Borei-class SSBN profile
|Builders:||Sevmash, designed by Rubin|
|Preceded by:||Delta IV-class, Typhoon-class|
|Type:||Ballistic missile submarine|
|Length:||170 m (557 ft 9 in)|
|Beam:||13.5 m (44 ft 3 in)|
|Draught:||10 m (32 ft 10 in)|
|Range:||Unlimited; (1yr+) endurance restricted by food stores|
|Test depth:||planned 450m (1,400+ft)|
|Complement:||107 total crew|
Project 955 or Borei (Russian: Борей; NATO Reporting Name: Dolgorukiy class, after the name of the lead vessel, Yury Dolgorukiy) is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced by Russia and operated by the Russian Navy. The class is intended to replace the Delta III, Delta IV and Typhoon classes in Russian Navy service. The class is named after Boreas, the North wind.
Despite being a replacement for many types of submarines, the Borei-class submarines are much smaller than those of the Typhoon class in both volume and crew (107 people as opposed to 160 for the Typhoons). The goal of this downsizing is to reduce the cost to build and maintain the submarines.
History and description
The first design work started in the mid-1980s, and the construction of the first unit of the Borei class (officially designated "Project 955") started in 1996. (A short-lived, smaller parallel design appeared in the mid-1980s designated Project 935 Borei II) A new submarine-launched ballistic missile was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark". However, the work on this missile was abandoned, and a new missile called the Bulava was designed. The submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, and the design name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk, and were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau (Rubin). Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva missiles. The Sineva is already in active duty on the Delta IV-class submarine.
Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. The Borei submarines are approximately 170 metres (560 ft) long, 13 metres (43 ft) in diameter, and have a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour (25 kn; 29 mph). They are equipped with a floating rescue chamber designed to fit in the whole crew.
Smaller than the Typhoon class, the Boreis were initially slated to carry 12 missiles but are able to carry four more due to the decrease in mass of the 36-ton Bulava SLBM (a modified version of the Topol-M ICBM) over the originally proposed R-39UTTH Bark. Cost is some ₽23 billion (USD$890 million), in comparison the cost of an Ohio-class SSBN was around USD$2 billion per boat (1997 prices).
A fifth generation successor/supplement is already in development.
Launch and trials
The launch of the first submarine of the class, Yury Dolgorukiy (Юрий Долгорукий), was scheduled for 2002 but was delayed because of budget constraints. The vessel was eventually rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 in a ceremony attended by many senior military and industrial personnel. Yuriy Dolgorukiy was the first Russian strategic missile submarine to be launched in seventeen years since the end of the Soviet era. Currently, there are three more Borei-class submarines under construction, named Alexander Nevsky (Александр Невский), Vladimir Monomakh (Владимир Мономах) and Knyaz Vladimir (Князь Владимир). The planned contingent of eight strategic submarines is expected to be commissioned within the next decade (five Project 955 are planned for purchase through 2015).
Although Yuriy Dolgorukiy was officially rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 the submarine was not put into the water until February 2008. By July 2009 it had yet to be armed with Bulava missiles and was therefore not fully operational, although ready for sea trials on 24 October 2008. On 21 November 2008 the reactor on Yuriy Dolgorukiy was activated and on 19 June 2009 began its sea trials in the White Sea.
In August 2009 it was reported that the submarine would undergo up to six trials before being commissioned but the problem with the Bulava missile could delay it even more.
On 28 September 2010 Yuriy Dolgorukiy completed company sea trials. By late October the Russian Pacific Fleet was fully prepared to host Russia's new Borei-class strategic nuclear-powered submarines. It is expected that four subs will be deployed in the Northern fleet and four subs in the Pacific fleet. On 9 November 2010 Yuriy Dolgorukiy passed all sea trials directed to new equipment and systems.
Initially, the plan was to conduct the first torpedo launches during the ongoing state trials in December 2010 and then in the same month conduct the first launch of the main weapon system, R-30 (RSM-56) Bulava missile. The plan was then postponed to mid-summer 2011 due to ice conditions in the White Sea.
On 2 December 2010 the second Borei-class submarine, Alexander Nevskiy, was moved to a floating dock in Sevmash shipyard. There the final preparations took place before the submarine was launched. The submarine was launched on 6 December 2010 and began sea trials on 24 October 2011.
