Bor, Serbia

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Bor

Бор
Bor- photomontage (Panorama of Bor, Brestovac Spa, Cultural center, Dumper in Park Museum, Hotel near Bor Lake, View on Mining and Smelting Basin Bor, Technical faculty)
Bor- photomontage (Panorama of Bor, Brestovac Spa, Cultural center, Dumper in Park Museum, Hotel near Bor Lake, View on Mining and Smelting Basin Bor, Technical faculty)
Flag of Bor
Flag
Coat of arms of Bor
Coat of arms
Location of the city of Bor within Serbia
Location of the city of Bor within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°05′N 22°06′E / 44.083°N 22.100°E / 44.083; 22.100Coordinates: 44°05′N 22°06′E / 44.083°N 22.100°E / 44.083; 22.100
CountrySerbia
RegionSouthern and Eastern Serbia
DistrictBor
City statusJune 2018
Settlements14
Government
 • MayorAleksandar Milikić (SNS)
Area
 • Urban47.62 km2 (18.39 sq mi)
 • Administrative856 km2 (331 sq mi)
Elevation
381 m (1,250 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[2]
 • Urban
34,160
 • Urban density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Administrative
48,615
 • Administrative density57/km2 (150/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
19210
Area code+381 30
Car platesBO
Websitewww.opstinabor.rs

Bor (Serbian Cyrillic: Бор) is a city and the administrative center of the Bor District in eastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the city administrative area has a population of 48,615 inhabitants.

It has one of the largest copper mines in Europe – RTB Bor. It has been a mining center since 1904, when a French company began operations there.[3] With 760 residential buildings it presents the most urban area due to number of citizens in country, and one of top-five cities in Serbia by number of buildings.[4]

Name[edit]

The name is derived from the Serbian word Bor (Бор), meaning "pine".[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Bor is surrounded by many beautiful locations such as Banjsko Polje, Brestovačka Banja spa, Borsko Jezero lake, and Stol mountain, and is very close to Mount Crni Vrh.

Climate[edit]

Bor has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb) with pleasantly warm summers, cold winters and uniformly distributed precipitation throughout the year.

Climate data for Bor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
3.8
(38.8)
9.6
(49.3)
15.2
(59.4)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.9
(78.6)
22.2
(72.0)
15.7
(60.3)
7.9
(46.2)
3.2
(37.8)
14.6
(58.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
0.5
(32.9)
5.1
(41.2)
10.0
(50.0)
14.8
(58.6)
17.8
(64.0)
19.8
(67.6)
19.6
(67.3)
16.1
(61.0)
10.8
(51.4)
4.5
(40.1)
0.6
(33.1)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
0.7
(33.3)
4.8
(40.6)
9.4
(48.9)
12.3
(54.1)
13.7
(56.7)
13.4
(56.1)
10.1
(50.2)
5.9
(42.6)
1.1
(34.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44
(1.7)
43
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
55
(2.2)
77
(3.0)
85
(3.3)
65
(2.6)
53
(2.1)
48
(1.9)
44
(1.7)
55
(2.2)
56
(2.2)
670
(26.4)
Source: Climate-Data.org [5]

Flora and fauna[edit]

The Lazar's Canyon is now home to rare plants – Crimean pine, relict species of Taxus and Serbian rhammondies – and animals like: Chamois, Golden eagles, True owl, Peregrine falcon also, endemic arthropods and bats.

History[edit]

In 1835, Miloš Obrenović invited August von Herder (son of J.G. Herder) to the Bor region to carry out geological investigations.

