector' or guardian angels gone bad) and the "great" shoots issuing from them, their bad-seed giant progeny[5][8][36] — upon whom the "Emperor of heaven" will descend as a "burning Sun" (as upon a mighty "whirlwind" of fury) in great judgment: "O ye lamentable ones, do not die now prematurely, but turn quickly back!" is the declaration Mahway claims to have heard in his own dream (in which he is borne aloft on avian wings above the wilderness, the dearth and fray). The other visionary elements, as interpreted by Enoch, represent future exterminations by fire and water (sparing only "three shoots" — which Milik explains is an ancient Hebrew expression for Noah's sons).[6][37] Mahway had also claimed to have heard Enoch "speaking my name very lovingly" in his desperate plea and call that the giant follow Enoch to safety.[6]

Later, after the fallen angels of Watchers and giants had asked Enoch to make petition and to intercede for them before God,[38] Enoch (who takes his ascent[39][40][41] in the northern land of Dan, at the foot of Mount Hermon)[12][32] returned from that heavenly attempt (as he would also from his later universal visions and cosmic journeys made in the last year of his earthly sojourn, guided by the archangel Uriel)[1] with two tablets[8] — an 'Epistle' written in 'the distinguished scribe's own hand' from the Lord of Spirits and 'the Holy One,' giving God's answer "to Shemihazah and all his companions":

Let it be known to you that ... your works and those of your wives and your children by your prostitution on the earth [the giants themselves being the 'sons of prostitution'] ... It now befalls you [that] the earth complains and accuses you [for your works], and the works of your children also, and her voice rises to the very portals of heaven, complaining and accusing you of the corruption by which you have corrupted her. [But she will mourn] until the coming of Raphael [Metatron-Enoch].[42] For lo! a destruction upon men and on animals: the birds which fly upon the face of heaven, and the animals which live on the earth, and those which live in the deserts, and those which live in the seas. And [thus does] the interpretation of your [dreams come upon] you for the worst.[6]

Whereupon, after the assembly of fallen angels are read the words of the Epistle (see 1 Enoch 13:3-5),[8] the giants and Watchers, gathered together at the place Abel-mayyâ ('the spring of Weeping' between Lebanon and Senir),[6][32] straightaway 'prostrated themselves and began to weep before Enoch,'[12] for their request to heaven for clemency had been rejected, and God had cast them off (it is significant that they weep at the foot of their own mountain of blasphemous oath-taking): all was now 'for the worst.'[8] The only solace that Enoch could therefore offer them at that point, for theirs appears to have been a point of 'no return,'[43] was to "loosen your bonds (of sin) which tie you up ... and begin to pray."[6]

The archangel Raphael (Metatron-Enoch)[42] was, according to Milik, charged by God to bind Asael (or 'Azazel': Satan,[36][44] the ultimate fallen angel and divulger of God's holy Secrets and heavenly Mysteries, whom the others worshipped) hand and foot, and to heal the earth which the fallen angels had corrupted (the name 'Raphael' means 'God heals'; Asael is confronted by Raphael at 1 En 10:4-8 and by Enoch, as clearly 'both' are charged with the same mission, at 13:2). Milik notes the word-play on the double meaning of the verb rafa 'to tie' and 'to heal.' Reflecting upon God's decree in rejecting the fallen angels' petition, Milik says that "the Watchers seem[45] to be already chained up by the [arch]angels; [for] in order to be able to pray, to lift their arms in the gesture of suppliants, they have to have their bonds loosened" — that is, spiritually, if they will, through repentance (a genuine yearning for which, however, they appear to be 'past feeling' [Eph 4:19], and it is this stark reality of which Heaven is all too aware).[6][43]

[Thereupon] the roaring of the wild beasts came and the multitude of the wild animals began to cry out...[5] And Ohyah spoke ... My dream has overwhelmed me ... and the sleep of my eyes has fled ... Then God punished ... the sons of the Watchers, the giants, and all [their] beloved ones [who would] not be spared[34] ... [Then Ohyah said to Hahyah, his brother:] he has imprisoned us and you [as in your dream] he has subdued [tegaf: seized, confined; see Jubilees 10:5 and 1 Enoch 10:11-15] ...[6]

The mighty Archangel Uriel, Enoch's 'star guide' through the cosmos and, traditionally, the seraph set to guard the Edenic paradise. Bearing a sceptre of power, his garments vested with astronomical signs, this 'illuminator of the mind' holds one of his legend-ascribed symbols, a secret book of Wisdom. Nineteenth century stained glass window by Ford Madox Brown, the Holy Trinity Church, Tansley, Derbyshire, England.

In the Manichaean Book of Giants, Milik explains, Raphael (Enoch's 'heavenly double')[46][47] is the conqueror of Ohyah and of all the other Watchers and of their giant-sons. The same work intimates that all four archangels (Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Uriel)[48] were engaged in the struggle with the 200 Watchers and their offspring: "and those two hundred demons fought a hard battle with the four angels, until the angels used fire, naphtha, and brimstone..."[49] The Enochic literature records the collusion of the archangels with the righteous (both seen and unseen - see 2 Kings 6:16) against their demon-foes: "Four hundred thousand Righteous ... [came] with fire, naphtha, and brimstone ... And the [fallen] angels moved out of sight of Enoch" (see Reeves, pp. 160–161 note 389; in the Book of Moses, at 7:14-15, the giants "stood afar off," in "great fear" of Enoch and "the people of God"). Then, after the course of more than three hundred years dwelling amidst his "holy people" (Moses 7:18, 68-69), when the patriarch-warrior-king suddenly "was not; for God took him" (Genesis 5:24; see Reeves, p. 77),[50] the archangelic Raphael-Metatron sent to Shemihazah a warning-message that brought complete fulfilment to heaven's former decree: "The Holy One is about to destroy His world, and bring upon it a flood" (Milik, pp. 316 note 12, 328).

The archangel Uriel, beyond his role of instructing Enoch among the stars,[51] directs Noah to prepare his escape from the Flood,[1] and figures prominently in the final Judgement of the world in the end times that will be administered by the 'Son of Man' figure as foretold in Enoch's Book of Dreams and Apocalypse of Weeks.[52][53] Two other archangels, Raguel and Phanuel (sometimes confused with the archangelic name-corruption 'Remiel' > Eremiel > Jeremiel),[54] are also mentioned in the Enochic material. With respect to the archangel Sariel (a name sometimes given in the Qumranic texts as taking the place of Uriel or Phanuel), it is the Manichaean tradition, drawing on the Book of Giants, that preserves that archangelic name more faithfully than do the Greek and Ethiopic traditions.[6]

The Qumran Book of Giants, like its Manichaean counterpart, affiliates the names of the Sumerian hero Gilgamesh and the monster Humbaba with the Watchers and giants.[5][8]

Interpretive issues between Qumran and Turfan[edit]

Although we can glean much information from the fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls narrative, there are still many unknowns and issues that scholars heavily debate.[3] Clearly, the authorship of the Qumran Book of Giants is still a question among scholars.[11] Some initially believed that the manuscript (despite so many extant copies from Qumran of the overall Enochic work) to have been little used among the desert sectaries; but more recent scholarship declares: "We know that the Qumran Essenes copied, studied, and valued the writings and teachings ascribed to Enoch" (VanderKam, 2008/1995, p. 143). The Qumran discoveries decidedly ruled out any possibility that the Manicheans were the composers of the Book of Giants, for their work followed later.[4]

However, the historical transmission of 1 Enoch assumes that the basis of the text must likewise fall to unknown authors, or tend to the idea that it was a pseudepigraphon text. For some scholars, this lends itself, as such texts invariably have, to questioning the originality and legitimacy of the book. But bearing in mind the eleven Enochic manuscripts discovered at Qumran, which contain one or several of the various Enochic 'booklets' known there — totals "higher than for most of the books that became parts of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament," and recalling also "the cost and labor involved in producing a manuscript in antiquity" — such inordinate numbers representing the Enochic stockpile "say much about the value accorded" such writings (VanderKam, 2008/1995, p. 184).

As far as comparisons that might be made with 'canonical' texts, the books of Daniel and 1 Enoch both have similarities (to give just one of many possible parallels) in their visionary elements: taking up the visions of both Daniel and Enoch, or even of the giants Ohyah, Hahyah, and Mahway. Indeed, Stuckenbruck suggests that "these similarities ... allow for the possibility that the author of Daniel 7 knew the early Enochic traditions well enough to draw on and then adapt them for his own purposes. Nowhere is this clearer than in the throne-theophany itself" (p. 119).[25] The biblical and apocryphal accounts speak of a king of heaven sitting upon his throne, and the Aramaic text A12 has other corresponding elements. The texts differ, however, in that, in the giants' account, God comes down from heaven.

Several such textual variants of the different 'Book of Giants' versions, moreover, raise many other points of ongoing debate among scholars and experts. For although all are said to derive in some measure from the same 'script,' they are, ultimately, very different in their content, particularly in the way that the Manichaean and Aramaic versions differ — even from later Jewish midrash retellings — in the elements of the giants' dreams or visions.