On 28 June 2011 a Bulava missile was launched for the first time from the Borei-class submarine Yuriy Dolgorukiy. The test was announced as a success. After long delays finally the lead vessel, Yuriy Dolgorukiy, joined the Russian Navy on 10 January 2013. The official ceremony raising the Russian Navy colors on the submarine was led by Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu. It was actively deployed in 2014 after a series of exercises.
It has been reported that the arrival of the Borei-class submarines will enable the Russian Navy to resume strategic patrols in southern latitudes that have not seen a Russian missile submarine in 20 years.
On 15 December 2009, a Defense Ministry official announced that the laying down of the fourth Borei-class submarine had been postponed from December to the first quarter of 2010. The reason for the delay was said to be "organizational and technical reasons". The fourth ship of the class will be constructed under a new 955A modification. It is reported by unnamed sources that this modification will include major structural changes and probably other changes. If these reports are true, technically the fourth ship will be the lead ship of a new Borei II class, though this has not been officially confirmed. The 2025 State Armament Plan mentions a new "Husky" class of ballistic missile submarine. Starting from the fourth hull, all submarines of the Borei class will have 20 missile tubes each, versus 16 for the first three boats. If armed with the Bulava (missile) with ten warheads atop each, a single Borei-class SSBN could then carry 200 warheads - as much as the entire nuclear arsenal of the United Kingdom.
The contract for five 955A submarines was delayed several times due to price dispute between the Russian Ministry of Defence and the United Shipbuilding Corporation. The contract for modified 955A was finally signed on May 28, 2012.
The first 955A submarine, Knyaz Vladimir, was laid down on 30 July 2012. Russian president Vladimir Putin attended the ceremony. Three additional 955A submarines were laid down in 2014, one in late 2015, and one in late 2016.
|K-535||Yuriy Dolgorukiy||955 (09551)||2 November 1996||12 February 2008||10 January 2013||Northern Fleet||In active service|
|K-550||Aleksandr Nevskiy||955||19 March 2004||13 December 2010||23 December 2013||Pacific Fleet||In active service|
|K-551||Vladimir Monomakh||955||19 March 2006||30 December 2012||19 December 2014||Pacific Fleet||In active service|
|Knyaz Vladimir||955А (09552)||30 July 2012 ||August 2017||2018||Pacific Fleet||Under construction, the first of Project 955A|
|Knyaz Oleg||955А||27 July 2014||2018||Pacific Fleet||Under construction|
|Generalissimus Suvorov||955А||26 December 2014||2019||Northern Fleet||Under construction|
|Imperator Aleksandr III||955А||18 December 2015||By 2020||Pacific Fleet||Under construction|
|Knyaz Pozharskiy||955А||23 December 2016||By 2020||Northern Fleet||Under construction|
- List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes
- Future of the Russian Navy
- Submarine-launched ballistic missile
- Проект 955. Deepstorm.ru. Retrieved on 2010-10-19.
- "Количество шахтных пусковых установок на АПЛ проекта "Борей" будет увеличено до 20 с четвертого корабля" (in Russian). flotprom.ru. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Bulava - the lightest ballistic missile of its type". En15.rian.ru. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "The world's biggest submarines". naval-technology.com. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "ПРОЕКТ 935". paralay.com. 3 October 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-08. Retrieved 2016-03-26.
- "Bulava missile test: insistent mistake making?". sputniknews. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Russian Borei Class Submarine Archived July 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Silent sub: Russian noiseless Borei class nuclear submarine immersed". RT. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Россия спустила на воду атомную подлодку. BBC News (in Russian). UK. 15 April 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Frost, Peter (24 April 2009). "New Sub Role Could Buoy Our Economy". dailypress.com. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Beyond the United Kingdom: Trends in the other nuclear armed states". Issuu.com. 2011-10-31. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Russia to launch new nuclear submarine". sputniknews. 9 April 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "First RF submarine hits the water; Missile defence update". Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology and Policy. 26 April 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "ВЕДОМОСТИ - Оружия не хватит - Для переоснащения армии нет средств" (in Russian). (subscription required)
- "The new-generation head strategic nuclear-propelled sub "Yuri Dolgoruky" readied for trials". ITAR TASS. 2008-10-24. Archived from the original on 2008-10-26. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- "Reactor on Russia's newest nuclear submarine fired up.". sputniknews. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Yury Dolgoruky sub to undergo 5-6 tests before commissioning". RIA Novosti en.rian.ru. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-19.
