Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855
The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 resulted from the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, when Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for France's best Bordeaux wines that were to be on display for visitors from around the world. Brokers from the wine industry ranked the wines according to a château's reputation and trading price, which at that time was directly related to quality.
The wines were ranked in importance from first to fifth growths (crus). All of the red wines that made it on the list came from the Médoc region except for one: Château Haut-Brion from Graves. The white wines, then of much less importance than red wine, were limited to the sweet varieties of Sauternes and Barsac and were ranked only from superior first growth to second growth.
Changes to the classification
Within each category, the various châteaux are ranked in order of quality and only twice since the 1855 classification has there been a change: first when in 1856 Cantemerle was added as a fifth growth (having either been originally omitted by oversight or added as an afterthought, depending on which of the conflicting accounts is correct) and, more significantly, in 1973, when Château Mouton Rothschild was elevated from a second growth to a first growth vineyard after decades of intense lobbying by the powerful Philippe de Rothschild. A third, but less known "change", is the removal of Château Dubignon, a third growth from Margaux that was absorbed into the estate Château Malescot St. Exupéry.
A superficial change is that since 1855, when only five of the estates were styled with the word "château" in their name, most Bordeaux wine estates now use this nomenclature.
As a classification of châteaux, the actual vineyards owned by some wineries have expanded, shrunk and been divided without any reclassification, and considerable plots of valued terroir have changed ownership. Indeed, it is a peculiarity of Bordeaux that as long as a vineyard parcel lies within the boundaries of the wine commune, it is eligible to be used by any chateau, independent of the quality of the parcel itself.
Many wine critics have argued that the 1855 Classification became outdated and does not provide an accurate guide to the quality of the wines being made on each estate. Several proposals have been made for changes to the classification, and a bid for a revision was unsuccessfully attempted in 1960. Alexis Lichine, a member of the 1960 revision panel, launched a campaign to implement changes that lasted over thirty years, in the process publishing several editions of his own unofficial classification and the Alexis Lichine's Guide to the Wines and Vineyards of France, in which he devoted a chapter to the subject. In support of his argument, Lichine cited the case of Chateau Lynch-Bages, the Pauillac Fifth Growth that, through good management and by patiently collecting the best parcels as they come on the market, makes wine that in his view are worthy of a much higher classification. Conversely, poor management can result in a significant decline in quality, as the example of Chateau Margaux shows—the wines it made in the 1960s and 1970s are widely regarded as far below what's expected of a First Growth. Other critics have followed a similar suit, including Robert Parker who published a top 100 Bordeaux estates in 1985 and L'histoire de la vigne & du vin (English: The History of Wine and the Vine) by Bernard and Henri Enjalbert in 1989, as well as efforts made by Clive Coates (MW) and David Peppercorn (MW). Ultimately nothing has come of them; the likely negative impact on prices for any downgraded châteaux and the 1855 establishment's political muscle are considered among the reasons.
In March 2009, the British wine exchange Liv-ex released The Liv-ex Bordeaux Classification, a modern re-calculation of the 1855 classification, with an aim to apply the original method to the contemporary economical context.
Many of the leading estates from the Médoc appellation that were not included in the 1855 classification are classified as Cru Bourgeois, a classification system that has been updated on a regular basis since 1932, banned in 2007, but reinstated in 2010.
The Médoc Classification of 1855
In French Les Grands Crus classés en 1855. The estates are listed with their commune (village), and their AOC in parenthesis, if different from the commune. The 19th-century names appear as listed by the brokers on April 18, 1855, followed by the modern names, as the use of "second cru" for red wines and "deuxième cru" for white wines.
The Red Wines of the Gironde
First Growths (Premiers Crus)
- Château Lafite, now Château Lafite Rothschild, Pauillac
- Château Latour, Pauillac
- Château Margaux, Margaux
- Haut-Brion,[a] now Château Haut-Brion, Pessac, Graves
- Mouton,[b] now Château Mouton Rothschild, Pauillac
Second Growths (Deuxièmes Crus)
- Rauzan-Ségla, now Château Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux
- Rauzan-Gassies, now Château Rauzan-Gassies, Margaux
- Léoville, now
- Vivens Durfort, now Château Durfort-Vivens, Margaux
- Gruaud-Laroze, now Château Gruaud-Larose, St.-Julien
- Lascombes, now Château Lascombes, Margaux
- Brane, now Château Brane-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
- Pichon Longueville, now
- Ducru Beau Caillou, now Château Ducru-Beaucaillou, St.-Julien
- Cos Destournel, now Château Cos d'Estournel, St.-Estèphe
- Montrose, now Château Montrose, St.-Estèphe
Third Growths (Troisièmes Crus)
- Kirwan, now Château Kirwan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
- Château d'Issan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
