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|Birth name||Boris Borisovich Grebenshikov|
|Also known as||BG|
|Born||27 November 1953|
Leningrad, Soviet Union
|Genres||Rock, reggae, folk|
|Instruments||Vocals, guitar, harmonica, keyboards, metallophone, tambura|
|Years active||1972 – present|
|Awards||Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" (4th class)|
Boris Borisovich Grebenshchikov (Russian: Борис Борисович Гребенщиков; born 27 November 1953) is a prominent member of the generation which is widely considered the "founding fathers" of Russian rock music. Due as much to his personal contribution as to the lasting success of his main effort, the band Aquarium (active from 1972 until today), he is a household name in Russia and much of the former Soviet Union. Grebenshchikov is frequently referred to as BG (Russian: БГ) (pronounced "Beh-Geh"), after his initials. He is often called the 'Grandfather of Russian Rock'.
Early years (1953–1979)
Grebenshchikov was born on 27 November 1953 in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). He co-founded Aquarium with a childhood friend, Anatoly "George" Gunitsky, in 1972 as a post-modernistic theater-centric effort that involved poetry and music. Gunitsky provided absurdist, highly symbolic lyrics to some of Grebenshchikov's earliest songs.
Grebenshchikov was accepted into the prestigious Leningrad State University. His musical activities began taking up the bulk of his time; he began missing exams and failing classes. Despite an eventual graduate degree in Applied Mathematics, Grebenshchikov had always been a voracious consumer of culture, especially music. His school-years enamorment with The Beatles eventually extended to include a deep appreciation of Bob Dylan, which slowly transformed Aquarium into a low-fi electric blues band that moonlighted in acoustic reggae. As popular legend has it, the first song he managed to play on guitar was The Beatles' "Ticket to Ride"; his first solo public performance, in 1973, featured him performing a song by Cat Stevens.
The first six years of Aquarium's history lacked cohesion as Grebenshchikov and his various bandmates followed the Soviet equivalent of the hippie lifestyle: playing apartment jams, drinking the low-quality port wine available from the Soviet stores of the time, and intermittently travelling to remote gigs, even trainhopping on freight trains.
Youthful philandering was heavily frowned upon by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union regime; decent recording facilities were out of reach because experiments in non-standardized self-expression were routinely suppressed as a matter of policy. The several two-track recordings hacked out over those years (Temptation of St. Aquarium (Iskushenie Svyatogo Akvariuma), Count Diffusor's Fables (Pritchi grafa Diffuzora), Menuet for a Farmer (Menuet zemledel'tzu), and a motley crew of "singles") were of necessity extremely unprofessional, but already showcased the off-kilter wit, showy erudition, and a pervasive interest in Oriental thought and mysticism that eventually became his trademarks.
1976 also saw the recording of his first solo album, On the Other Side of the Mirror Glass (S toy storony zerkal'nogo stekla), and a dual album with another prominent nascent Russian rock-n-roller, Mike Naumenko, All Brothers are Sisters (Vse brat'ya – sestry).
Classical years (1980–1988)
His big break came in 1980, when Artemy Troitsky, the first public Russian rock critic and the enabling figure in many a Russian rock musician's career, invited Aquarium to perform at the Tbilisi Rock Festival.
The festival was a state-sanctioned attempt to channel the then-burgeoning Russian rock music movement into a controllable ideological vessel. It featured a laundered line-up of government-approved rock bands, but also Aquarium. A covert KGB-bound report pinned the shenanigans on Aquarium, which caused Grebenshchikov to lose his day job and membership in Komsomol, the Young Communist League, which was a career kiss of death for a Soviet citizen in 1980.
The band's underground profile, however, continued to rise sharply over the next seven years, post-Leonid Brezhnev KGB-fueled reactionism and Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika notwithstanding. This was both due to talent, and the scarcity of supply – Western rock music was still officially banned at the time. Over the first five albums, the band attracted guitarist Alexander Lyapin, considered to be among the best rock guitar players of Russian origin, the pianist Sergey Kuryokhin, renowned for the impressive speed and virtuosity of his playing and boundless avant-garde experimentation, and Igor Butman, a world-class jazz saxophone player and one of the reigning kings of Soviet jazz.
The first Aquarium music available in the "west" was in 1986 when a double album entitled "RED WAVE, 4 UNDERGROUND BANDS FROM THE USSR" appeared in record stores in the U.S. Besides Aquarium, three other bands, Kino, Strange Games and Alisa were recorded on a four track machine, smuggled out of the country and released by a small record label from Hollywood. During this time, bands in the USSR were either officially sanctioned or were not allowed to play in public or record in professional recording studios. In 1986, when the record was released in America, Aquarium was immensely popular throughout the Soviet Union, but were forced to play at underground clubs and private gatherings.