In 1903, the area with the copper deposits was bought by George Weifert and in June 1904 the copper mine with the co-operation of French companies opened.[6]

On 27 March 1941, Nazi Germany's leader Hitler ordered the attack on Yugoslavia. in accordance with Führer’s directive No. 25 which mentioned that the possession of the industrial site of the Bor copper mines was very important for military purposes. In 1943, Hungarian-Jewish forced laborers were stationed at nearby mines which covered 50 percent of the copper requirement of Nazi Germany's war industry. In the period from July 1943 to September 1944, at least 6,000 Hungarians were used. In May 1943, the total number of inmates (excluding Kapos) came to about 23,000 forced laborers from Serbia.[7][8]

On 17 September 1944 (front)), a column of about 3,000 prisoners including Kapos left the camp under the supreme command of the German armed forces which were about 1000 strong were force marched to a pontoon bridge in Smederovo and then further on to Baja (via the eastern route).

On 19 September, a second column of about 3,000 prisoners left the camp under the supreme command of the SS-Polizei-Gebirgsjäger-Regiment Nr. 18 and were force marched via Pančevo (the western route) to Baja. From Pančevo to Baja, the column was under the supreme command of a paramilitary operation echelon Deutsche Mannschaft Hermann Göring“.

All prisoners were either used to build the south-east wall or transported by train to concentration camps such as Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Dachau, Flossenbürg, Mauthausen, Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen, and Auschwitz. And last but not least, some national socialist Danube Swabian Officials including family members also took the opportunity to escape by train to Baja.[9]

During both forced marches, there were several attacks carried out by Yugoslav partisans. Meanwhile, some prisoners took the opportunity to flee to the partisans and thus found life-saving protection. The victims of both Death marches were people like Gyula Trebitsch, and Miklós Radnóti.[10]

In 1947, Bor received urban status from the political authorities. At the time its population was 11,000.

In June 2018, Bor gained the status of a city, along with Prokuplje.[11]

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the city proper area, the city includes the following settlements:[12]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194834,831—    
195338,688+2.12%
196143,448+1.46%
197152,849+1.98%
198156,486+0.67%
199159,900+0.59%
200255,817−0.64%
201148,615−1.52%
Source: [13]

According to the 1910, 1931 and 1971 censuses, the inhabitants of the urban area of Bor numbered 2,613 in 1910, 4,749 in 1931 and 29,118 residents in 1971. According to the 2011 census, the population of Bor numbered 48,615 residents, while the urban area of Bor had 34,160 residents.[14][15][16]

Ethnic groups[edit]

With a total of 32 different ethnic groups being represented among the population, Bor is one of the most ethnically mixed cities in Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the settlements in the city of Bor with an Serbian ethnic majority were: Bor, Brestovac, Donja Bela Reka, and Oštrelj. The settlements with Vlach ethnic majority were: Bučje, Gornjane, Krivelj, Luka, Metovnica, Tanda, Topla, and Šarbanovac. Ethnically mixed settlements were: Zlot (relative Serb majority) and Slatina (relative Vlach majority).[citation needed]

The ethnic composition of the city:

Ethnic group 2002 census 2011 census
Serbs 39,989 35,435
Vlachs 10,064 6,701
Roma 1,259 1,758
Macedonians 540 429
Romanians 107 293
Albanians 115 113
Others 3,743 3,886
Total 55,817 48,615

Ethnic groups in Bor: Serbs, Vlachs, Roma, Macedonians, Romanians, Albanians, Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Gorani, Bunjevci, Yugoslavs, Montenegrins, Croatians, Slovenians, Hungarians, Muslims, Germans, Greeks, Slovaks, Russians, Rusyns, Chinese, Ukrainians, Italians, Turks, Ashkali, Czechs, Poles, Jews, Canadians, Belarusians.

Economy[edit]

"Cold box" - Messer Tehnogas AD Bor

Copper mining, mainly by the biggest employer Zijin Bor Copper, is the key basis of Bor's economy. On 31 August 2018, a Chinese mining company Zijin Mining took over 63% of the shares of the company RTB Bor, in a $1.26 billion deal with the Government of Serbia.[17] A few Canadian companies operated in Bor, like Nevsun Resources, Dundee, Rakita and Avala resources, while the new smelter and sulfuric acid plant for RTB Bor were built by Canada's SNC Lavalin. Many companies from Canada, led to Canadians settling in the city and thus formed a new ethnic group in Bor.[18] Apart from mining, some other companies that operate in Bor are Messer Tehnogas AD, Wolong ATB FOD, IT Center Bor, Metalka, Keramika Bor etc. In 2018, the average gross monthly wage in the city of Bor was US$750 (€643, 76078 RSD, 5115 CNY, 4627 Turkish liras) - As of May 2018.[19]

