Bordetella parapertussis

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Bordetella parapertussis
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Betaproteobacteria
Order: Burkholderiales
Family: Alcaligenaceae
Genus: Bordetella
B. parapertussis
Binomial name
Bordetella parapertussis
(Eldering and Kendrick 1938) Moreno-López 1952

Bordetella parapertussis is a small Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Bordetella that is adapted to colonise the mammalian respiratory tract.[1] Pertussis caused by B. parapertussis manifests with similar symptoms to B. pertussis-derived disease, but in general tends to be less severe.[2] Immunity derived from B. pertussis does not protect against infection by B. parapertussis, however, because the O-antigen is found only on B. parapertussis. This antigen protects B. parapertussis against antibodies specific to B. pertussis, so the bacteria are free to colonize the host's lungs without being subject to attack by previous antibodies. These findings suggest B. parapertussis evolved in a host population that had already developed immunity to B. pertussis, where being able to evade B. pertussis immunity was an advantage.[3]

Two lineages of B. parapertussis have been described. The first infects humans and is responsible for a minority of cases of the disease pertussis (also known as whooping cough).[4] The second, ovine, lineage causes chronic nonprogressive pneumonia in sheep.[5] Both lineages are thought to have evolved from a B. bronchiseptica-like ancestor.[6] This disease can be symptomatic or asymptomatic and may predispose hosts to secondary infection.[7]


  1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0.
  2. ^ Heininger U, Stehr K, Schmitt-Grohé S, Lorenz C, Rost R, Christenson P, Uberall M, Cherry J (1994). "Clinical characteristics of illness caused by Bordetella parapertussis compared with illness caused by Bordetella pertussis". Pediatr Infect Dis J. 13 (4): 306–9. doi:10.1097/00006454-199404000-00011. PMID 8036048.
  3. ^ Wolfe D, Goebel E, Bjornstad O, Restif O, Harvil E (2007). "The O Antigen Enables Bordetella parapertussis To Avoid Bordetella pertussis-Induced Immunity". Infection and Immunity. 75 (10): 4972–9. doi:10.1128/IAI.00763-07. PMC 2044517. PMID 17698566.
  4. ^ Cherry J (1996). "Historical review of pertussis and the classical vaccine". J Infect Dis. 174 Suppl 3: S259–63. doi:10.1093/infdis/174.supplement_3.s259. PMID 8896526.
  5. ^ Porter J, Connor K, Donachie W (1994). "Isolation and characterization of Bordetella parapertussis-like bacteria from ovine lungs". Microbiology. 140 (2): 255–61. doi:10.1099/13500872-140-2-255. PMID 8180690.
  6. ^ van der Zee A, Mooi F, Van Embden J, Musser J (1997). "Molecular evolution and host adaptation of Bordetella spp.: phylogenetic analysis using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and typing with three insertion sequences". J Bacteriol. 179 (21): 6609–17. doi:10.1128/jb.179.21.6609-6617.1997. PMC 179586. PMID 9352907.
  7. ^ Porter J, Connor K, Krueger N, Hodgson J, Donachie W (1995). "Predisposition of specific pathogen-free lambs to Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia by Bordetella parapertussis infection". J Comp Pathol. 112 (4): 381–9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9975(05)80019-2. PMID 7593760.

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