By the time Aquarium disbanded amid internal squabble in 1991, they had 11 "official" records under their belt and were considered a living legend of Russian rock. Grebenshchikov himself was likened to Bob Dylan, not least because of his borrowing amply from Dylan stylistically in his earlier years. "Railway water" ("Zheleznodorozhnaya voda") off the 1981 Blue album (Siniy albom), for example, is a spitting image of Dylan's "It Takes a Lot to Laugh" from the 1965 Highway 61 Revisited.
Going West (1988–1990)
Perestroika has ushered in a new era of opportunity for rock musicians; several of the more prominent ones got breaks in the West. Grebenshchikov's came from Dave Stewart (of Eurythmics fame). Stewart-produced Radio Silence was released in 1989, featuring covers of Alexander Vertinsky's "China" amid songs by Grebenshchikov, including a song written to Sir Thomas Malory's Death of King Arthur. Annie Lennox, Billy MacKenzie and Chrissie Hynde helped out, as did several of Grebenshchikov's bandmates from Aquarium. The single "Radio Silence" was his biggest hit outside of Russia, reaching number 7 on the Billboard Hot Modern Rock Chart in the United States in August 1989.
The name of the album proved self-ironic in the extreme as it hasn't made so much as a dent in the charts. Part of the failure can be attributed to the fact that unlike the Anglo-American rock-n-roll culture, the Russian song tradition heavily emphasizes lyrical complexity over hooks or drive, which reinforces the not entirely unfair comparisons between Grebenshchikov and Dylan.
He issued another English-language album, Radio London, in 1996, which consisted of demos made in 1990 and 1991, but had some very appealing material to it.
Returning East (1991–1996)
Disillusioned in the possibility of exporting the Russian song-writing tradition to the West, Grebenshchikov returned to Russia and entered a phase of returning to his Russian roots. The year 1992 saw him come out with a Russian album (Russkiy al'bom), backed by an all-new, eponymous BG Band. The album featured a line-up of songs very "Russian" in both lyric and tune, and wasn't initially met with much public appreciation (in retrospect, however, it is considered by most critics one of his best records). Grebenshchikov was defiant, however, and went on record as having flipped a bird off the stage toward someone yelling demands for him to perform songs from the classical period.
No matter the defiance, the Aquarium brand was too strong to eschew and even the next two albums, one mostly filler (Favorite songs of Ramses the 4th (Lyubimye pesni Ramzesa IV)) and one all outtakes ('Archive vol 4'), were released under the name Aquarium. By the time of 1994's Kostroma Mon Amour Grebenshchikov's mastery of folk melody and lyric has grown to new heights, and a new band line-up was going full steam.
The band's next three albums (effectively Grebenshchikov's solo albums published under the band's brand) – Navigator, Snow lion (Snezhniy lev), and Hyperborea – also have a stylized Russian feel. Navigator especially is widely recognized as a classic example of Russian songwriting, albeit with notable touches of blues and French chanson. The songs are melancholic bordering on heart-rending; the lyrics are either drenched in Byronic spleen, or full of Grebenshchikov-branded variant of Russian irony steeped in a sense of separation between self and the world.
Back to basics (1997–2019)
As of 1997, however, the Russian folk style seems to have run its course for Grebenshchikov. His 1997 album Lilith is still mostly Russian in lyrical theme, but is recorded, by way of a chance meeting, with his idol Dylan's former backup band, The Band. In 1998, Grebenshchikov, who was by then settling into a cult classic status in Russia, played a one-man-and-his-guitar show of 1970s and 1980s songs to a small audience of fans in a San Francisco bar, and decided to return to reggae-n-rock-n-roll roots.
1999's Psi features just that, as interpreted through a post-modernistic lens with ample, highly inventive use of keyboard-triggered samplers. 2002's Sister Chaos (Sestra Haos), 2003's Fisherman's songs (Pesni rybaka), and 2005's ZOOM ZOOM ZOOM feature the same, painted by sparse touches of Armenian (Jivan Gasparyan on Bloom of the North), Indian (the entire of Fisherman's songs) and African (some of ZOOM ZOOM ZOOM). Despite all of these having been issued under the Aquarium brand, it is recognized that by now Aquarium is "the people who play with Grebenshikov".
