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Border Security Force

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Border Security Force (BSF) is the Border Service branch of the Central Armed Police Force. It is an organization responsible for guarding the border, particularly the India’s borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is under the command of the Ministry of Home Affairs and was formed in the wake of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 for ensuring the security of the borders of India and for connected matters therewith.[1][2]

The BSF has grown from 25 battalions in 1965, to 192 battalions with a sanctioned strength of 270,000 personnel including an expanding air wing, water wing, an artillery regiment and specialised units.[3][4] It is currently the world's largest border security force. BSF has been termed the First Line of Defence of Indian territories.[5]

Border Security Force Logo


A soldier of Border Security Force in one of the ceremonial uniforms.



Since the independence of India in 1947, the protection of India's international boundaries was the responsibility of the local police belonging to each border state, with little inter-state coordination.[6] However, during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Pakistan attacked Sardar Post, Char Bet, and Beria Bet on 9 April 1965 in Kutch. This attack exposed the inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed aggression. Thus, after the end of the war, the government created the Border Security Force as a unified central agency with the specific mandate of guarding India's international borders. This act brought greater cohesion in border security. K F Rustamji, from the Indian Police Service, was the first Director General of the BSF. Since it was a new force, the officers had to be deputed or inducted from outside to fill the various vacancies at various levels until the force's own cadre matured sufficiently. It was for this reason that emergency commissioned officers and SS officers of the Indian Army were inducted in large numbers into the force along with IPS officers who were deputed to the force for high level appointments.[6]

The BSF's capabilities were used in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 against Pakistani forces in areas where the Regular Forces were thinly spread; BSF troops took part in several operations including the famous Battle of Longewala. In fact, for BSF the war on the eastern front had started well before the war actually broke out in December 1971. BSF had trained, supported and formed part of Mukti Bahini and had entered erstwhile East Pakistan before the actual hostilities broke out. BSF had played a very important role in the Liberation of Bangladesh which Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rehman had also acknowledged.

List of DG's of BSF


K.F. Rustamji, IPS[7] was appointed as the first Director General of Border Security Force from 22 July 1965 to 30 September 1972 and the current Director General is Nitin Agarwal, IPS, since 15 June 2023.[8]

No. Name Start End
1 Khusro Faramurz Rustamji 22 July 1965 30 September 1972
2 Ashwini Kumar 1 October 1972 31 December 1977
3 Sharawan Tandon 1 January 1978 30 November 1980
4 K. Rama Murti 1 December 1980 31 August 1982
5 Birbal Nath 1 September 1982 30 September 1984
6 M.C. Misra 1 October 1984 31 July 1987
7 H.P. Bhatnagar 1 August 1987 31 July 1990
8 T. Ananthachary 1 August 1990 31 May 1993
9 Prakash Singh 9 June 1993 31 January 1994
10 D.K. Arya 1 February 1994 3 December 1995
11 Arun Bhagat 4 December 1995 2 October 1996
12 A.K. Tandon 2 October 1996 4 December 1997
13 E.N. Rammohan 4 December 1997 30 November 2000
14 Gurbachan Singh Jagat 30 November 2000 30 June 2002
15 Ajay Raj Sharma 1 July 2002 31 December 2004
16 R.S. Mooshahary 31 December 2004 26 February 2006
17 A.K. Mitra 27 February 2006 30 September 2008
18 M.L. Kumawat 1 October 2008 31 July 2009
19 Raman Srivastava 1 August 2009 31 October 2011
20 U.K. Bansal 1 November 2011 30 November 2012
21 Subhash Joshi 19 December 2012 28 February 2014
22 D.K. Pathak 8 March 2014 29 February 2016
23 K.K. Sharma 1 March 2016 30 September 2018
24 Rajni Kant Mishra 1 October 2018 31 August 2019
25 V.K. Johri 1 September 2019 10 March 2020
26 Surjeet Singh Deswal 11 March 2020 17 August 2020
27 Rakesh Asthana 18 August 2020 28 July 2021
28 Surjeet Singh Deswal 28 July 2021 31 Aug 2021
29 Pankaj Kumar Singh 1 September 2021 31 December 2022
30 Sujoy Lal Thaosen 1 January 2023 14 June 2023
31 Nitin Agarwal 15 June 2023 Incumbent





During peacetime

  • Border guard and security.
  • Prevention trans-border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.
  • Prevention of smuggling and any other illegal activities on the border.
  • Anti-infiltration duties.
  • Collection trans-border intelligence.
  • To promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.