In the giant Ohyah's dream, for instance, he apparently sees a large inscribed-stone representation of the 'Book of Life' (from the inclusion in which, by defilement, the names of nearly all of Earth's inhabitants are forfeited) and/or the 'cosmic covenant' (which the Watchers and their offspring, by their defilement, have broken) that covers the whole earth "like a table."[55] In the midrash retelling, a great angel descends, but in the Qumranic version, the Lord of Heaven himself descends with a knife to scrape and efface all of its character-rows, save one, at the end of which only four words remain (the names of Noah and his three sons).[8]

J.T. Milik believed the Book of Giants originally to have been a part of the entire Enochic work, the five-sectioned 'Enochic Pentateuch' as it is sometimes called, including the Book of Watchers, the Astronomical Book, the Book of Dreams, and the Epistle of Enoch (with its Apocalypse of Weeks); Milik felt that the Qumran Giants had actually been replaced by the Ethiopic 1 Enoch's 'Similitudes' (or 'Parables') section.[6][56][57]

All of these Enochic writings would have held significance from the beginning of the first century. Indeed, the early Christian church treasured Enoch and held it canonical.[14] However, during the Christian era after the Apostles, the collection was altered and part of its narrative (Giants, it is thought) replaced by the Book of Parables.[6] Due in no small part to the influence of the Alexandrian philosophers who ill-favored it — its contents thought by many of the Hellenistic era to be foolish or strange — the overall Enochic work rapidly ran afoul of ideas held by the Christian and Jewish doctors (who damned it forever as a tainted product of the Essenes of Qumran).[3][11][58] The book was soon banned by such orthodox authorities as Hilary, Jerome, and Augustine in the fourth century and it gradually passed out of circulation,[1] finally becoming lost to the knowledge of Western Christendom — only sundry 'fragments' remained.[56] The few copies left of the Enoch literature, if indeed they could be found, was therefore attributable, it is thought, to the Christian doctors' suppression of it and their partial replacement with the Book of Parables.[57]

A 'Book of Moses' connection[edit]

The name of the giant 'Mahway' — the messenger figure from the Qumran Giants fragments who, by the 'fallen angels' assembly, is bound by a secret oath 'under pain of death' to secure from Enoch the interpretation of their sons' troubling visions — coincides with a name of very similar spelling that is assigned to this same 'Mahway' story-figure as he appears in the Enochic account found in The Book of Moses — a canonical work of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Church teaches that this account, consisting of two brief chapters within the greater 'ascension' story of Moses, was translated by the 25-year-old Prophet Joseph Smith in 1830-31 and later published in 1851.[59][60]

In that rendition of the Enochic story, the spelling of the name of the 'Mahway' character who inquires after Enoch appears as 'Mahijah' (Moses 6:40). The Masoretic Hebrew text name 'MHWY' written in its transliterated Aramaic form in the Qumran Book of Giants, bears semi-vowels w and y that appear very similar in the Aramaic script (confused at times by scribes).[61][62] Attributable to this, and because the name as written equates in fact with the name MHWY-EL (appearing at Gen 4:18 as 'Mehujael,' who was a descendant of Cain and grandfather of the wicked Lamech, his name appearing a second time in the same verse as 'MHYY-EL'), scholars of this 'Mosaic' tradition of Enoch assert it to be the very same name.[62]

Similarly, it appears in Smith's account again, not as the place-name 'Mahujah' as has previously been thought, but rather as another iteration of the personal Mahway name — because the verse-use of the second-person plural "ye" suggests that Mahijah was with Enoch when God directs them to 'turn aside' to pray upon mount Simeon (Moses 7:2); indeed, examination of the original manuscript confirms this, for it reads: "As I was journeying and stood in the place, Mahujah and I cried unto the Lord. There came a voice out of heaven, saying — Turn ye, and get ye upon the mount" (emphasis added; subsequent transcriptions by scribes had given the false impression that 'Mahujah' was a place-name, rather than what it was: simply an alternate spelling of the personal-name 'Mahijah').[62] In this prayerful context, it is conceivable that 'Mahway' (who recalls from his dream the prophet's loving plea to him) could have been one of Enoch's proselytes, perhaps even a citizen of his later mountain-city refuge.[63][64] Enoch's grandfather, bore a similar name to MHWY — 'Mahalaleel' (meaning 'God has spoken'; Genesis 5:12-17).[1][62] MHWY-EL is transliterated in the King James Bible as Mehuja-el, which name also appears in the Greek Septuagint as Mai-el and in the Latin Vulgate as Mavia-el.[61]

Mehujael's grandson, the evil Lamech, and other Cainites like him, in the practice of their forebears, "entered into a covenant with Satan after the manner of Cain" wherein they — mimicking the oaths of the giants and Watchers — would constrain one another to "Swear unto me by thy throat, and if thou tell it thou shalt die" (Moses 5:29, 49, 52, 55), similar to 1 Enoch 6:5, where "all swore together and bound one another with a curse."[12][62] Lamech, who reveals to his exogamous wives "the secrets of their wicked league" (Moses 5:44, 47-55; 1 Enoch 8:3) also kills his great-grandfather Baraq'el/Virōgdād/Irad when this "prominent member of the secret combination [the ninth chief under Shemihazah - 1 Enoch 69:3] revealed their secrets in violation of deadly oaths he had taken" (Moses 5:49-50).

And God said: ... And I took him ... and I appointed him (that is) Enoch, the son of Jared, whose name is Metatron[42] ... my servant who is one (unique) among all the children of heaven. I made him strong in the generation of the first Adam. But when I beheld the men of the generation of the flood, that they were corrupt, then I went and removed my Shekina [radiant Presence, Spirit] from among them [compare Gen 6:3 and Moses 8:13, 15, 17-19, 21-22, 29-30] ...

And I took [Enoch] from among the children of men and made him a Throne over against my Throne ... And I lifted him up with the sound of a trumpet and with a [shout] to the high heavens, to be my witness ... I made (of) him the prince over all the princes[33] and a minister of [my] Throne of Glory ... (and I have committed unto him) the Secrets of above and ... of below [see Amos 3:7] ... And I committed to him Wisdom and intelligence more than (to) all the angels ... I made him higher than all ... I made his Throne great by the majesty of my Throne. And I increased its glory by the honour of my glory ... I made honour and majesty his clothing ... and a royal crown ... (his) diadem. And I put upon him ... the splendour of my glory.

And I called his name "the Lesser YHWH [Yahweh, 'little Jeu'],"[65] the Prince of the Presence, the Knower of Secrets: for every secret did I reveal to him as a father, and all mysteries declared I unto him in uprightness ... to abase by his word the proud to the ground, and to exalt by the utterance of his lips the humble to the height; to smite kings by his speech, to turn kings away from their paths ... and to give Wisdom unto all the wise ... and understanding (and) knowledge to all who understand knowledge ... to reveal to them the secrets of my words and to teach the decree of my righteous judgement. ~ 3 Enoch 48:1-2, 4-5, 7, 9[66]

And Metatron [Enoch] said: All these things the Holy One ... made for me: He made for me a Throne similar to the Throne of Glory. And He spread over [i.e., clothed] me [with] splendour and [glory, a garment of radiance and Light] ... of beauty, grace and mercy similar to [that of] the Throne of Glory ... And He ... seated me on it. And [a] herald went forth [and proclaimed in all the firmament of the heavens], saying: This is Metatron [Enoch], my servant. I have made him ... a prince and a ruler over all the princes of my kingdoms and over all the children of heaven [a divine king]! ~ 3 Enoch 10:1-3[66]

The prophet Enoch along with his entire 'City of Zion' was, according to the Book of Moses, translated from a fallen world to heaven. Enoch ascends to heaven by Gerard Hoet, illustration for Figures de la Bible, 1728.

As portrayed in other Enochic literature, the Enoch figure in the Book of Moses account is also a prophet acknowledged as priest and king[33] by his people,[1][16][42] but the founder, too, of their sacred society on earth.[67] For after God has delivered to Enoch his verdict upon the unrepentant grigori and nephilim (the duplicitous 'sons of God' and their corrupt progeny who had "trembled" before him at Moses 6:47; see Mos 8:18, 21; 1 En 1:5, 13:3), the righteous retire with their leader to a place of safety in the mountains as God fights their battles for them ('Yahweh as warrior').[68] By his power (and the mouthpiece of his prophet-king), mountains fled, rivers altered their courses (Moses 6:34), and all nations feared the people of God ('holy ones, saints': ha-ʾelohîm 'sons of God'; Moses 7:13-16; see 6:68; 7:1). Their refuge city ("called Zion, a New Jerusalem" Mos 7:62; compare "Jerusalem" at T. Levi 10:5)[69] lasted 365 years (Moses 7:17-20, 68) until it,[70] with its king, was taken from a wicked world whose destruction was "sealed" and 'translated' to heaven[71] — a blessed 'City of Zion' that according to Enoch's prophecy would return again to the earth in the last days (Moses 7:62-69)[72]

Very like the 'Mahway' character of the Qumran account, the 'Mahijah' of Smith's Enochic account also puts "bold direct questions to Enoch," which similarly give the patriarch (who is viewed by the nephilim as "a strange thing in the land" - Moses 6:38) "an opening" for calling upon them to repent. The name MHWY, moreover, whether transliterated in its 'Mahway' or 'Mahijah' or 'Mehujael' forms, is not to be found elsewhere in the world among the various incarnations of the Enochic texts — as neither is the 'Mahway' story itself: the mission of MHWY to Enoch (and of Enoch to MHWY)[64] is peculiar to the Enochic accounts as found in Qumran's (1948/1976) Book of Giants and Smith's (1830/1851) Book of Moses.[61]