The following table gives an overview of the total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2017):[20]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 60
Mining 2,015
Processing industry 2,365
Distribution of power, gas and water 374
Distribution of water and water waste management 341
Construction 439
Wholesale and retail, repair 1,382
Traffic, storage and communication 766
Hotels and restaurants 280
Media and telecommunications 129
Finance and insurance 160
Property stock and charter 25
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 452
Administrative and other services 314
Administration and social assurance 774
Education 975
Healthcare and social work 1,055
Art, leisure and recreation 249
Other services 166
Total 12,321

Culture and society[edit]

Cultural center
Technical faculty

Education[edit]

Technical Faculty of Bor[21][22] is a faculty of the University of Belgrade, with a tradition dating back to 1961. The Faculty was accredited as a scientific-research organisation in the area of technical-technological science in 2007. So far 1804 students graduated from this faculty, in addition to 18 students that completed specialist studies, 122 master studies and 70 students that defended doctoral theses.

Elementary schools

  • "3. October"
  • "Branko Radičević"
  • "Dušan Radović"
  • "Saint Sava"
  • "Vuk Karadžić"
  • "Petar Radovanović"
  • "Stanoje Miljković"
  • "Đura Jakšić"
  • "Vidovdan"

High schools

  • "Vidovdan"
  • "Bora Stanković"
  • "Technical school"
  • "Economic-trade school"
  • "School of Electrical Engineering"
  • "Academy Dositej - Medical school (department)"

University education

  • "Technical faculty of Bor"
  • "Technical and mechanical engineering college Trstenik (department)"

Movies[edit]

Bor is the city where many films were produced. Because of that, city have the nickname "Boriwood".[23] List of Serbian and international movies produced in Bor include Tears for Sale, Tilva Roš, White White World, Man Is Not a Bird, Winning of Freedom, On the Road to Katanga, Saga o tri nevina muškarca, Save Our Souls, Volja sinovljeva, Vivegam.

Sports[edit]

Bor Sports center during Bor-Red Star Belgrade, women basketball game in 2016
Bor Skate Plaza, is the biggest skate park in the Balkans

Bor Sports Center (Serbian: Спортски центар Бор/Sportski centar Bor) is an indoor sporting arena. The capacity of the arena is 3,000 people in the seating area, and 4,500 in the ground level area.[24] The Bor Skate Plaza is the first and the biggest skate park in the Balkans. It is located next to the Karting circuit and Bor Sports Center. It is opened in 2012.[25] Next to the Bor Skate Plaza is the Karting circuit that was built in the same year. Near to them is the stadium "4. kilometer" and Bor Hippodrome.

The most famous club in the city is definitely FK Bor football club, which spent several seasons in the top division, the Yugoslav First League, participating in the European Cup Winners Cup in the season of 1968/69, and played in the national Cup Finale in season 1967/1968 against Red Star Belgrade.

FK Bor is currently part of Bor District league, which is the Fifth tier league in Serbia, while another city club, FK Slatina Bor, is in Zone League East, the fourth-level football league in Serbia. In the season 2018-2019, three clubs from Bor will take part in the top level national league competitions. ZKK Bor will play in the First Women's Basketball League of Serbia, ZJRK Bor in Serbian First League of Handball for Women, while American football team Golden Bears Bor is in the top-level American Football League of Serbia.