- Lagrange, Château Lagrange, St.-Julien
- Langoa, now Château Langoa-Barton, St.-Julien
- Giscours, now Château Giscours, Labarde-Margaux (Margaux)
- St.-Exupéry, now Château Malescot St. Exupéry, Margaux
- Boyd, now
- Palmer, now Château Palmer, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
- Lalagune, now Château La Lagune, Ludon (Haut-Medoc)
- Desmirail, now Château Desmirail, Margaux
- Dubignon,[c] later Château Dubignon, Margaux
- Calon, now Château Calon-Ségur, St.-Estèphe
- Ferrière, now Château Ferrière, Margaux
- Becker, now Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker, Margaux
Fourth Growths (Quatrièmes Crus)
- St.-Pierre, now Château Saint-Pierre, St.-Julien
- Talbot, now Château Talbot, St.-Julien
- Du-Luc, now Château Branaire-Ducru, St.-Julien
- Duhart, now Château Duhart-Milon, Pauillac
- Pouget-Lassale and Pouget, both now Château Pouget, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
- Carnet, now Château La Tour Carnet, St.-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
- Rochet, now Château Lafon-Rochet, St.-Estèphe
- Château de Beychevele, now Château Beychevelle, St.-Julien
- Le Prieuré, now Château Prieuré-Lichine, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
- Marquis de Thermes, now Château Marquis de Terme, Margaux
Fifth Growths (Cinquièmes Crus)
- Canet, now Château Pontet-Canet, Pauillac
- Batailley, now
- Grand Puy, now Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Pauillac
- Artigues Arnaud, now Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Pauillac
- Lynch, now Château Lynch-Bages, Pauillac
- Lynch Moussas, now Château Lynch-Moussas, Pauillac
- Dauzac, now Château Dauzac, Labarde (Margaux)
- Darmailhac, now Château d'Armailhac, Pauillac
- Le Tertre, now Château du Tertre, Arsac (Margaux)
- Haut Bages, now Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Pauillac
- Pédesclaux, now Château Pédesclaux, Pauillac
- Coutenceau, now Château Belgrave, St.-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
- Camensac, now Château de Camensac, St.-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
- Cos Labory, now Château Cos Labory, St.-Estèphe
- Clerc Milon, now Château Clerc-Milon, Pauillac
- Croizet-Bages, now Château Croizet Bages, Pauillac
- Cantemerle,[d] now Château Cantemerle, Macau (Haut-Médoc)
The White Wines of the Gironde
[Barsac estates may be labelled with the appellation Barsac or Sauternes.]
Superior First Growth (Premier Cru Supérieur)
- Yquem, now Château d'Yquem, Sauternes
First Growths (Premier Crus)
- Latour Blanche, now Château La Tour Blanche, Bommes (Sauternes)
- Peyraguey, now
- Vigneau, now Château de Rayne-Vigneau, Bommes (Sauternes)
- Suduiraut, now Château Suduiraut, Preignac (Sauternes)
- Coutet, now Château Coutet, Barsac
- Climens, now Château Climens, Barsac
- Bayle, now Château Guiraud, Sauternes
- Rieusec, now Château Rieussec, Fargues (Sauternes)
- Rabeaud, now
Second Growths (Deuxième Crus)
- Mìrat, now Château de Myrat, Barsac
- Doisy, now
- Pexoto, now part of Château Rabaud-Promis
- D’arche, now Château d'Arche, Sauternes
- Filhot, now Château Filhot, Sauternes
- Broustet Nérac, now
- Caillou, now Château Caillou, Barsac
- Suau, now Château Suau, Barsac
- Malle, now Château de Malle, Preignac (Sauternes)
- Romer, now
- Lamothe, now
- Classification of Graves wine
- Classification of Saint-Émilion wine
- Regional wine classification
- History of Bordeaux wine
- Bordeaux wine regions
- Judgment of Paris
Notes and references
- Stevenson, Tom (2005). The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia (4th ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 64–65. ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.
- Echikson, Tom (2004). Noble rot. NY: Norton. ISBN 0-8168-6825-5
- Taber, George M. (2005). Judgment of Paris: California vs. France and the historic 1976 Tasting that Revolutionized Wine. NY: Scribner. ISBN 0-7432-9732-6
- Peppercorn, David (2003). Bordeaux. London: Mitchell Beazley. p. 83. ISBN 1-84000-927-6.
- Stevenson, Tom (2005). The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia (4th ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 64. ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.
- Lichine, Alexis (1967). Alexis Lichine's Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits. London: Cassell & Company Ltd. pp. 144–148.
- Lichine, Alexis (May 1989). Alexis Lichine's Guide to the Wines and Vineyards of France. Alfred A Knopf.
- Prial, Frank J. The New York Times (1989-08-20). "The Battle of 1855".
- Alexis Lichine's Guide to the Wines and Vineyards of France
- Parker, Robert (2013). Bordeaux: A Consumer's Guide to the World's Finest Wines (Fourth revised ed.). Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781476727134.
Prior to that  is a succession of failures ... they are washed out, mediocre shells of what they could have been
- Jenster, Per V. (2008). The Business of Wine: A Global Perspective. Copenhagen Business School Press. p. 163. ISBN 9788763002011.
- Prial, Frank J. The New York Times (1988-02-17). "Wine Talk".
- Prial, Frank J. The New York Times (1991-09-25). "Wine Talk".
- Goldberg, Howard G., Wine News. "Dusting off the 1855 debate". Archived from the original on 2008-01-23.
- Liv-ex Fine Wine Market blog (March 10, 2009). The Liv-ex Bordeaux Classification
- Lechmere, Adam, Decanter.com (March 6, 2009). "Liv-ex creates new 1855 Classification".
- Anson, Jane, Decanter.com (2007-07-10). "Cru Bourgeois classification officially over". Archived from the original on December 27, 2007.
- Anson, Jane, Decanter.com (2008-02-26). "Cru Bourgeois revived". Archived from the original on March 2, 2008.
- Lechmere, Adam, Decanter.com (September 23, 2010). "Cru Bourgeois: new listing launched".