Smith's account of Enoch's prophetic 'call' (Moses 6:26-32) parallels the pattern of other biblical 'prophetic call narratives' (e.g., Moses at Exod 3-4, and Jeremiah at Jer 1) in its prophetic confrontation with the divine (Moses 6:26-28, 32, 35), the call-commission (6:27), the prophet's objection (6:31), followed by God's reassurance (6:32, 34) and 'sign'.[62] The sign God manifests in 'opening' Enoch's eyes in the Ethiopic account (1 En 1:2), which allows the seer to experience the heavenly vision, mirrors Moses 6:35-36, wherein Enoch's eyes are 'anointed' and opened that he might 'see' the visions of heaven and "also things which were not visible to the natural eye" (similar to the calls of Isaiah and Jeremiah, both spokesmen for God, wherein, however, it is their lips, instead, that are touched).[12][73] Of particular note are several points at which the Enoch account in the Book of Moses aligns with the Book of Giants (Aramaic) and 2 (Slavonic) Enoch accounts that first came to light in 1948 and 1896, respectively, many decades after Joseph Smith's lifetime.[74] The prominence of the Metatron-Enochic title 'lad' in 2 Enoch and 3 (Hebrew) Enoch matches its appearance in the Moses chapters, with Enoch's self-descriptive use of the 'lad' title at Moses 6:31. The prophet is similarly called 'little Enoch' in the Mandaean pseudepigraphon text, Livre d'Adam, wherein, moreover, in its tale of Enoch (and similar to Smith's account at Moses 7:13), heavenly powers protectively turn "the source of the waters ... from its course."[62]

On the heels of the introduction in the Book of Giants of the battle between the earthly and heavenly hosts, "the roaring of wild beasts" from out of the wilderness is said to have been heard. Barker (1987) equates these 'beasts' of antiquity with the archangelic or 'supernatural' adversarial powers that mark similar biblical passages (pp. 131, 139-40 note 24).[56] In the Book of Giants, as witnessed in the words of the rebellious Ohyah to his brother Hahyah, the Watchers and nephilim are bound by the archangels and confined to their prison ("until the day of their judgment" — such is Ethiopic Enoch's description of their punishment in "the valleys of the earth" where "those who led the world astray" are "bound in chains" and "shut up in the assembly-place of their destruction" — "led away to the fiery abyss" of recompense and imprisonment for "seventy generations," or until Judgement Day at world's end; see 1 En 10:12-13, 69:28).[75] At these same points in the Enochic literature, Smith's Moses account matches the Book of Giants and the other Enochic passages remarkably, for therein, too, "the roar of the lions was heard out of the wilderness" (Moses 7:13; the 'roaring lion' motif is a 'son of man'-messianic allusion to an 'anointed one' of great judgment, acting in similitude of the Son of Man, such as perhaps a 'destroying archangel' might be - see 4 Ezra 11:37, 12:31-34; D&C 122:4) and the earth's profane inhabitants were relegated by God to "perish in the floods; and behold, I will shut them up; a prison have I prepared for them" (Moses 7:38).

Moreover, the Moses and Ethiopic/Slavonic accounts agree that Enoch envisions the impending Flood (Mos 7:43; 1 En 91:5), foresees after several generations (a time mercifully afforded to allow the wicked a final chance to repent) that Noah and his posterity survive (Mos 7:23-27, 43, 52; 1 En 106:18; with God reducing the lifespan of the earthly races to 120 years at Mos 8:17 - see Reeves, pp. 117, 157-158 note 353), knows Noah's future through a God-directed eschatological vision (Mos 7:44-45, 51; 1 En 106:13-18), and witnesses and weeps with God for a suffering 'Mother Earth' who bemoans the rebellious 'children' that have issued forth from her (Mos 7:28-33, 41, 48-50; 1 En 7:6; 8:4; 9:2-3, 10; 90:41-42; 95:1; 107:3; and 2 En 1:2-4; see Reeves, p. 82). Finally, in the 'mystical ascent' tradition of 3 Enoch (10:1, 3; or of even Slavonic 2 Enoch),[42] the antedeluvian prophet of the Book of Moses account is given the "right" to the throne of God (Mos 7:59; a Mosaic parallel to this symbolic act of deification is seen in Meeks [2017];[76] but see also Orlov [2005], pp. 262–276,[42] which relates, in an ancient work called the Exagōgē, how Moses, in his 'prophet-king' ascent to God's throne, meets the archangel Raguel — thought to be that prophet's 'heavenly double').[46][47]

Another striking similarity between the Apocalyptic stories of the 1 Enoch literature and the Book of Moses is the consistent use of the peculiar title 'Son of Man,' referring to the great figure of Judgement that is referenced in the 'Similitudes' of the Ethiopic account.[52][77] The identity of that figure, who in the Pre-existence before Creation was, in the sanctuary of the Heavenly Temple, "named in the presence of the Lord of Spirits" (1 Enoch 48:2-3,[78] which Elyon-'Lord' or heavenly-king figure is identified in the Book of Moses as 'Man of Holiness' — Father of the 'Son of Man' - Moses 6:57, 7:35), has been "hidden," but will, according to the prophecy of 1 Enoch, be revealed at the end of days.[6][12] In the one brief Enochic 'extract' of two chapters found in the Book of Moses, the 'Son of Man' reference is used no fewer than eight times (Moses 6:57; 7:24, 47, 54-56, 59, 65).[79] Other titles common to this 'single referent' figure[1][22] both in 1 Enoch and the Book of Moses account are 'Chosen One' (Mos 7:39), 'Anointed One' (i.e., Messiah; see Mos 7:53), and 'Righteous One' (elsewhere, 'Holy One'; Mos 6:57; 7:45, 47, 67).[52][62][77]