- "Russia's newest nuclear sub completes sea trials". RIA Novosti. en.rian.ru. Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-19.
- "SSBN Yury Dolgoruky completed sea trials". russnavy.com. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Russia's Pacific Fleet ready to receive Borei class submarines". RIA Novosti. en.rian.ru. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-19.
- "Batch of Bulava may exceed 150 missiles". rusnavy.com. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "SSBN Yury Dolgoruky completed trials phase". rusnavy.com. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "SSBN Yury Dolgoruky to launch torpedoes for the first time". russnavy.com. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Названа новая дата испытаний "Булавы"" (in Russian). Flot.com. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "SSBN Alexander Nevsky was moved to floating dock". rusnavy.com. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Most Viewed" (in Russian). Sevmash.ru. 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
- "Aleksandr Nevskiy begins see trials - Blog - Russian strategic nuclear forces". Russianforces.org. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Russia test fires troubled Bulava missile after 8-month break | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. Archived from the original on July 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
- "Bulava missile to go into serial production - Defense Minister | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 1961-08-13. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
- "Finally flying colors: Yury Dolgoruky nuclear sub joins Russian Navy". RT. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Gutterman, Steve (10 January 2013). "New Russian nuclear submarine goes into service". Reuters. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "ТАСС: Армия и ОПК - Шойгу: оснащенность Российской армии современным оружием и техникой за год выросла на 7%". ТАСС.
- "Russian nuclear submarines to resume patrols in southern seas". UPI. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Russia delays construction of 4th Borei-class nuclear sub". sputniknews. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Fourth Borei-class sub will be upgraded". rusnavy.com. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Bodner, Matthew (26 May 2017). "Russia's Putin drafts new rearmament program". Defense News.
- "Borei Submarine Contract Signed — Shipbuilding Corp.". RIAN. 2012-05-28. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012.
- ""Юрий Долгорукий" вошел в состав 31-й дивизии подлодок Северного флота". RIA Novosti (in Russian). 10 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- New Russian Ballistic Missile Sub To Join Fleet Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Russia’s second next-gen nuclear sub enters service". RT.com. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- "Russia to Float Out New Borey Class Sub on Dec. 30". sputniknews. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- LaGrone, Sam (11 December 2014). "Russia Accepts Third Borei-class Boomer". USNI News. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Third Borey-Class Strategic Nuclear Submarine Joins Russian Navy". sputniknews.com. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Vladimir Monomakh Third Borey Class SSBN Joined Russian Navy". navyrecognition.com. 24 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "АПЛ "Князь Владимир", четвертую подводную лодку типа "Борей", заложат 30 июля на "Севмаше"" (in Russian). flotprom.ru. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
-  Archived August 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Russia’s Sevmash shipyards lays down three new submarines". TASS. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Russia’s Sevmash shipyard lays down 5th Borey class SSBN and 4th Yasen class SSN". navyrecognition.com. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Шестой «Борей» стал теперь «генералиссимусом» (in Russian). topwar.ru. 25 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Интерфакс-Агентство Военных Новостей". militarynews.ru.
- "На Севмаше заложена атомная подводная лодка "Князь Пожарский"" (Press release) (in Russian). Sevmash. 23 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Borei class submarines.|
- Yury Dolgorukiy picture gallery
- Photo of Yury Dolgorukiy on sea trials June 2009
- Yury Dolgorukiy in dry dock, Sevmash, Severodvinsk (satellite photo)
- New pictures of Yury Dolgorukiy
- Announcement that the first boat will be launched in April 2007
- Announcement (in Russian) that first boat would not be ready until 2007.
- Project 935 / Project 955 Borei
- Image gallery:Yury Dolgorukiy, a Borei-class nuclear missile submarine
- Borei-class missile complement
- Photos of Alexander Nevsky while the sub was launched at Sevmash shipyard