During war time

  • Holding ground in assigned sectors.
  • Limited aggressive action against irregular forces of the enemy.
  • Maintenance of law and order in enemy territory administered under the Army's control.
  • Acting as guides to the Army in border areas.
  • Assistance in control of refugees.
  • Provision of escorts.
  • Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including cross-border raids.[9]
  • Replenishing manpower.

BSF is also employed for Internal Security Duties and other law and order duties on the requisition of the State Government. Being a Central Armed Police Force it can be entrusted with policing duties at any place apart from its mandate.[9] Although originally charged with guarding India's external boundaries, the BSF in the 1990s was also given the task in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations in Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and the Northeastern Seven Sister States. While in Punjab, BSF took part in operations like Blue Star, Black Thunder 1 & 2. However, when the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir broke out in 1989, it moved towards the state and handed over the operations in Punjab to CRPF and local police. In Jammu and Kashmir, state police and the thinly-deployed Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) struggled to cope with the torturous violence, so it was deployed to combat these.

In Jammu and Kashmir, BSF initially suffered casualties from terrorist attacks but later saw successes. During the initial years, terrorist activity had even reached Jammu and parts of Northern Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. However, it was only due to the successful operations by BSF that by the late 1990s, their area of activity had been restricted only to the valley. BSF was also successful in setting up a robust HUMINT network. From arresting Maulana Masood Azhar, Bitta Karate, Yasin Malik BSF is also credited for killing Ghazi Baba - chief of Jaish-e-Mohammed and the mastermind of the 2001 Indian Parliament attack in August 2003, along with his deputy commander. The BSF raided Baba's hideout in Srinagar and he was killed in the ensuing gun battle along with his deputy chief.

However, with changing tactical and operational conditions, and expansion and modernisation of State police, the Government withdrew all 60 BSF battalions and redeployed them on the Indo-Pakistani border and Bangladesh–India border. These troops were then replaced by fresh troops from the CRPF that had undergone specialised training in counter-terrorism.

Some units of BSF are also deployed in Central India to combat Naxal violence. Counter-Maoist operations are diversified. BSF is deployed in Kanker district of Chhattisgarh, where Naxal strength is comparatively thinner than that of other parts of Bastar region. At present total 15 battalions of BSF are stationed in different parts of Kanker district to combat the Naxal.

After recent civilian killings in Kashmir the Home Ministry re-inducted BSF for counter-insurgency operations and law-and-order duties in valley. The BSF units will be deployed in sensitive areas which lie in various districts of the Kashmir valley. A significant contributor to BSF success in the Kashmir Valley is Commandant Jagmohan Singh Rawat SM, KC. He has played a crucial role in counter-insurgency operations.


BSF band marching contingent during the 63rd Republic Day Parade.
The Home Minister with children who are part of the Bharat Darshan Tour organized by the BSF in 2012.
Women personnel of BSF taking part in the ceremonial retreat at the India-Pakistan border at Wagah, 2010.
A BSF soldier performs at the Attari–Wagah border ceremony metres from a Pakistan Rangers soldier.
At the Petrapole-Benapole Border Ceremony, BSF and Border Guard Bangladesh personnel.

The Border Security Force has its headquarters in New Delhi and is known as Force Headquarters (FHQ) headed by a Director General. Various directorates like Operations, Communications & IT, Training, Engineering, General, Law, Provisioning, Administration, Personnel, Armaments, Medical, Finance etc. function under the DG. Each directorate is headed by an IG. The Eastern Theatre is looked after by Spl. DG HQ (Eastern Command) at Kolkata and the Western Theatre is looked after by Spl DG HQ (Western Command) at Chandigarh. Field Formations in BSF are headed by an Inspector General (IG) and are known as Frontiers Headquarters (Ftr HQ). There is 13 such Frontier under which Sector Headquarters (SHQ) function headed by a Deputy Inspector General (DIG) each. Each SHQ has under its command, 4–5 infantry battalions, along with attachments of artillery, air and water wings. Presently 186 battalions are sanctioned to BSF. Five major training institutions and ten Subsidiary Training Centres (STCs) are imparting ab-initio as well as in-service training to its ranks and other CPOs/SPOs including IPS Probationers.