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k VanderKam, James C. (2008) [1995]. Enoch: A Man for All Generations. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. See also the author's Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition (1984), published by the Catholic Biblical Association of America: Washington, DC. ISBN 978-1570037962. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  2. ^ "Genesis notes that corruption and violence were widespread and that human thoughts were continually evil, but it does not explain how that had come about"; VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 41, 128.
  3. ^ a b c d e Boccaccini, Gabriele, ed. (2005). Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802828781.
  4. ^ a b c d Goff, Matthew; Stuckenbruck, Loren T.; Morano, Enrico, eds. (2016). Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3161545313.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Stuckenbruck, Loren T. (1997). The Book of Giants From Qumran: Texts, Translation, and Commentary. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 24-28, 31, 72-74, 79, 81, 83, 90, 105, 114, 125-127, 143, 164-167, 182. ISBN 978-3161467202
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Milik, J. T., ed. (1976). The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4. London: Clarendon Press. pp. 43, 58, 92, 109-110, 113, 158, 171, 254, 300-316, 320, 328, 336-338. ISBN 978-0198261612
  7. ^ Orlov, Andrei; Boccaccini, Gabriele, eds. (2012). New Perspectives on 2 Enoch: No Longer Slavonic Only. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004230132.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Reeves, John C. (1992). Jewish Lore in Manichaean Cosmogony: Studies in the Book of Giants Traditions. Cincinnati, Ohio: Hebrew Union College Press. pp. 2-3, 9, 22, 30-32, 65, 67, 69-72, 76, 81-102, 109-110, 114, 118-121, 124-127, 130, 133-134, 138-139, 147, 154, 156-158 notes 334, 347 and 353, 207-209. ISBN 978-0878204137
  9. ^ At Jubilees 20:5, the patriarch Abraham uses the punishment of the giants (referred to as rebel beney Seth, 'the sons of Seth' — a righteous son of Adam — or apostate sons of the beney ha 'elohim, the sons of God [Watchers]: half-breed Sethite 'giants' engendered through exogamy) as "an example of what happens to those who pollute themselves through sexual union with 'the daughters of Canaan' [called also the benot ha 'adam, "the daughers of Cain" — the murderous son of Adam]." Elsewhere in the Enochic literature, the archangel Gabriel is commanded of God to "Go ... to the ill-begotten ones, the crooked ones, and the sons of adultery; and destroy the sons of the Watchers [the giants] from among men. Set them to fighting each other in war and in wanton destruction" (Codex Gizeh 10:9). Such "intramural rivalry" is, according to Stuckenbruck, "a manifestation of divine punishment" and a "violence" that cascaded to be "absorbed" into the behavior of the rest of Earth's inhabitants (see Jub 5:2, 7, 9 and 7:22; 1 En 7:5, 10:12). A striking parallel to this "intramural rivalry" is witnessed at Enochic Moses 7:4-7 (see herein "A 'Book of Moses' connection"), wherein God, speaking "face to face" with Enoch (who had turned aside from Mahijah's companionship to pray upon a mount before experiencing this theophany), directs him to behold in coming "generations" the utter obliteration of one "great people" by another. The giants' "internecine strife" and "denied longevity," however, meant for them, as VanderKam observes, "mutual annihilation." See Stuckenbruck (1997), pp. 148, 151 note 185, 152 note 189; Reeves, pp. 68, 182, 186; and VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 39-40.
  10. ^ Harkins, Angela K.; Bautch, Kelley C.; Endres, John C., eds. (2014). The Watchers in Jewish and Christian Traditions. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0800699789.
  11. ^ a b c d Boccaccini, Gabriele (1998). Beyond the Essene Hypothesis: The Parting of the Ways between Qumran and Enochic Judaism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802843609.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nickelsburg, George W. E.; VanderKam, James C., eds. (2001). 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. pp. 8-11, 81-108, 137, 174, 180, 188, 215, 221-222, 225, 234, 237-247, 250-251, 276, 297, 300, 536-537, 560. ISBN 978-0800660741
  13. ^ Van Andel, C. P. (1955). The Structure of the Enoch-Tradition and the New Testament: An Investigation into the Milieu of Apocalyptic and Sectarian Traditions within Judaism in their Relation to the Milieu of the Primitive Apostolic Gospel. Domplein, Urecht: Kemink and Son. pp. 9, 11, 43, 47, 51, 69-70.
  14. ^ a b Charles, R. H. (1913). [1906]. The Book of Enoch. London: Oxford University Press. pp. ix (note 1), 305. Centenary Edition by Weiser Books. ISBN 978-1578635238
  15. ^ Milik maintains, further, that the Qumran Damascus Document (at CD 2:17-19) "quotes from the Book of Giants (in Hebrew!)." Milik (1976), pp. 57-58; Reeves (1992), pp. 52-53, 129 note 17.
  16. ^ a b c d Barker, Margaret. (2005) [1988]. "The Origin of Evil," "The Cosmic Covenant," and "Postscript," in The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and Its Influence on Christianity. London: SPCK; Sheffield Phoenix Press. pp. 33-48, 77-90, 105-113. ISBN 978-1905048199
  17. ^ Schiffman, L. H., & VanderKam, J. C., eds. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. 2 Vols. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195084504
  18. ^ Jubilees intimately connects with Enoch's story. Jub 4:17-23 presents, for example, the perspective of the heavenly archangels who direct and instruct Enoch in Wisdom: "We told him"; "we taught him"; "we led him". See VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 112-114, 128-129.
  19. ^ Boccaccini, Gabriele; Ibba, Giovanni, eds. (2009). Enoch and the Mosaic Torah: The Evidence of Jubilees. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802864093.
  20. ^ The Watchers' "freedom" or "agency" in the context of their choice to trespass creation's boundaries as set by God is touched upon in 2 Baruch (56:11-14), whereat they are declared to have "possessed freedom in that time in which they were created," but that "some of them came down and mingled themselves with women," while "the rest of the multitude of angels, who have no number, restrained themselves." 2 Baruch accords with the Book of Moses (7:32) concerning this gift of choice to God's intelligent creations: "The Lord said unto Enoch: Behold these thy [fallen] brethren [for whom Enoch attempts to intercede, and for whom he weeps, as do the Heavens and God Himself]; they are the workmanship of mine own hands, and I gave unto them their knowledge, in the day I created them; and in the Garden of Eden [the premortal paradise], gave I unto man his agency" also. See Moses 7:28-29, 41.
  21. ^ 1 Enoch 9 describes also the petition of four heavenly archangels, in which they bring before God's high court the suit (rib 'lawsuit') of humankind on Earth, whose souls cry out (their "lamentations" reaching "the gates of heaven") from the murderous acts of the "lawless" ones — Azazel (Satan), Shemihazah (Watcher chieftain), the Watchers and their giant-sons.
  22. ^ a b c d Nickelsburg, George W. E.; VanderKam, James C., eds. (2012). 1 Enoch 2: A Commentary on the Book of 2 Enoch. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press. pp. 49-50, 95, 111, 119, 130, 148, 153, 166, 180, 187, 194, 198, 224, 233, 243, 247, 254-255, 273-274, 297, 311, 315, 320. ISBN 978-0800698379
  23. ^ The 'Damascus Document,' or 'Covenant' (CD), another Qumran text, warns those it speaks to against prideful "will" and lustful "thoughts" and "eyes": "For through them, great men have gone astray and mighty heroes have stumbled from former times till now. Because they walked in stubbornness of their heart the Heavenly Watchers fell; they were caught because they did not keep the commandments of God. And their sons [the giants] also fell ... All flesh on dry land perished [in fiery archangelic retribution and flood]; they were as though they had never been because they did their own will and did not keep the commandments of their Maker so that His wrath was kindled against them" (CD 2:16-20).
  24. ^ The avowed arch-enemies of the grigori and nephilim — Ohyah's "opponents" who "derive their power from heaven" yet were "still not stronger" than himself (he claimed) — that is, in addition to the archangels (whom he admitted were stronger), were Enoch's righteous-preacher kin (Moses 6:23) — the patriarch's ancient forebears who were then still living and who dwelt with their righteous followers in mountain heights "set apart" (Reeves, p. 77; VanderKam [2008/1995], p. 11; Stuckenbruck [1997], p. 126). The fallen angels described the dwelling-places of their angelic "accusers" as being in "the heavens, for they live in holy abodes," which would have been also, by the lights of the ancients, an apt description for abodes set amidst the mountains, where Enoch's people dwelt. These may have been located beyond the "great desert" of "Solitude" (perhaps within the "Kögmön" mountains of Milik's translation, identified now as Siberia's Sayan Mountain range). But as Enoch is referred to as the "apostle from the south," a rather different region — to the safety of which Enoch beckons Mahway in his dream — seems indicated). It may also be the case, because of the close association of God's righteous with the heavenly archangels, that the fallen-angel races, in describing their enemy's abode, may have similarly described the dwellings of Enoch's "holy people." See Milik (1976), pp. 306-308, and Reeves (1992), p. 153 note 286; but also Richard J. Clifford (2010). [1972]. The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock. Originally published by Harvard University Press: Cambridge. ISBN 978-1608997176. The great desert referenced by Mahway was conceivably the Syrian desert, according to Reeves, pp. 104, 119.
  25. ^ a b c Stuckenbruck, Loren T. (2017). [2014]. Chapter 1: "Origins of Evil in Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition: The Interpretation of Genesis 6:1-4 in the Second and Third Centuries BCE," in The Myth of Rebellious Angels: Studies in Second Temple Judaism and New Testament Texts. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. Originally published by Mohr Siebeck: Tübingen, Germany. pp. 1-35. ISBN 978-3161554476