In a very appealing touch of overcompensation, as technology and funds had begun to permit, sometime in the 1990s Grebenshchikov had become incredibly quality-conscious with his records. As the state of sound engineering in Russia left (still does) a lot to be desired, he had begun tracking in London's studios. Navigator, a predominantly acoustic album with a highly refined, "the-band-is-in-the-room" intimate soft of a mix saw Grebenshchikov sell his car and part of his guitar collection to cover tracking costs. The quality of his recent recordings may give the better of Western singer-songwriters a run for their money.
In 2014 he released Salt, "one of the best albums of Grebenshchikov’s long career, an astonishing, visceral piece of work that more than lives up to its moniker: earthy, vital, biting, life-enhancing".
In 2019, a short film Dark like the Night. Karenina-2019 was released, featuring Grebenschikov's song, "Dark like the Night".
Since 2005, Grebenshikov has an own weekly radio program on Russian radio station "Radio Rossii" titled Aerostat (Russian: Аэростат). It is presented as "author's program of Boris Grebenshchikov" and is created and spoken by him. His intention is to tell about the alternatives in music, about the music which nobody else plays in today's radio despite of its artistic value and originality. It is mostly independent music which, as Boris says, otherwise would not be played at all. The range of songs in Aerostat varies from 1960s and 1970s rock (The Beatles, Bob Dylan and many others) to reggae, new wave, alternative rock, electronica, punk, world music, jazz, classical, and avant-garde. As of April 2019, more than 700 shows were created and broadcast, each approximately 46 minutes long. The track lists and the scripts of all programs are available at official site of Aquarium and Grebenshchikov. The theme music is "Prelude" by T. Rex from A Beard of Stars album.
Religion and mysticism
Grebenshchikov is also known as a student of religion and mysticism. He translated several Hinduist and Buddhist books for publication in Russian, travelled the Orient widely, and is friends with A-list spiritual celebrities. He is just as familiar with the Russian Orthodox tradition (Aquarium's website has had a call for discovery of Orthodox relics going for years), and used to mix them freely in his lyrics. "Russian Nirvana" ("Russkaya Nirvana") off Kostroma Mon Amour, for example, is a dual-pointed send-up containing a reference to "sitting down in the lotus posture in the middle of Kremlin". His relentless promotion of Tibetan buddhism in the 1990s and his tendency to use buddhist-derived logic with touches of absurdism to avoid answering questions in interviews make him pretty distinct amongst other Russian artists.
He also translated several Buddhist and Hinduist texts to Russian, including:
- Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche (son of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche) Bardo Guidebook – "source material for the Tibetan Book of Living & Dying also known as Tibetan Book of the Dead Bardo Thodol, in 1995;
- Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche Repeating Words of the Buddha – "the essential points of spiritual practice, inseparable from everyday life.", in 1997;
- Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche Rainbow Painting – "addressing the topics of practices of accumulating and purifying to facilitate unification of view and conduct", in 1999;
- Shibendu Lahiri Kriya yoga – "authentic teachings and techniques of Kriya Yoga", in 2003;
- The Katha Upanishad, Upanishad belonging to the Yajur Veda, in 2005.
Grebenshchikov's lyrics are often eclectic, and may feature Buddhism, Russian Orthodoxy, and alcohol consumption in the same quatrain. 1999's Psi switches from detailed references to samurai culture to mentions of a certain carpenter's son to data storage on hard drives, all the while maintaining tight lyrical cohesion.
Over the years of his career, he wrote more than 500 songs, most of which were recorded and/or performed publicly. There are 21 albums in the official discography, approximately 12 "unofficial ones", and about as many live records. Additionally, Grebenshchikov recorded cover albums on material from two prominent Russian-language songwriters (Alexander Vertinsky (1994's Songs of A.Vertinsky (Pesni A.Vertinskogo)) and Bulat Okudzhava (1999's Songs of B.Okudzhava (Pesni B.Okudzhavy))), two albums of mantra music with Gabrielle Roth and the Mirrors, (1998's Refuge and 2002's Bardo), and an album of electronica versions of Aquarium songs from late 1970s – early 1980s with the Russian duo Deadushki. He is also credited on records by the Russian bands Nautilus Pompilius, Mashina Vremeni and Kino, as well as the UK acts Shakespears Sister and Kate St. John.
- Russian Album (1991)
- Songs by Alexander Vertinsky (1994)
- Chubchik (1996)
- Lilith (1997) with The Band
- Refuge (1998) with Gabrielle Roth
- