Bor, Serbia

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Bor
Бор
City
Bor
Bor
Flag of Bor
Flag
Coat of arms of Bor
Coat of arms
Location of the city of Bor within Serbia
Location of the city of Bor within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°05′N 22°06′E / 44.083°N 22.100°E / 44.083; 22.100Coordinates: 44°05′N 22°06′E / 44.083°N 22.100°E / 44.083; 22.100
Country  Serbia
Region Southern and Eastern Serbia
District Bor
City status June 2018
Settlements 14
Government
 • Mayor Aleksandar Milikić (SNS)
Area[1]
 • Urban 47.62 km2 (18.39 sq mi)
 • Administrative 856 km2 (331 sq mi)
Elevation 381 m (1,250 ft)
Population (2011 census)[2]
 • Urban 34,160
 • Urban density 720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Administrative 48,615
 • Administrative density 57/km2 (150/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 19210
Area code +381 30
Car plates BO
Website www.opstinabor.rs

Bor (Serbian Cyrillic: Бор) is a city and the administrative center of the Bor District in eastern Serbia. As of 2011, the city urban area has 34,160 inhabitants, while the administrative area has 48,615 inhabitants.

It has one of the largest European copper mines - RTB Bor. It has been a mining center since 1904, when a French company began operations there.[3]

Name[edit]

The name is derived from the Serbian word Bor (Бор), meaning "pine".[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Bor is surrounded by many beautiful places such as Banjsko Polje, the spa-town Brestovačka Banja, the lake Borsko Jezero, and the mountain Stol, and it is very close to the mountain Crni Vrh.

Climate[edit]

Bor has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb) with pleasantly warm summers, cold winters and equally distributed precipitation throughout the year.

Climate data for Bor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
3.8
(38.8)
9.6
(49.3)
15.2
(59.4)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.9
(78.6)
22.2
(72)
15.7
(60.3)
7.9
(46.2)
3.2
(37.8)
14.6
(58.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
0.5
(32.9)
5.1
(41.2)
10.0
(50)
14.8
(58.6)
17.8
(64)
19.8
(67.6)
19.6
(67.3)
16.1
(61)
10.8
(51.4)
4.5
(40.1)
0.6
(33.1)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−2.8
(27)
0.7
(33.3)
4.8
(40.6)
9.4
(48.9)
12.3
(54.1)
13.7
(56.7)
13.4
(56.1)
10.1
(50.2)
5.9
(42.6)
1.1
(34)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
45
(1.77)
55
(2.17)
77
(3.03)
85
(3.35)
65
(2.56)
53
(2.09)
48
(1.89)
44
(1.73)
55
(2.17)
56
(2.2)
670
(26.38)
Source: Climate-Data.org [4]

History[edit]

Neolithic Bubanj-Salkuca culture ceramics and anthropomorphic-zoomorphic figurines were found in Krivelj.[5]

In 1903 the mine of Bor was opened which was important moment for the development of Bor.

On 27 March 1941, Nazi Germany leader Hitler ordered the attack on Yugoslavia. The Führer’s directive No. 25 mentioned that the possession of Bor's copper mines is very important for military purposes. In 1943, Hungarian-Jewish forced laborers were imprisoned nearby the mines which should be covered 50 percent of the copper requirement of the German war industry. In the period from July 1943 to September 1944, at least 6,000 people were imprisoned.[6]

In September 1944, the evacuation of the forced labor camp started. On 17 September, a column of about 3,600 prisoners left the camp under supreme command by guards of the Hungarian military which were about 100 strong and supported by Kapos. The prisoners were pushed to a pontoon bridge close to Smederovo and then via Pančevo to Baja. From Pančevo to Titel, the Hungarian guards were supported by paramilitary operation echelon Hermann Göring of regional Danube Swabians. In Titel, the authority was returned to Hungarian military. A part of the column had to march to Baja, where they were then transported by train to concentration camps in Flossenbürg, Sachsenhausen and Oranienburg. The other part was used to build the south-east wall.