BSF is the only Central Armed Police Force to have its own Air Wing and artillery regiment, and besides ITBP to have a Water Wing. All these specialised wings support the General Duty Battalions in their operations. The Financial Adviser of the BSF has been an Indian Revenue Service officer of the rank of Joint Secretary and also has Dy Advisers from the Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Indian Civil Account Service and Indian Defence Account Service.

The BSF also has a national level school for the breeding and training of dogs. Dogs from other CPOs and State Police are sent to National Training Centre for Dogs (NTCD) to be trained in infantry patrol, detection of explosives, tracking and the like.[10]

The BSF maintains a Tear Smoke Unit (TSU), which is unique in India. The TSU is responsible for producing tear gas munitions required for the Anti-Riot Forces. It also exports a substantial quantity to other countries.[11][12]

Three battalions of the BSF, located at Kolkata, Guwahati, and Patna, are designated as the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). Each battalion maintains 18 self-contained specialist search and rescue teams of 45 personnel each, including engineers, technicians, electricians, dog squads and medics and paramedics. The establishment of each battalion is 1,158 personnel. The NDRF is a multi-disciplinary, multi-skilled, high-tech force for all types of disasters and can deploy to disasters by air, sea, and land. These battalions are equipped and trained for all natural disasters including combating Chemical, Biological Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) disasters.

Since 2014, as a part of modernisation, BSF also started installing infra-red, thermal imagers, aerostats for aerial surveillance, ground sensors, radars, sonar systems to secure riverine borders, fibre-optic sensor and laser beam intrusion detection systems on specific sections of border with Pakistan and Bangladesh. These Hi-tech systems are installed in areas where barbed wire fencing could not be installed due to treacherous terrain or marshy riverine topography. The largest section of this system is located at Dhubri, Assam, where Brahmaputra river enters Bangladesh.[13][14]


  • Western Command, Chandigarh
    • Gujarat Frontier, Gandhinagar
      • Barmer Sector
      • Gandhinagar Sector
      • Bhuj Sector,
    • Rajasthan Frontier, Jodhpur
      • Jaisalmer (South)Sector
      • Jaisalmer (North) Sector
      • Bikaner Sector
      • Ganganagar Sector
    • Punjab Frontier, Jalandhar
      • Ferozepur Sector
      • Amritsar Sector
      • Gurdaspur Sector
    • Jammu Frontier, Jammu
      • Jammu Sector
      • Sunderbani Sector
      • Rajauri Sector
      • I/Nagar Sector
    • Kashmir Frontier, Humhama
      • Srinagar Sector
      • Baramulla Sector
      • Bandipore Sector
      • Kupwara Sector
  • Eastern Command, Kolkata
    • South Bengal Frontier,[15] Kolkata
    • North Bengal Frontier, Kadamtala
    • Meghalaya Frontier
    • Tripura Frontier, Agartala
    • Mizoram & Cachar Frontier, Masimpur
      • Aizawl Sector
      • Cachar Sector
      • CI Ops Manipur
    • Assam Frontier, Guwahati
    • FTR HQ (spl ops)Odisha
  • SHQ Koraput
  • SHQ Malkanagiri

Special Detachments


Creek Crocodile


The Creek Crocodile is the specialised commando unit of BSF. Primary objective of this unit is to act as Quick reaction force and prevent smuggling and infiltration by unwanted elements. The unit is specifically deployed at Indus River Estuaries in Gujarat and Sir Creek. It was raised in 2009.[16] The base of operations of this unit is located at Koteshwar outpost of BSF.[16] They are equipped with All-Terrain Vehicles (ATV) and fast patrol boats.[17]

Camel Contingent

Camel contingent during a parade

BSF Camel Contingent is a specialised battalion-size Camelry Unit which has its roots in Bikaner Camel Corps. The primary purpose of this unit is to patrol the desert section of the border with Pakistan. This unit has a strength of 1,200 camels and 800 riders. Both camels as well as riders are trained at Camel Training Centre located at BSF Frontier Headquarters in Jodhpur.[18]

However, with force modernisation pacing up, BSF has equipped its formation across the western border with All-Terrain Vehicles and other specialised apparatus.

