||This article may contain original research. (October 2010)|
Boomerang generation is a term applied to the current generation of young adults in Western culture. They are so named for the frequency with which they choose to cohabitate with their parents after a brief period of living on their own – thus boomeranging back to their place of origin. This cohabitation can take many forms, ranging from situations that mirror the high dependency of pre-adulthood to highly independent, separate-household arrangements.
The term can be used to indicate only those members of this age-set that actually do return home, not the whole generation. In as much as home-leaving practices differ by economic class, the term is most meaningfully applied to members of the middle class.
|This section's factual accuracy is disputed. (June 2009)|
The parental expectation of having an "empty nest", traditional in the United States and some other industrialized cultures, has increasingly given way in the 1990s and 2000s to the reality of a "cluttered nest" or "crowded nest". The latter term was popularized by Kathleen Shaputis's 2004 book The Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children, which takes a critical view of the trend.
University of Western Ontario professor Roderic Beaujot discusses the phenomenon of delayed home-leaving at length. He cites Canadian census statistics showing that, in 1981, 27.5% of Canadians aged 20–29 lived with their parents; in 2001, the figure had grown to 41%. In the United States the proportion of adults ages 20 to 34 living with their parents has increased from 9% in 1960 to almost 17% in 2000. However, US census data also suggest that the rate at which adult children have been living with parents has been steady since 1981.)The U.S. Census Bureau reported a 5 percent point increase in the number of young men (ages 24–34) living with their parents for the period between 2005 (14%) and 2011 (19%). For the same period, the number of young women living with their parents increased from 8% in 2005 to 10% in 2011.)
The 18th through 21st birthdays of this generation coincide with the economic downturn starting with the collapse of the stock market bubble in 2000. This led to rising unemployment until 2004, the same time this generation was entering the workforce after high school or college graduation. Additionally, in the new economy, where globalisation-induced phenomena like outsourcing have eliminated many jobs, real wages have fallen over the last twenty years, and a college degree no longer ensures job stability. Additionally, with the recent economic crisis hitting much of the world, many young people were either laid off or could no longer afford to live on their own. Moving back home allows them the option of unpaid internships and additional schooling without the burden of paying rent at market rates (or paying rent at all).
This generation differs from previous ones in that many members expect to remain with their parents for some years while maintaining their own social and professional lives. Home-leaving remains a priority for most in the Boomerang Generation.
The phenomenon of boomeranging/delayed home-leaving has generated considerable inquiry and debate, including academic studies at reputable universities; full-length books, such as The Hands-On Guide to Surviving Adult Children Living at Home by Christina Newberry; articles in national newspapers; documentaries, such as Generation Boomerang; and major motion pictures, such as Failure to Launch (2006) starring Matthew McConaughey.
The primary justification for this phenomenon, as articulated in Kimberly Palmer's 2007 U.S. News & World Report article "The New Parent Trap: More Boomers Help Adult Kids out Financially", is economic. In particular, the term Boomeranger has been used to draw reference to those Gen-Xers and Gen-Yers of the Boomerang Generation who have either returned to an earlier, more modest lifestyle or have simply moved back home with parents and other loved ones, in response to the Great Recession. Where the young person and his/her parents can tolerate the arrangement, it provides tremendous financial relief to the young person. Such co-residence can be a valuable form of insurance, particularly for youths from poorer families. It may also provide non-negligible income to the parents, though in many cultures, the young person retains all or nearly all of this income for disposable income purchases.
Though inter-generational cohabitation is terra incognita for many in modern industrialized Western societies and therefore challenging, those who attempt it can benefit from the experience. The arrangement tends to force all involved to communicate and negotiate in ways they did not when the children were pre-adults. In the best case, this can lead to healthy adult relationships between parents and children.
This can benefit parents when they reach old age. In societies where it is common for children to live with their parents into adulthood, such as Asian, and Hispanic cultures, children more frequently take care of aging parents, rather than devolving the responsibility on a third party, such as a nursing home. Whether the Boomerang Generation will follow suit remains to be seen, as the older Baby Boom generation ages.
Critics of the practice of boomeranging, such as Shaputis, worry about the negative effect this trend has on the financial and social independence of the children.
Those who return home from the unrestrictive nature of college dorm life may have difficulty readjusting to their parents' domestic expectations. Where living space is shared, gatherings with friends can be limited in frequency or scope. Dating is similarly constrained and can be impaired by the stigma of the young adult's perceived inability to function independently of his/her parents.
- Sampo generation
- Parasite single
- Emerging adulthood
- Millennial Generation
- MTV Generation
- Quarter-life crisis
- Failure to Launch
- Reed, Jim. "'Boomerang' generation back home". BBC News.
- Sharon Jayson Analysis: 'Boomerang' generation mostly hype USA Today 3/14/2007
- MICHELLE HIRSCH,The Boomerang Generation: More Reasons to Move Back Home June 12, 2010 The Fiscal Times
- Shaputis, Kathleen. The Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children. Clutter Fairy Publishing, 2004. Print. ISBN 978-0-9726727-0-2
- Delayed Life Transitions: Trends and Implications accessed on June 9, 2007
- Fields J. and L.M. Casper, America's families and living arrangements, 2000, US Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, as cited in Nijole Benokratis, Marriages and Families, 6th edition, Pearson, 2008, p.371
- Families and Living Arrangements, table AD-1 accessed on June 9, 2007
- Boomerang generation: U.S. Census shows more young adults moving in with parents
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- Marcotte, Dave E. (1999). "Has Job Stability Declined?: Evidence from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58 (2): 197–216. JSTOR 3487712.
- College graduates in non-college jobs: Theory and evidence accessed on January 29, 2007
- Newberry, Christina. The Hands-On Guide to Surviving Adult Children Living at Home. Nuru Guides, 2012. Print. ISBN 978-0981390055
- Generation Boomerang (2011) at the Internet Movie Database
- Palmer, Kimberly. "The New Parent Trap: More Boomers Help Adult Kids out Financially." U.S. News & World Report, Dec. 12, 2007
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Moving Back Home: Insurance Against Labor Market Risk, March 2010