During the forced march on the way to Smederovo there were several attacks by Yugoslav partisans on the guards. Meanwhile, some prisoners were able to flee to the partisans and thus find life-saving protection. Throughout the route, prisoners were fed food from a majority of Serbian people on every possible occasion. According to surviving eyewitnesses, the responsible Hungarian captain decided that settlements of settlements mostly populated by Germans are to be covered during the night after crossing the Danube.

On 19 September, a second column of about 2,500 prisoners with Kapo guards left the camp under the command of units of SS-Polizei-Gebirgsjäger-Regiment Nr. 18. The prisoners were pushed via Belgrade to Pančevo and then across territory of Autonomous Banat and Hungarian territory to the west. From Pančevo to Titel, the column was under supreme command of paramilitary operation echelon of regional Danube Swabians. In Titel, the authority was returned to Hungarian military. A part of the column had to march to Baja, where they were then transported by train to concentration camps in Bergen-Belsen and Buchenwald. The other part was used to build the south-east wall. Among the surviving inmates were people like László Lindner, Gyula Trebitsch and the father of Ákos Kertész. Among the killed prisoners is Miklós Radnóti.[7][8]

In 1947, Bor received the town status by charta of political authorities. At the time its population was 11,000.

In June 2018, Bor gained the status of a city, along with Prokuplje.[9]

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the city proper area, the city includes the following settlements:[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194834,831—    
195338,688+2.12%
196143,448+1.46%
197152,849+1.98%
198156,486+0.67%
199159,900+0.59%
200255,817−0.64%
201148,615−1.52%
Source: [11]

According to the 1910, 1931 and 1971 censuses, the inhabitants of urban area of Bor numbered 2,613 in 1910, 4,749 in 1931 and 29,118 residents in 1971. According to the 2011 census, the population of the Bor numbered 48,615 residents, while the urban area of Bor had 34,160 residents.[12][13][14]

Ethnic groups[edit]

With the total of 32 different ethnics being represented among the population, Bor is one of the most ethnically mixed cities in Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the settlements in the city of Bor with Serb ethnic majority were: Bor, Brestovac, Donja Bela Reka, and Oštrelj. The settlements with Vlach ethnic majority were: Bučje, Gornjane, Krivelj, Luka, Metovnica, Tanda, Topla, and Šarbanovac. Ethnically mixed settlements were: Zlot (relative Serb majority) and Slatina (relative Vlach majority).[citation needed]

The ethnic composition of the city:

Ethnic group 2002 census 2011 census
Serbs 39,989 35,435
Vlachs 10,064 6,701
Roma 1,259 1,758
Macedonians 540 429
Romanians 107 293
Albanians 115 113
Others 3,743 3,886
Total 55,817 48,615

Ethnic groups in Bor: Serbs, Vlachs, Roma, Macedonians, Romanians, Albanians, Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Gorani, Bunjevci, Yugoslavs, Montenegrins, Croatians, Slovenians, Hungarians, Muslims, Germans, Greeks, Slovaks, Russians, Rusyns, Chinese, Ukrainians, Italians, Turks, Ashkali, Czechs, Poles, Jews, Canadians, Belarusians.

Economy[edit]

Copper mining, mainly of the biggest employer RTB Bor, is the key basis of the Bor's economy.

In 2011, the average gross monthly wage in the city of Bor was US$730 (540, 54649 RSD, 944 NZD) - As of August 2011 [15] This average monthly wage is set to receive a large increase as soon as the modernizing of RTB Bor begins (including the flow-on effects, i.e. Further business investment in the city, etc.)

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[16]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 69
Mining 2,034
Processing industry 2,658
Distribution of power, gas and water 288
Distribution of water and water waste management 340
Construction 305
Wholesale and retail, repair 1,430
Traffic, storage and communication 594
Hotels and restaurants 275
Media and telecommunications 133
Finance and insurance 160
Property stock and charter 24
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 398
Administrative and other services 330
Administration and social assurance 758
Education 985
Healthcare and social work 1,060
Art, leisure and recreation 254
Other services 165
Total 12,260

Culture and society[edit]

Education[edit]

Technical Faculty of Bor[17][18] is a faculty of the University of Belgrade, with tradition dating back to 1961. The Faculty was accredited as a scientific-research organisation in the area of technical-technological science in 2007. So far 1804 students graduated at this faculty, in addition to 18 students that completed specialist studies, 122 master studies and 70 students that defended doctoral theses.

Sports[edit]

Sport Center Bor (Serbian: Спортски центар Бор/Sportski centar Bor) is an indoor sporting arena. The capacity of the arena is 3,000 people for seating, and 4,500 with the ground.[19] It is currently home to the KK Bor basketball team.

Under the auspices of the Public Utility "Sportski Centar Bor" is the Bor Airport, with paved runway, used only for sporting events.[20]

Politics[edit]

Seats in the municipal parliament won in the 2018 local elections[21]:

Notable Citizens[edit]

Twin Towns and Sister Cities[edit]

Bor is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27. 
  3. ^ "Bor (Serbia) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  4. ^ "Climate: Bor, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved December 22, 2017. 
  5. ^ "[Projekat Rastko] Nikola Tasic: Eneolitske kulture centralnog i zapadnog Balkana". Rastko.rs. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  6. ^ Eleonore Lappin-Eppel, Ungarisch-Jüdische Zwangsarbeiter und Zwangsarbeiterinnen in Österreich 1944/45. Arbeitseinsatz – Todesmärsche – Folgen. LIT, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-643-50195-0, p. 18.
  7. ^ Randolph L. Braham: The Politics of Genocide. The Holocaust in Hungary. Volume 1, Columbia University Press, New York 1981, ISBN 0-231-05208-1, p. 335-359. Daniel Blatman: The Death Marches. The Final Phase of Nazi Genocide. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge and London 2011, ISBN 978-0-674-05049-5, p.65-66. Erhard Roy Wiehn, Zwangsarbeit, Todesmarsch, Massenmord. Erinnerungen überlebender ungarischer Zwangsarbeiter des Kupferbergwerks Bor in Jugoslawien 1943-1944. Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 2007, ISBN 978-3-86628-129-5.
  8. ^ Memorial to the poet Miklós Radnóti on Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance, retrieved on 2017-12-20. Zsuszanna Ozsváth, In the footsteps of Orpheus : the life and times of Miklós Radnóti, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2000, ISBN 0-253-33801-8, GVK - GBV Union Catalogue, retrieved on 2017-12-20.
  9. ^ "Srbija dobila još dva grada". b92.net (in Serbian). Tanjug. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018. 
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia, Volume 20: Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade 2014, p. 95, retrieved on 2017-12-21.
  12. ^ RÉSULTATS PRÉLIMINAIRES DU DÉNOMBREMENT DE LA POPULATION ET DES ANIMAUX DE FERME DANS LE ROYAUME DE SERBIE LE 31 DÉCEMBRE 1910, Direction de la Statistique d'État, Belgrade 1911, p.60, PDF on the Website by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, retrieved on 2017-12-21.
  13. ^ Opšta Državna Statistika: Definitivni rezultati popisa stanovništva od 31 marta 1931 godine. Knjiga 2: Prisutno stanovništvo po veroispovesti. Opšta Državna Statistika, Beograd 1938, p. 76. Popis stanovništva i stanova 1971, Knjiga 7: Stanovništvo i domaćinstava u 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971. Savezni zavod za statistiku. Beograd 1975, p. 289.
  14. ^ 2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia, Volume 20: Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade 2014, p. 95, retrieved on 2017-12-21.
  15. ^ Average salaries and wages paid in August 2011[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  17. ^ "Technical Faculty of Bor History (English)". 
  18. ^ "Technical Faculty of Bor". 
  19. ^ "Ustanova Sportski Centar Bor". EKapija Business Portal. 
  20. ^ D. Stojanović (2010-07-19). "Aerodrom u Boru bez struje i vode". Blic. 
  21. ^ https://rtvbor.rs/vesti/vesti/izbori-2018/7787-kona%C4%8Dni-rezultati-lokalnih-izbora-u-boru-%C4%8Detiri-politi%C4%8Dke-opcije-u-lokalnom-parlamentu]

Sources[edit]

  • "Бор". Гласник Етнографског музеја, књ. 38. 1975. 

External links[edit]