  26. ^ Lumpkin, Joseph B. (2011). "The Alpha" and "The Origin of Evil," in Fallen Angels, the Watchers, and the Origins of Evil. Blounstville, Alabama: Fifth Estate Publishing.
  27. ^ Weinfeld, Moshe (2014) [1972]. Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomic School. University Park, Pennsylvania: Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1575063188.
  28. ^ Doorly, William J. (1994). Obsession with Justice: The Story of the Deuteronomists. Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0809134878
  29. ^ Friedman, Richard Elliott. (1981). The Exile and Biblical Narrative: The Formation of the Deuteronomistic and Priestly Works. Harvard Semitic Monographs Series, number 22. Chico, California: Scholars Press. ISBN 978-0891304579
  30. ^ Friedman, Richard Elliott. (2003). The Bible with Sources Revealed: A New View Into the Five Books of Moses. San Francisco: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060530693
  31. ^ Baraq'el appears as 'Virōgdād' in the Manichaean fragments of the Book of Giants and as 'Irad' in the Enochic account in the Book of Moses (5:43) — for which, see herein "A 'Book of Moses' connection." Baraq'el is also (in Jubilees 4:15) the father of Dinah, the wife of Enoch's grandfather Mahalaleel, making Mahway/Mahujael, if the accounts are consistent, the prophet Enoch's first cousin once-removed. Reeves states that "Baraq'el was one of the twenty principal Watchers [each a chieftain over ten other angels] who descended to earth, and was responsible for instructing humankind in the forbidden science of astrology" (1 Enoch 6:7, 8:3). See Reeves (1992), pp. 76, 108, 138 note 98; Bradshaw (2014), p. 96.
  32. ^ a b c 'Abel-mayyâ' (Abel-maîn, also Abelsjâîl) is modern Tel Abil, located northwest of 'the waters of Dan' (the source of Palestine's Jordan River; conceptually seen also as the Sea of Galilee) at the mouth of the valley between the Lebanon range to the west and Mount Hermon (ancient Senir, Seneser, Sion, Sirion, Siryanu, Sariyana, among the mountain's many names in antiquity; 'Hermon' is related to the word for 'swearing an oath'). Symbol-laden 'waters' were traditionally a place of revelation and could "stand in polar relationship to the gates of heaven [a Temple motif] and, through them, to the sanctuary and the throne of God." A sister-sanctuary site to Beth-el 'House of God' (where Jacob and Levi experienced their own theophanies) was established at Dan-Hermon by Jeroboam after the Israelite kingdom divided, c. 930 BC. It was at Abel-maîn that Levi, in vision, shepherded his flocks and was taken to the top of Sirion (Hermon), where he was clothed in the robes of the Holy Priesthood by seven white-clad archangels of light, who opened to him the gates of heaven — from the sanctuary of which God appointed him to his high priestly office (Testament of Levi 2-5: a visionary ascent and commission that was actualized at Beth-el, Jubilees 32:1). It was also on the slopes of Hermon (Caesarea Philippi) that revelation-receptive Peter was commissioned by Christ, "the Son of the living God," and where (by the greater consensus of scholars) Peter, James, and John were theophanic witnesses of the Transfiguration and of God's voice bearing witness of Christ's divine Sonship (2 Peter 1:16-18; Matt 16:13-19: reflecting the dualism of priesthood keys of power to 'bind' and 'loose' in earthly sanctuary and heavenly Temple, while rebuking, as does the Levi passage, Satan and his Hell; see Isaiah 22:22-24, where these binding keys "fasten ... as a nail in a sure place" upon which hangs kingly glory). Mountains of special designation, of course, were viewed by the ancients as 'temples' — natural 'cosmic' portals connecting heaven and earth. The temple or holy mount was perceived as the earth-center omphalos 'naval' of an 'umbilical' conduit by which God nourished the creation. For Mount Hermon and Enoch, see especially Clifford's Cosmic Mountain (2010/1972), pp. 182-192. Nickelsburg (1981); VanderKam (2008/1995); "Enoch, Levi, and Peter: Recipients of Revelation in Upper Galilee". Journal of Biblical Literature. 100 (4). pp. 575-600.
  33. ^ a b c The scribal titles of Enoch-Metatron, the "witness of God" and "judge of all men" — beyond that of "celestial" or "heavenly scribe" and "keeper of the Book of Life" — include, simply, "the scribe," but also "distinguished scribe," "scribe of distinction," "Great Scribe," "scribe of Justice," "scribe of Righteousness (and Truth)," "scribe of trustworthy deeds" and "scribe of all the wonder of Wisdom" (Milik [1976], pp. 97, 104, 118, 128, 130-131, 237, 261-263, 305; at recension B, Testament of Abraham 11:3, Enoch stands, along with his "evidence" at the final Judgement bar of God, as "the teacher of heaven and earth and the scribe of righteousness"). Beyond his scribal role, Enoch, the "High Priest" (or angel-priest and "upholder of Wisdom" in the "true cult of God"), was also — as "the seventh [patriarch] from Adam" — the great "sage-king" whom (at 3 En 48:9) the "King of kings" and "Holy One" (3 En 25:4) placed over the "seventy [guardian-angel] shepherds" (1 En 89-90), or unwise rulers of nations and kingdoms throughout time ("sacred history divided into seventy ages"), who are called at the final Judgement to account for their stewardships before the holy throne of the Son of Man (Milik, pp. 24, 29, 31, 43-45, 47, 52, 114-115, 248, 252, 254, 257, 304, 313, 431; VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 81-89; Barker (2005/1988), pp. 29-30, 72-73; see Jer 6:3, 23:1-4; 25; Zech 10:2-3, 11:3-6, 15-17, 13:7; John 5:27).
  34. ^ a b Martínez, Florentino García; Tigchelaar, Eibert J. C., eds. (2019) [1997]. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Study Edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. Two volumes. Originally published by E. J. Brill Publishers. In Mahway's second petition on behalf of the 'fallen angels' — rebels who had, in essence, abandoned their high archonic station at the 'watch-post of the Great King' of Heaven with their blasphemous divulging of 'divine wisdom' — and on behalf of their accursed, murderous progeny, the giant (per Martínez' translation) doesn't "ask" but rather "begs" for Enoch's interpretive oracle. But also, per Martínez' translation, God punishes all among earth's profane who not only refuse to be "spared" but, more specifically, who refuse to be "forgiven". See also García's Qumran and Apocalyptic: Studies on the Aramaic Texts from Qumran (Chapter 3: "The Book of Giants"), Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill Publishers (2018) [1992], pp. 97-115. ISBN 978-0802877529. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  35. ^ The fallen angels had wished to live to be 500 years old, Noah's age when his sons were born: 1 En 10:9-10; Gen 5:32; VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 39-40.
  36. ^ a b Orlov, Andrei A. (2011). Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in Early Jewish Demonology. Albany: State University of New York (SUNY Press). ISBN 978-1438439518.
  37. ^ Noah and his sons together represented, in both the Qumranic and Manichaean traditions, a "tree of life" for the renewed creation. But moreover, the "elect of God" would thereafter ever be known to both Jew and Christian as a "plant of righteousness" — a reference which is used also throughout Enoch's prophecies in the Apocalypse of Weeks to refer to the "holy seed" of Abraham who, as "the righteous community of Israel at the End of Days," would honour a renewed 'eternal' or new 'creation covenant' and so merit the eternal reward of deification. As in the Book of Dreams when Enoch begs God to spare "a plant of the eternal seed" (1 En 84:6), so in the Book of Moses, the Lord of Spirits — in response to Enoch's mourning "over his brethren" (7:44), "the children of Noah" (7:49) and the Earth (7:58: "When shall the earth rest?") — promises by covenantal oath to "preserve" the "elect" of His chosen "people" not only in Noah and his seed (7:51-52), but also at the last day (7:61-62). In what Boccaccini calls Qumran's Temple Scroll- and Jubilees-affiliated Epistle of Enoch of "Enochic Judaism," the Apocalypse of Weeks is, in its historical determinism, "entirely focused on the concept of election. As in [Enoch's Book of Dreams], history is subjected to inexorable degeneration [apostasy] until the end, but, as [in] Jubilees [as also in Enoch's Similitudes] ... in this world there is a distinctive group of chosen people, the plant of righteousness, Israel. ... [A]t the beginning of the final times [the last days, when an "interim temple" is rebuilt "until the day of the new creation" (Jub 1:15-18; 1 En 53:6-7) and the "divinely created" eschatological Temple of "the world to come" (11QT 29:2-10)] ... God will choose a group from among the chosen. This group [latter-day Israel — the "generation of righteous ones" of 1 En 107:1 — who are worthy to enter that "interim" sanctuary] will receive special 'wisdom' and will keep themselves separate from the rest of the people while acting on their behalf and thus preparing the way for the redemption of Israel and of the entire creation. [They would be led by a "unique prophet" and high priest, messianic in nature, who would teach and interpret, but also suffer and die (Testaments Benj, Sim, Dan, Gad; CD 12; 1QS; 1QSa; 4Q175): the "herald" of Daniel 9 and 11QMelchizedek, whom Jewish legend calls 'Messiah ben Joseph' (the great white-bull gatherer of God's elect {Deut 33:17} who becomes the slaughter-lamb of 1 En 90:37-38), resurrected martyr-forerunner to the great 'Messiah ben David' — who embodies the joy-inducing revelation, as Barker calls it, of 'the name of the great Son of Man' as it is finally 'restored to the true servants as part of the Wisdom of the last times' — together with 'the hope of a transforming Wisdom to be revealed to the righteous in the last days before their own exaltation'; The Older Testament, pp. 279-280] ... Finally, we have the return to the primordial stage with the final judgment and the new creation, which opens the path to the eternal glory of the world to come ... [After the apocalyptic 'ten weeks,' the "elect" who are chosen "from among the chosen"] 'will gain riches in righteousness and there will be built the house [Temple] of sovereignty of the Great One [the Lord of Spirits], in his magnificence, for all eternal generations ... and there shall be no more sin forever' (1 En 91:12-13, 17)." See Reeves (1992), pp. 95-102, 150-151 notes 246, 250, 253, 255, 256; VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 40, 64, 68-69, 84-85; Hanson (1977), pp. 201, 220; Boccaccini (1998), Chapter 4: "The Formative Age: The Proto-Epistle of Enoch, Including the Apocalypse of Weeks"; John J. Collins, The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature (Eerdmans, 2010; Doubleday, 1995); Elhanan ben Avraham, Mashiach Ben Yosef (Clarksville, Maryland: Messianic Jewish Publishers, 2006); and David C. Mitchell, Messiah ben Joseph (Newton Mearns, Scotland: Campbell Publications, 2016).