Proposal regarding guarding the Indo-Myanmar border


The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) has been considering a proposal to entrust the border-guarding duty along the Indo-Myanmar border to the Border Security Force (BSF). Presently, the 1,640 kilometres (1,020 mi) Indo-Myanmar border is being guarded by Assam Rifles.

The proposed move to guard the Indo-Myanmar border follows a proposal from the BSF to take over the role by raising 45 new battalions, one headquarters of additional director general, four frontier headquarters to be headed by an IG rank official and 12 sector headquarters to be headed by DIG level officials. However, as of 1 March 2015, it was decided by the Ministry of Home Affairs to keep the authority of this border with Assam Rifles only.

Proposed ORBAT for Myanmar Border

  • Northeast Command HQ, Imphal
    • Mizoram Frontier
    • Manipur Frontier
    • Nagaland Frontier
    • Arunachal frontier

Rank structure

Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Border Security Force
Special director-general
Additional director-general
Inspector general
Deputy inspector-general
Deputy commandant
Assistant commandant
Police equivalent
Director General Director General Additional
Director General
Inspector General (IG) Deputy Inspector General (DIG) Senior Superintendent (SSP) Superintendent (SP) Additional Superintendent Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)
Army equivalent
Lieutenant general
(Level 17)
Lieutenant general
(Level 16)
Lieutenant general
(Level 15)
Major general Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain
Personnel Below Officer Rank
Rank group Junior commissioned officers Non commissioned officers Enlisted
Border Security Force
No insignia
Subedar major
सूबेदार मेजर
उप निरीक्षक
Assistant sub-inspector
सहायक उप निरीक्षक
Head constable



All the equipment including the uniforms, weapons, ammunition, vehicles such as the bullet proof vehicles, troop carriers, logistics vehicles, mine protected vehicles are manufactured indigenously at the Indian Ordnance Factories under control of the Ordnance Factories Board.[19] Drone and anti-drone equipment is an upcoming acquisition.[20][21]

Pistols and handguns


Sub-machine guns and carbines


Assault rifles

  • AKM: 7.62×39mm assault rifle.
  • INSAS: 5.56 mm × 45 mm assault rifle. Service rifle of the force.

Machine guns

FN MAG medium machine gun

Sniper rifles



Carl Gustav recoilless rifle

Grenade launchers












Criticism and controversy


Canadian controversy


In 2010, some Canadian visa officials rejected the immigration application of a retired BSF soldier Fateh Singh Pandher, terming BSF a "notoriously violent paramilitary unit engaged in systematic attacks on civilians and responsible for torturing suspected criminals." This accusation did not go down well with the Indian government. The Indian External Affairs Ministry was asked by the Home minister to take up the issue with Canada.[25][26] The Home ministry of India, as well as the Indian public in general and several of India's political parties, expressed outrage at this attack and called Canada's actions discriminatory and spurious, and denounced their charges against the BSF as baseless and unproven. The Indian government threatened diplomatic retaliation unless Canada withdrew their allegations. The Canadian government did not respond immediately.[27] It was speculated that diplomatic retaliation from India will consist of banning Canadians going to participate the War in Afghanistan if they are doing so through India. Public outrage in India prompted Canadian authorities to express "great respect for India's armed forces and related institutions."[28] Subsequently, India's Ministry of External Affairs summoned Canadian High Commissioner Joseph Caron and demanded that "the blatant discrimination against Indian security agencies" cease.[29] India's Minister of External Affairs, SM Krishna, condemned Canada's actions and has expressed pride in the accomplishments of the BSF.[30]

