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Border zones are areas near borders that have special restrictions to movement. Governments may forbid unauthorized entry or exit to border zones and restrict property ownership in the area. The zones function as buffer zones specifically monitored by border patrols in order to prevent illegal entry or exit. Restricting entry aids in pinpointing illegal intruders. Between hostile states, the border zone can be heavily militarized with mine fields, barbed wire and watchtowers. Some border zones are designed to prevent illegal immigration or emigration, and do not have many restrictions but may operate checkpoints within the border zone to check immigration status. In most places, a border vista is usually included and/or required.
In some nations, movement inside a border zone without a license is an offence and will result in arrest. No probable cause is required as the mere presence inside the zone is an offence, if it is intentional. Even with a license to enter, photography, making fires, and carrying of firearms and hunting is prohibited.
- Border Security Zone of Russia
- Korean Demilitarized Zone
- Frontier Closed Area in Hong Kong
- Finnish–Russian border
- World War I: The Wire of Death in Belgium
- Cold War: The Iron Curtain was a collective term for the border between the Western states and the Eastern Bloc. One of the most militarized parts was the restricted zone of the inner German border. The restrictions on building and habitation made the area a "green corridor" (European Green Belt).