  38. ^ 1 Enoch 84 records Enoch's intercessory prayer "after he had experienced an especially frightening vision of cosmic destruction (1 Enoch 83: the impending Flood). His grandfather Mahalaleel advises Enoch to petition God for mercy [that a faithful remnant be spared], and Enoch accordingly addresses God with the prayer of 84:2-6. God responds to Enoch's plea by vouchsafing him yet another vision" — which is recorded in the Book of Dreams (1 Enoch 85-90). Indeed, it was while in the very act of "[lifting] up [his] hands in righteousness" to praise "the Holy and Great One" and speak "with the breath of [his] mouth" to offer "praise to the Great Lord, the Eternal King" (12:3; 84:1) that "the Watchers cried out" to Enoch, asking him to intercede for them before God. See Reeves (1992), pp. 82, 141 note 147. These visions and exchanges with the Watchers and giants come to a relatively young Enoch, not yet 65, staying with his grandfather, before his marriage to Edni (Jub 4:20). It is only long after that he relates them all to his son Methuselah: VanderKam (2008/1995) pp. 71-73, 115.
  39. ^ Himmelfarb, Martha (1993). Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 38–46. ISBN 978-0195082036.
  40. ^ Rowland, Christopher C. (2002) [1982]. The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock. Originally published by Crossroad: New York. ISBN 978-1592440122.
  41. ^ Collins, John J. (2016) [1984]. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. Originally published by Crossroad: New York. ISBN 978-0802872791.
  42. ^ a b c d e f Orlov, Andrei A. (2005). The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3161485442.
  43. ^ a b "The summons to pray ... does not mean that the possibility of forgiveness is [now, as it once was,] being left open for Shemihazah and his companions. Rather, as in the Book of Watchers [of 1 Enoch], their praying is a sign of defeat signalling a contrast with the ultimate lot of earth's victims. Whereas the latter's [anguished, perishing] cries have been heeded [by Heaven], the Watchers' pleas for divine mercy for themselves and their children cannot escape the decisive results of divine judgment" (Stuckenbruck [1997], p. 93).
  44. ^ Hanson, Paul (1977). "Rebellion in Heaven, Azazel, and Euhemeristic Heroes in 1 Enoch 6-11". Journal of Biblical Literature. 96 (2). Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 195–233. JSTOR 3265878. Hanson describes the primordial myth of a "heavenly rebellion" of "astral deities" and a fallen astral-host — "the divine rebels and their earthly successors" — led by a morning-star figure (i.e., Lucifer 'son of the morning' = Satan/Satanael), whose aspirant ascent "in the subdued light of the morning [is] blotted out by the more brilliant light of the rising sun" (i.e., Yahweh — the anglicized 'Jehovah' — who in 1 En 10:11 uses Michael as His "divine agent" in the rebels' heavenly exile and punishment. The mighty archangel declares to Shemihazah, a leader of the fallen host: I cast you as a profane thing from the mountain of God, and the guardian [angels] drove you out from the midst of the stones of fire [stars, or astral deities] ... I cast you to the ground ... You have come to a dreadful end and shall be no more forever, pp. 207-209). Though ultimately cast from God's 'summit' and brought low, such arrogant presumption and ambition rises primevally to transcend the powers of Heaven in the spirit of Isaiah 14:13-14: I will ascend to heaven: I will exalt my throne above the stars of God, I will set my throne on high. I will sit on the mount of assembly in the far north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High. It is by this Urzeit connection to the prologue of creation, wherein a heavenly rebellion of divine beings occurs, that a fuller picture emerges for "an etiology of evil in the world: all of the evil in the world stems from a heavenly event, the rebellion of certain divine beings." Likewise does the story of fallen Watchers and giants both elucidate and advance towards an eschatological "denouement" (Endzeit) because "extirpation of evil would not occur from within the world order, but through cataclysmic extension of primeval events, culminating in a purging of the evil angels and spirits and the restoration of a perfect order" (pp. 218-219). See also Robert Murray's The Cosmic Covenant (2007, Gorgias Press), pp. 8-11, and Hanson's The Dawn of Apocalyptic: The Historical and Sociological Roots of Jewish Apocalyptic Eschatology (1975, Fortress Press).
  45. ^ That Milik here employs the word "seem" in referencing the fallen angels' bonds of "sin" indicates his understanding that the enslavement spoken of by Enoch is a spiritual bondage and dreadful promised fate that afflicts the fallen angels at this point in the narrative because of their vile crimes and deeds, as clearly the temporal retribution of heaven has not yet been carried out. The passage refers to the bonds of sin, not to physical bindings.
  46. ^ a b Mani, too, according to the biographical Cologne Mani-Codex, was in vision visited by his celestial or 'divine twin', a heavenly or pre-existent 'true self' — a noted element in Jewish mysticism (but manifest also in the apocryphal Syriac Hymn of the Pearl at the end of the Acts of Thomas, preserved and treasured in Manichaeism) — which alternately is thought to be the embodiment of what a 'son of God' (or true and faithful 'Watcher' as opposed to a 'child of Error') is meant to be, or to become. See Milik (1976), pp. 29, 34, 55, 142, 144, 172, 174, 192, 214, 229-230, 235-236, 427; Reeves (1992), pp. 35 note 13, 186-188; Stuckenbruck (1997), pp. 84 note 63, 88 note 71, and for Raphael, 93; Orlov (2005), pp. 165-176. Joseph Smith's 'restored' theology mentions the archangel Raphael canonically (D&C 128:21) and holds the archangels Michael and Gabriel to be, in essence, the 'heavenly doubles' of the patriarchs Adam and Noah, respectively. See Smith's History of the Church 3:386.
  47. ^ a b Orlov, Andrei A. (2017). The Greatest Mirror: Heavenly Counterparts in the Jewish Pseudepigrapha. Albany: State University of New York (SUNY Press). ISBN 978-1438466910.
  48. ^ The Qumranic texts, as both Milik and Orlov note, variously, and secondarily, give Sariel or Phanuel's name in place of Uriel's.
  49. ^ The great Paris Magical Papyrus of the fourth century gives a fascinating glimpse of divine retribution against the giant-rebels. Therein is recorded what is purported to be an ancient Hebrew prayer meant to exorcise demons in the holy name of "the god of the Hebrews ... the One who burned up the stubborn giants with lightning, whom the Heaven of heaven praises ... by the One who put the mountains [boundaries] around the sea [or] a wall of sand and commanded the sea not to overflow. The abyss obeyed, and you obey, every daimonic spirit ..." (cited in Murray [2007], pp. 91-92).
  50. ^ Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (v. 24) reads: "Enoch worshipped in truth before the Lord and behold he was not with the inhabitants of the earth because he was taken away and he ascended to the firmament at the command of the Lord, and he was called Metatron, the Great Scribe." Compare Heb 11:5-6. See VanderKam (2008/1995), p. 167.
  51. ^ Fourth-century historian Eusebius quotes "On the Jews" by first-century BCE historian Alexander Polyhistor (112-30) in his Praeparatio Evangelica (9.17.1-9 Pseudo-Eupolemus frag 1; 9.18.2 frag 2) that the Hebrew patriarch Abraham, who taught astronomy first to the Phoenicians and then to the Egyptians, inherited his knowledge of the stars from the archangelic Wisdom legacy extending from Noah to Enoch, who "first discovered" the celestial sciences by Uriel's instruction; the ancients identified Enoch with the Titan Atlas, whom the Greeks said "discovered astrology" (9.17.9). See Stuckenbruck (2017/2014), pp. 7-12, 31-32; Abr 3.
  52. ^ a b c Boccaccini, Gabriele, ed. (2007). Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man: Revisiting the Book of Parables. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802803771.
  53. ^ The mighty archangel Uriel ('God-fire' or 'fire of God'; God's "Regent of the Sun," "gloriously bright ... Interpreter ... Brightest Seraph" - Milton), as overseer of the 'heavenly bodies' of the cosmic creation and of the fallen angels of the underworld (1 En 20), was Enoch's "star" guide through the cosmos. He was also — according to Jewish tradition, as a foremost Angel of the Presence, or high priest of the celestial Temple — that great angel with flaming sword (a seraphic Watcher) placed by the gods to guard the gate to the pre-existent Edenic paradise and its Tree of Life (4 Ezra 3:5-6). Because of rebellion, archonic beings were, from their angelic stations or status, primordially "cast ... as profane out of the mountain of God ... from the midst of the stones of fire [from their positions amidst the stars, or from heaven's angelic host]" (Ezek 28:16). Uriel was set to ward off the demonic host (or those beings deemed unworthy, or unprepared) that might profane the sacred precinct. Uriel, who "helped Solomon repel demons from the Temple," was that archangel who, as he did for Enoch but also for the prophet Ezra, acted as the "interpreter" of heaven-sent visions and books — an "illuminator of the mind." In the end times, it is said, Uriel will, in warning declaration, blow his archangelic trump to usher in the boiling, melting conflagration (Isa 64:2) set to accompany the coming of the 'Son of Man' to reign for a thousand years, then judge the world. The prophet Isaiah, speaking for the Lord of Hosts, declared: "Behold, I have created the smith that bloweth the coals in the fire, and that bringeth forth an instrument for his work [of ingathering latter-day Israel; of defending God's elect against hostile or demonic powers]; and I have created the [archangelic] waster to destroy [in the cleansing inferno at earth's harvest]" (Isa 54:16). Jewish tradition's end-time "warrior" 'Messiah ben Joseph' is cast in very similar terms, or in like mold, to Uriel, who joins in raining "fire, naphtha, and brimstone" upon the Watchers and nephilim. As a messianic or forerunner figure, Ben Joseph serves well, in this sense, as an earthly referent or counterpart to the fire-of-God archangel: ultimately, Ben Joseph rains destruction on the wicked at end-times Jerusalem and calls forth in resurrection the spirits of the netherworld, over portions of which Uriel holds stewardship as cosmic warden. See Stephen Miller, The Book of Angels: Seen and Unseen (Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 2019), pp. 59-64; Margaret Barker, An Extraordinary Gathering of Angels (2004), pp. 66-67, 81-82, 102, 107, 400, 402-403, 412-413; and Mitchell (2016), pp. 182-183, 229.