Following complaints made by the Indian government and criticism of Canada's actions against India, the Harper government retracted their earlier accusations against BSF security officials. Canada's Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Jason Kenney, termed as "unfortunate" the incidents involving use of "foul language by the Canadian High Commission in visa rejection letters to some individuals," Kenney said, "This language, or the inaccurate impression it has created, in no way reflects the policy or position of the Government of Canada."[31]

Bangladesh border killings


According to the Bangladeshi government, 136 civilians were killed and a further 170 others suffered injuries in 2009. The Indian government has said that 67 were killed and 80 injured in 2009.[32] The Bangladesh government and Bangladeshi organizations protested heavily against these alleged killings. Media reports claim that in August 2008, Indian BSF officials admitted that they killed 59 persons (34 Bangladeshis, 21 Indians, rest unidentified) who were trying to cross the border illegally during the prior six months.[33] Indian media claimed that, in 2001, Bangladesh Rifles ambushed and killed 16 BSF soldiers while they were chasing some Bangladeshi smugglers back into the Bangladesh. Since then, the BSF has been compelled to act tough against Bangladeshi illegals.[34] There was perceived retaliation by the BSF but was averted after Home Ministers of both countries had talks on the issue.

In July 2009 Channel 4 News reported that apparently "hundreds" of Bangladeshis and Indians are indiscriminately killed by the BSF along the Indo-Bangladeshi Barrier. The BSF claims that the barrier's main purpose is to check illegal immigration to India, and prevent cross-border terrorism from Islamists.[35]

Bangladeshi media accused the BSF of abducting 5 Bangladeshi children, aged between 8 and 15, from the Haripur Upazila in Thakurgaon District of Bangladesh, in 2010. The children were setting fishing nets near the border.[36]

In 2010, Human Rights Watch (HRW) issued an 81-page report which alleged "over 900 of abuses by the BSF" in the first decade of the 21st century. The report was compiled from interviews with victims of BSF shootings, witnesses and members of the BSF and its Bangladeshi counterpart. According to HRW, while most of them were killed when they crossed into Indian territory for indulging in cattle raiding or other smuggling activities.[37]

In February 2012, the BSF website was hacked by Bangladeshi hackers in retaliation. The hackers later shared the news in the internet and also in the other social sites where they claimed to have defaced the sites asking the BSF to stop killing Bangladeshis at border. The site became normal sometime on 15 February 2012.[38][39][40][41]



Working conditions


Working conditions of the BSF have been questioned.[42] "Zero Error Syndrome" adds stress.[43] A home ministry standing committee report on the "Working Conditions in Border Guarding Forces" was published in December 2018, it was chaired by P. Chidambaram.[44][45]



Health of employees remains a challenge, and given the numbers of the force, more employees, as compared to operational deaths, die of diseases, illness; and mental health issues have also been raised and addressed by the force.[46][47][48]