Under the auspices of the Public Utility "Sportski Centar Bor" is the Bor Airport, with a paved runway, where traditional sport air show "Fly in" used to be held.[26]

Bor has hosted 2013 EBSA European Under-21 Snooker Championship.[27]

Tourism[edit]

City of Bor is surrounded by many beautiful locations. Borsko jezero (Bor Lake) is a tourist attraction for many domestic and foreign tourists, and it is less than 20 km away from the city center. It is popular in the summer, when the water temperature reaches 25 °C (77 °F) and it has two beaches. There is a bus line from the city center and back, during the summer.

During the winter, popular destinations for tourists are many mountains around Bor. Crni Vrh is a mountain just 30 km from the city center. Highest peak has an elevation of 1,043 m (3,422 ft) above sea level. It has several ski tracks and the ski lift. The main ski track is 1100 m long and has height span of 260 m. Just 16 km from the city center there is another mountain Stol. Its highest peak has an elevation of 1,156 meters above sea level. Like nearby Veliki Krš and Mali Krš, Stol has a number of pronounced karst formations. It is a popular destination for Mountaineering. It has a ski lift and well equipped ski trails. Mountain Rtanj in Boljevac municipality is 50 km away from Bor.

The Lazareva Pećina, which translates Lazar's Cave, is the longest explored cave in Serbia.[28] It is located 21 km from the city center. According to 2012's Recent Landform Evolution: The Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Region, the cave is 9,407 metres (5.845 mi) long.[28] The cave is situated near the entrance of the deep canyon carved into the mountains by the river Zlotska.[29] Bogovina cave is also near Bor, just about 30 km away.

Lazar's Canyon is located at about 10 kilometers from Bor. This is the deepest and longest canyon in eastern Serbia. Because of its steep rocky cliffs, the canyon has not yet been fully examined. Passing through canyon it is a real adventure, at times quite challenging and arduous. In many places it is necessary to clamber over the rocks.

Brestovac Spa is one of oldest spas in Serbia, located just 8 km from the city center. Health treatment are done with slightly sulphurous and oligomineral water with temperature of 20 to 41 °C. The Spa is for treatment and curing diseases and injuries to the muscles and bones. Especially relevant cured diseases are degenerative rheumatic diseases, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, swelling and pain. And also chronic joint diseases, muscle disorders lumbago – lower back pain. More gynecological diseases, upper respiratory mucous membrane inflammation, skin conditions, increased diuresis, low level of stomach acid, digestive tract diseases. Furthermore, kidney diseases and nerve diseases. Water is rich with potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, sulfate and also carbonate. Ways of treatment are drinking and bathing.

The Residence of Prince Miloš (Serbian: Конак кнеза Милоша) is a royal residence in the Brestovac Spa.

Bor zoo (Serbian: Борски зоолошки врт), is a zoo located in Bor, Serbia. It was founded in 2011, and it is one of four zoos in Serbia and is also considered to be one of the most attractive public zoos in southeastern Europe.[30] The zoo covers an area of 2,5 hectares (6,17 acres) and holds about 140 animals representing more than 70 different wild and exotic species of animals as well as domestic and indigenous ones.

Park Museum is an "open museum" located from the city center, and through the main streets "Mose Pijade" and "Zeleni bulevar" with mining exhibits. It is possible to see them from a vehicle or from a sidewalk.

Paragliding is very popular in this part of Serbia, considering there are several excellent locations for this sport, such as mountains Crni Vrh and Stol.

Politics[edit]

Seats in the municipal parliament won in the 2018 local elections:[31]

Local media[edit]

Notable citizens[edit]