  54. ^ Elijah, among the few prophets explicitly referred to in the Enochic writings (1 En 89:52), is Enoch's 'translated' colleague, but possibly also the archangel Phanuel, who, quite appropriately after Enoch's own translation, is one of three angels who take him atop the heavenly temple — whereupon one of the angels (Elijah-Phanuel?) directs Enoch to witness the great diluvial Judgement poured out upon the Earth's inhabitants (1 En 87:3-4). In early Jewish and Christian traditions, Elijah is often mentioned in this 'deathless' context with Enoch, which has given rise to the belief that this prophetic duo — both of whom were 'taken' by God to heaven without tasting death — are the two witnesses spoken of at Revelation 11 who return to testify and wage war in Jerusalem at the last day, but who are ultimately martyred, then resurrected. See VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 69, 85, 116-117, 141, 180-182.
  55. ^ Such a "table" — according to the Latin Life of Adam and Eve (50:1-3; 51:9) — appears to have taken two earthly forms in order to ensure its preservation — to make one or the other indestructible, or impervious to God's great Judgements of water and fire. Eve, upon her deathbed, instructs her son Seth to make "tablets of stone and other tablets of clay [containing their history but also "what Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied before the Flood"]. If he [God] should judge our race by water, the tablets of earth will dissolve and the tablets of stone will remain; but if he should judge our race by fire, the tablets of stone will break up and those of clay will be thoroughly baked" (the tablets are preserved by two archangels in 2 Enoch).
  56. ^ a b c Barker, Margaret. (2005) [1987]. "The Book of Enoch," in The Older Testament: The Survival of Themes from the Ancient Royal Cult in Sectarian Judaism and Early Christianity. London: SPCK; Sheffield Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1905048199
  57. ^ a b Even so, contrary to J. T. Milik's original assessment of a very late 270 CE date for the Enochic fragments at Qumran, scholarly consensus (by setting the date for the Book of Parables, rather, right at the turn of the Christian Era) overturns the idea that 'Similitudes' was a "late Christian document". The Parables section was wholly absent from the Qumran fragments in which were represented portions of all of 1 Enoch's other sections. But this was because (with the exception of the Qumran community's own sectarian literature) "no document whatsoever, written after the end of the second century BCE [in fact, probably not exceeding 150 BCE, per VanderKam], managed to find its way into the Qumran library"; all of 1 Enoch's other sections (or 'booklets') were written before 'Similitudes' between the second and fourth centuries BCE and were, therefore, found (in abundance) at Qumran. This consensus, of course, questions whether the original Parables book (though later celebrated by early Christianity) was a 'Christian' document at all; Milik's now-antiquated view, in other words, "has not," as VanderKam says, "carried the day" (Boccaccini, 1998; VanderKam 2008/1995, pp. 121, 132).
  58. ^ Bearing upon the scholars' above-mentioned suspicion of Hebraic foundations of the Enochic literature is Adolf Jellinek's insinuation or anticipation in 1853 — nearly one hundred years before the mid-20th century Qumran discoveries — when he suggested (in retrospect, rather startlingly) that the book of Enoch was an Essene creation! See Adolf Jellinek, "Hebräische Quellen für das Buch Henoch," Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 7 (1853): 249.
  59. ^ Jackson, Kent P. (2005). The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Publications. ISBN 978-0842525893.
  60. ^ "Introduction to the Book of Moses". Retrieved 2019-10-01.
  61. ^ a b c Nibley, Hugh (1986). Enoch the Prophet. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book. pp. 277–281, 300–301. ISBN 978-0875790473.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Larsen, David J. (2014). In God's Image and Likeness 2: Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel. Salt Lake City, Utah: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books. pp. 34-49, 68-69, 90-91, 94-99, 103-118, 133, 128, 141-142, 147, 150-154, 157, 190-193, 467-477. ISBN 978-1890718626
  63. ^ Maxwell, Neal A. (2006) [1975]. The Enoch Letters. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book. Original title: Of One Heart: The Glory of the City of Enoch. ISBN 978-1590386477
  64. ^ a b 1 Enoch reveals that Enoch knew "the mysteries of the holy ones" that were shown to him by "the Lord" and which he "read in the heavenly tablets" (106:19). Mahway may have qualified himself in some way also to be "shown" not just "tablets," but perhaps even inducted into the holy "mysteries" of the righteous, which the ancients called 'Wisdom' (see VanderKam [2008/1995], p. 10); Ohyah, indeed, had posed the violently accusatory question to Mahway: "Who showed you all this?" The full meaning of that fragmentary accusation must, of course (pending discoveries that may clarify it), remain obscure. Even so, if, for the giant, such repentance and conversion to Enoch's message occurred, Reeves' assertion (1992) could be valid regarding Qumran fragment "4Q537 Testuz" (early 1st century) — a text that Reeves suggests belongs to the Giants corpus and one that represents an intimate "consultation" (which he suspects is between Enoch and Mahway), for it speaks of the "survival" of the righteous from God's coming judgements, which will eradicate "evil and deceit." Therein, the auditor (Mahway?) is adjured to "read" the contents of certain (heavenly?) tablets that are presented to him by (Enoch?), who directs him in proper ritual procedure pertaining to the "true cult of God": "the unnamed auditor is bidden to 'take the tablets and read everything' [which is written in them]," which he obediently does: "And I took this tablet from his hands and I saw (what was) written in it." The auditor apparently is admonished to "come out" of a certain place, that "on the eighth day your offerings will not be in vain before the Most High." He is assured that something will "reach" him; that he will "[be cleansed from?] all your sins and all your guilty deeds," obtaining even "through your trespasses" an "eternal security". He is apparently warned against following any evil counsel "to be foolish and to wander astray and to walk in the ways of error and unchastity," that he might rather retain forgiveness from(?) "your evil ways until you become before Him ... [? the fragment ends]." If indeed the auditor is Mahway, he appears also to see in the tablet(s) a future day of "battle" with an "evil" from "the north" [compare Joel 2:20] when "all the peoples" will find refuge (hide) "from it [in] Zion" (compare Testament of Levi 10:5; Moses 7:27, 62-69), but that (when such evil is vanquished?) only "the righteous will remain" on the earth to enjoy its bounty, and no "evil and no deceit shall be found again." He is shown another unspecified "place" in its entirety "because it will be for them a sign." He is shown a "building [temple?]" in which "their priests will be clothed, and pure their hands ... bringing the sacrifices to the altar and ... eating from a portion of their sacrifices." See Milik (1976), p. 300; Reeves (1992), pp. 107-111, 158 note 355; Stuckenbruck (1997), pp. 222-224, 237-241. A sin-'cleansing' for Mahway, if the reading is correct, reinforces this story's "atonement"-motif connection (in the name "Azazel") with the sin-bearing scapegoat of Leviticus 16:8-10, 30 — symbol of a rebel bound, covered in darkness, consigned to a desolate netherworld and 'fiery' destruction (which, in the end, is a representation of "divine intervention" to atone for all sin); see VanderKam (2008/1995), p. 39. Touching upon the closely related themes of plausible repentance and forgiveness among the depraved giants is Goff (2016), pp. 7, 115-127; upon 'good' vs. 'culpable' giants, Stuckenbruck (2017/2014), pp. 2, 4, 10-11.
  65. ^ Orlov, Andrei A. (2017). Chapter 1: Antecedents and Influences — Mediators of the Name: "The Angel of the Lord as the Mediator of the Name," "Moses as the Mediator of the Name," "High Priest as the Mediator of the Name," "Archangel Michael as the Mediator of the Name," "Shemihazah as [Apostate] Mediator of the Name," "The Son of Man as the Mediator of the Name," and "Little Yao [Jeu] as the Mediator of the Name," in Yahoel and Metatron: Aural Apocalypticism and the Origins of Early Jewish Mysticism. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 9-60. ISBN 978-3161554476
  66. ^ a b Odeberg, Hugo, ed. (1973) [1928]. 3 Enoch or The Hebrew Book of Enoch, by Rabbi Ishmael Ben Elisha, the High Priest. Brooklyn, New York: KTAV Publishing House. Edited and translated by Odeberg. Originally published by Cambridge University Press, England.
  67. ^ See Jasher (3:10), the name of a book referenced at least twice in Joshua and 2 Samuel of the Hebrew Bible, which, in several of its midrashic iterations, closely follows both the Slavonic and Hebrew Enoch. Therein, several earthly kings assemble to hail Enoch as their supreme head, in the ancient pattern of the 'year-king'. See VanderKam (2008), pp. 6-10; Barker (2005/1988), pp. 5-6; and Orlov (2005), pp. 23-39, 99-101, 110-111, 127-130, 135, 137 note 237, 138-142, 159-165, 200-203, 214-218, 267 note 55.