In Media


See also



  1. ^ Government of India (2 September 1968). "The Border Security Force Act, 1968 No. 47 of 1968" (PDF) (in English and Hindi). Ministry of Law (Legislative Department ). pp. 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  2. ^ "Role of the BSF". Border Security Force, Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  3. ^ "BSF Air Wing". Border Security Force. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  4. ^ "MHA Annual Report 2016-2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017.
  5. ^ "BSF is first Wall of Defence of India, says Home Minister Rajnath Singh at 13th Investiture Ceremony". Biharprabha News. ANI. 22 May 2015. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Introduction Border Security Force". bsf.nic.in. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
  7. ^ "Border Security Force -Photo Gallary(Civic)". bsf.nic.in. Archived from the original on 26 July 2016.
  8. ^ "DG BSF's Message". 2020. Archived from the original on 22 July 2020.
  9. ^ a b Page no. 636 & 637 of Chapter 20 India 2013 published by Publications Division of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India
  10. ^ "National Training Centre For Dogs... where pooches get trained!". Dogs and Pups Magazine. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  11. ^ Singh, Rakesh K (3 October 2014). "BSF's tear smoke unit on automation drive". The Pioneer. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  12. ^ "BSF tear gas unit cries out for government attention". Rediff. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  13. ^ "Union Home Minister launches Smart Fencing on International border, an effective deterrence against illegal infiltration". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Dozen laser walls activated along Indo-Pak border". Economic Times. PTI. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  15. ^ "sb.bsf.gov.in". Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  16. ^ a b "New force of BSF to man hostile creeks along Indo-Pak border". The Hindu. PTI. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
  17. ^ "Smart border management: Indian coastal and maritime security" (PDF). PricewaterhouseCoopers, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI). September 2017.
  18. ^ Menon, Aparna (December 2015). "Did you know The Border Security Force has a camel band? Here's all about BSF and Its Camels". The Better India. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  19. ^ "Indian Ordnance Factories: OFB in Brief". Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  20. ^ Chandra, Girish (23 August 2020). "BSF To Get 436 Drones & New Anti-Drone Systems". DefenceXP. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  21. ^ "BSF To Procure 'Anti Drone Guns' To Counter Pak Drones". Pratidin Time. 24 January 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  22. ^ "Anti-material rifle handed over to BSF". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
  23. ^ "Jammu Kashmir News: सीमा पर 18 साल बाद हुई खेती, बीएसएफ ने चलाए बख्तरबंद ट्रैक्टर".
  24. ^ "सरहद की निगरानी के साथ किसानी भी बख्तरबंद ट्रैक्टर पर बंजर भूमि को कृषि योग्य बना रहे बीएसएफ जवान - BSF jawans are making barren land on border to agriculture land with armored tractors".
  25. ^ "Canada calls BSF a 'violent paramilitary unit'". Hindustan Times. 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  26. ^ Kumar, Vinay (22 May 2010). "Terming BSF". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017.
  27. ^ "Canada Visa Application". Times of India. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  28. ^ "We have great respect for Indias armed forces -Canada". The Times of India. 22 May 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  29. ^ "Visa row, India warns Canada of retaliation". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  30. ^ "Visa Row, India warns Canada". Deccanherald.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  31. ^ "Canada regrets language used by its officials in visa letters". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  32. ^ "BSF killed 136 Bangladeshis since 2009". 25 March 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  33. ^ India says 59 killed over last six months on Bangladesh border Archived 26 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 24 August 2008.
  34. ^ "Fortress India – By Scott Carney, Jason Miklian, and Kristian Hoelscher". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  35. ^ "Channel 4 News". 24 July 2009. Archived from the original on 28 December 2009.
  36. ^ "BSF abducts 5 children from border". The Daily Star. 24 July 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  37. ^ "India/Bangladesh: Indiscriminate Killings, Abuse by Border Officers". Human Rights Watch. 9 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  38. ^ "Bangladesh group hacks BSF website to 'avenge border killings'". The Times of India. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013.
  39. ^ "20,000 Indian websites come under attack from Bangladesh hackers". Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  40. ^ "সীমান্তে বিএসএফ আগ্রাসন : বাংলাদেশী নাগরিকদের নির্বিচারে হত্যা ও গুম". Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  41. ^ "বেপরোয়া বিএসএফ : ২৪ ঘণ্টার ব্যবধানে চাঁপাই সীমান্তে আরও দুই বাংলাদেশীকে হত্যা". আমার দেশ. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  42. ^ Kumar, Manan, ed. (15 April 2017). "Need for better living conditions for BSF jawans". DNA India. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  43. ^ "'Job stress leading BSF men to sleep-deprived nomadic life'". The Economic Times. PTI. 8 February 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  44. ^ "Working Conditions in Border Guarding Forces. Standing Committee Report Summary". PRS Legislative Research. 31 December 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  45. ^ "Working Conditions in Border Guarding Forces (Assam Rifles, Sashastra Seema Bal, Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Border Security Force)" (PDF). Rajya Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi. December 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2022.
  46. ^ "More BSF men dying of mental illness, lifestyle diseases rather than operations". Hindustan Times. PTI. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  47. ^ Shreyas, Ananth (16 May 2018). "BSF makes mental well-being tests and training mandatory for its personnel; here's why". The Financial Express. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  48. ^ Kaur, Kamaljit (22 March 2017). "BSF meet addresses mental health, well-being issues of soldiers". India Today. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  49. ^ BSF: India's First Line of Defence, retrieved 19 February 2023
  50. ^ "BSF..." Hotstar. Retrieved 19 February 2023.