Đorđe Vajfert

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Bor is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. ^ "Bor (Serbia) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  4. ^ "Јединствена евиденција стамбених заједница" [Unique record of residential buildings]. Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  5. ^ "Climate: Bor, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  6. ^ Knight of Serbia - George I. Weifert, Association of Serbian Banks.
  7. ^ Eleonore Lappin-Eppel, Ungarisch-Jüdische Zwangsarbeiter und Zwangsarbeiterinnen in Österreich 1944/45. Arbeitseinsatz – Todesmärsche – Folgen. LIT, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-643-50195-0, p. 18.
  8. ^ Johannes Bähr and Ralf Banken, Das Europa des "Dritten Reichs": Recht, Wirtschaft, Besatzung, Klostermann, Frankfurt/Main 2005, ISBN 978-3-465-03401-8, p. 212.
  9. ^ Zoran Janjetović, Between Hitler and Tito: The Disappearance of the Vojvodina Germans, Self-publishing, Belgrade 2000.
  10. ^ Randolph L. Braham: The Politics of Genocide. The Holocaust in Hungary. Volume 1, Columbia University Press, New York 1981, ISBN 0-231-05208-1, p. 335-359. Erhard Roy Wiehn, Zwangsarbeit, Todesmarsch, Massenmord. Erinnerungen überlebender ungarischer Zwangsarbeiter des Kupferbergwerks Bor in Jugoslawien 1943-1944. Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 2007, ISBN 978-3-86628-129-5.
  11. ^ "Srbija dobila još dva grada". b92.net (in Serbian). Tanjug. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia, Volume 20: Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade 2014, p. 95, retrieved on 2017-12-21.
  14. ^ RÉSULTATS PRÉLIMINAIRES DU DÉNOMBREMENT DE LA POPULATION ET DES ANIMAUX DE FERME DANS LE ROYAUME DE SERBIE LE 31 DÉCEMBRE 1910, Direction de la Statistique d'État, Belgrade 1911, p.60, PDF on the Website by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, retrieved on 2017-12-21.
  15. ^ Opšta Državna Statistika: Definitivni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 31 marta 1931 godine. Knjiga 2: Prisutno stanovništvo po veroispovesti. Opšta Državna Statistika, Beograd 1938, p. 76. Popis stanovništva i stanova 1971, Knjiga 7: Stanovništvo i domaćinstava u 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971. Savezni zavod za statistiku. Beograd 1975, p. 289.
  16. ^ 2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia, Volume 20: Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade 2014, p. 95, retrieved on 2017-12-21.
  17. ^ Jamasmie, Cecilia (31 August 2018). "China's Zijin wins race for Serbia's largest copper mine". mining.com. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  18. ^ "VUČIĆ U BORU: Na gradilištu samo Kanađani, gde su naši?". kurir.rs (in Serbian). 16 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  19. ^ Average salaries and wages paid in May 2018[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2018. (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Technical Faculty of Bor History (English)".
  22. ^ "Technical Faculty of Bor".
  23. ^ Bor kao Borivud. B92. 2010.
  24. ^ "Ustanova Sportski Centar Bor". EKapija Business Portal.
  25. ^ "Bor dobio najveću skejt plazu na Balkanu". Bor030. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  26. ^ D. Stojanović (2010-07-19). "Aerodrom u Boru bez struje i vode". Blic.
  27. ^ "European Snooker Championship U21 - Bor / Serbia 2013". European Billiards & Snooker Association. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  28. ^ a b Lóczy, Dénes; Miloš Stankoviansky; Adam Kotarba (2 January 2012). Recent Landform Evolution: The Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Region. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 359. ISBN 978-94-007-2448-8.
  29. ^ Tasić, Nikola (1995). Eneolithic cultures of central and west Balkans. Draganić. p. 172.
  30. ^ "TO Bor". tobor.rs.
  31. ^ Konačni rezultati lokalnih izbora u Boru: četiri političke opcije u lokalnom parlamentu, rtvbor.rs
  32. ^ "Solaris media". e novine.
  33. ^ "Ist media". Vesti iz Borskog i Zaječarskog okruga.
  34. ^ "Bor Info". Sve informacije iz grada Bora.
  35. ^ "Bor 030". Web portal grada Bora.
  36. ^ "Medija centar". Borski Info centar.
  37. ^ "Klik FM". klik995.net.
  38. ^ "Antena". antenabor.com.
  39. ^ "RTV Bor". rtvbor.rs.

Sources[edit]

  • "Бор". Гласник Етнографског музеја, књ. 38. 1975.

External links[edit]