  68. ^ Miller, Patrick D., Jr. (1973). The Divine Warrior in Early Israel. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1589832176.
  69. ^ The Book of Moses (7:19; 6:52; 7:62) and the Testament of Levi (10:4-5; 10:2) both mention the name of Enoch in the context of "righteousness", Christ in the context of "salvation", and Jerusalem (Zion) in the context of a "house" or "Holy City" that the Lord "chooses" as His abode after Israel's gathering from its "scattered" state in the last days. See VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 144-145; compare also 1 En 1:9 with Life of Adam and Eve 51:9 and Jude 1:6-7, 14-15.
  70. ^ Enoch's city, as described in the Book of Moses, which "flourished" among the "high places" and in which all "were of one heart and one mind, and dwelt in righteousness; and there was no poor among them" (Mos 7:17-18), seems to reflect at once, though in different ways (for the city was prosperous but radically isolated), two different Essene groups: the economically prosperous majority of 'Enochian' Essenes described by Philo and Josephus, who, maintaining their own homes, lived and worked alongside their non-Essene neighbors in various occupations and cities in the Judean highlands while, nevertheless, holding all things "in common" strictly among their same-faith "brethren" — as opposed to the radically isolated and austere single-community of the 'Dead Sea' Essenes (who, though self-sufficient by common unpaid labour, were "without money") as described by the non-Jewish Pliny and Dio. The schism between the Enochian and Qumran Essenes occurred "at the beginning of the first century BCE," with the more radical sect following their "Teacher of Righteousness" into isolated life in the wilderness (as did the people of Zion their 'Preacher of Righteousness', but ascending into the hills; Mos 6:23; 7:19). See Boccaccini (1998), Ch 2: "The Essenes in Ancient Historiography".
  71. ^ The Enochic 'translation' at Moses 7:69 ("And Enoch and all his people walked with God, and he dwelt in the midst of Zion; and it came to pass that Zion was not, for God received it up into his own bosom; and from thence went forth the saying, Zion is fled") corresponds with Enoch's removal "from human society" to God's paradise, at Jubilees 4:23-25, where he would remain to "testify against all people in order to tell all the deeds of history until the day of judgment." The paradisaical 'Bosom of Abraham' in Judaism is also referred to as the Edenic 'Third Heaven'. Other celestial spheres and their occupants which Enoch encounters in his ultimate ascent (2 Enoch) include the First Heaven (celestial treasuries of the physical elements), Second Heaven (condemned sinners), Fourth Heaven (celestial gates and concourses of the stars), Fifth Heaven (Watchers), Sixth Heaven (angelic hosts), Seventh Heaven (mighty Archangels), and, guided by Gabriel, the three surmounting heavens Eight, Nine and Ten, in the last of which Enoch finally approaches the Lord of Spirits in His heavenly Temple, where he is clothed by Michael in the heavenly robes reserved for him, and receives secret Wisdom and new names for eternity. See VandkerKam (2008/1995), pp. 116-117, 158-161.
  72. ^ See Isaiah 28:1-22, wherein latter-day scoffers of God's glory-adorned people have, like the rebellious Watchers and prideful giants, made "a covenant with death, and with hell," but their deceitful refuge will be swept away by flood-waters as God, by his marvelous work, lays in Zion a Temple foundation-stone — tested, "tried" and true, "sure" and "precious". The return of Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, in the last times is a common idea in early Israelite literature: 1 En 90:28-29; Gal 4:26; Rev 3:12, 21:2, 10; 2 Bar 4:2-6; 4 Ezra 7:26, 8:52, 10:27-50, 13:36. See Mitchell (2016), p. 202 note 128.
  73. ^ The call of Moses in Exodus is similar to Moses 6:47, wherein the people, following Enoch's prophetic call, tremble and are unable to "stand in his presence," elsewhere it is related, because of the brightness of his countenance, that the people find it also difficult to look upon his face (2 En 37:1-2; Enoch himself acknowledged that "my face was changed" at 1 En 39:14 and 2 En 1:9; see also Exod 33:20, 34:29-35; Orlov [2005], pp. 173-174, 228 note 73, 289-291.
  74. ^ Eminent Yale professor and Jewish literary scholar Harold Bloom, in his study of the life and revelations of Joseph Smith, marvels at the Prophet's ability to have produced writings on Enoch so "strikingly akin to ancient suggestions" and attributes Smith's prophetic works to a "charismatic accuracy" by which "I hardly think that written sources were necessary." While expressing "no judgment, one way or the other, upon the authenticity" of Smith's professed revelations from antiquity, Bloom finds "enormous validity" in these writings and can "only attribute to [the Prophet's] genius or daemon" his ability to "recapture ... crucial elements in the archaic Jewish religion ... that had ceased to be available either to normative Judaism or to Christianity, and that survived only in esoteric traditions unlikely to have touched [Joseph] Smith directly" - The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation (New York: Chu Hartley Publishers, 2013; originally published by Simon & Schuster, 1992), pp. 98-101. Not long before his 1844 martyrdom at Carthage, Illinois, in which several bullets pierced his body, Joseph Smith famously declared: "No man knows my history." Even so, he is also reported to have said, in response to an individual earnestly inquiring after his identity: "Noah came before the flood. I have come before the fire." See Matthew B. Brown, All Things Restored (2000, Covenant Communications), pp. 34-39.
  75. ^ Note also Moses 8:21 whereat the fallen among humankind proudly identify themselves as the "sons of God" and shamelessly boast before Noah of their forbidden intercourse with the "daughters of men ... eating and drinking, and marrying and giving in marriage," and also flaunt the bastardy results of their fornication (8:18), calling their giant-sons "mighty men, which are like unto men of old, men of great renown" — who Gen 6:4 calls "gibborim who were from eternity, the men of the name." The Greek LXX Genesis translates both nephilim and gibborim as hoi gigantes (the giants). Of note also is that, of the known Enochic accounts, it is only the Book of Moses that accords with the Jewish historian Josephus (and the Enochic sources he used for his Antiquities of the Jews IV 1:73), who professes Noah (Josephus makes no mention of Enoch as preacher) as one who confronts the fallen angels and their mighty sons, calling them to repentance (albeit unsuccessfully). See VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 34, 153.
  76. ^ Meeks, Wayne A. (2017) [1967]. The Prophet-King: Moses Traditions and the Johannine Christology. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock. Originally published by E. J. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-1498288842.
  77. ^ a b Waddell, James A. (2013). The Messiah: A Comparative Study of the Enochic Son of Man and the Pauline Kyrios. New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0567561152.
  78. ^ In Manichaean Giants literature, the Enochic King of Heaven figure of Qumranic tradition (the "Great Holy One" and "Lord of Spirits") is called the "Father of Greatness," and he dwells in a region called the "Realm of Light" (see Reeves, pp. 169, 180 note 32, 200 note 15; Milik, pp. 144, 214, 260; Stuckenbruck [2017/2014], p. 116).
  79. ^ The 1 Enoch text called the 'Book of Parables' (or 'Similitudes') uses the name "Holy One" in reference both to its Ruler of angels ("the holy ones") and to its 'Son of Man' figure presiding over the great earthly Judgements (see Barker [2005/1987], pp. 105-108, 111-119). Enoch, too, as a commissioned messenger of Judgement, serves as a 'Son of Man' figure, having been given, at 1 Enoch 71, its title — that is, he is an anointed (priest-king) visionary who, having experienced heavenly ascent (theophany), is an observer-member of the 'heavenly council' (sôd) and thereafter commissioned to be a messenger and an agent of judgement in the traditional manner of the ancient prophets. See Orlov (2005), pp. 80-85, 106-112, 184-188; Barker (2005/1987), pp 249-250. Prophets were often expressly 'sent' from the heavenly sôd or from Yahweh's presence, as the bible witnesses, to reveal His message (secret counsel, plans, mysteries) to people on earth (Ex 3:10, 15, 7:16; Deut 34:11; Josh 25:5; 1 Sam 15:1; 2 Sam 12:1, 25; 1 Kings 22:19-23; Job 1:6, 2:1, 15:8; Ps 25:14, Ps 82, 105:26; Isa 6:1, 8-9; Jer 1:7, 7:25, 19:14, 23:16-22; Ezek 2:3-4; Amos 3:7; Mic 6:4; Hag 1:12; Zech 2:12, 13, 15; Mal 3:23). See James Ross, "The Prophet as Yahweh's Messenger," in Bernhard W. Anderson and Walter Harrelson, eds., Israel's Prophetic Heritage (2010/1962, Wipf & Stock/Harper & Row), pp. 98-107. The 'Similitudes' (1 En 37-71) is by far the largest of the five Enochic 'booklets' — divided by its author into three distinct 'Parables': chapters 38-44; 45-57; and 58-69. One of its principal themes is the idea of reversal: the states of the high and mighty wicked and the lowly and oppressed righteous will one day reverse themselves. Enoch's great hortatory 'wisdom' treatise is directed to "all people ... who dwell on the earth" and it encourages the righteous to "hold fast" against the injustice of sinners who seemingly have the upper hand, giving the obedient "a revealed glimpse behind the scenes of the universe so that they can see what the situation actually is," things as they really are. It promises that once the "Righteous and Chosen One" causes "the house of his congregation to appear; from then on, in the name of the Lord of Spirits," the Elect "will not be hindered" (1 En 53:6; compare Isa 53:11). "The final judgment will be the time when all wrongs are made right, when the virtuous are rewarded and the evil are punished in just measure," when the day of "mercy" will have passed and when it would be better for some that "they had not been born" (1 En 38:2), "for they denied the Lord of Spirits and his Messiah" (1 En 48:10; compare Ps 2:2); VanderKam (2008/1995), pp. 132-142. Like the moral of Job's tale, Enoch similarly assures all of creation that "God will eventually put things right"; Barker (2005/1987), p. 261.
  80. ^ The Book of the Giants, 1943

External links[edit]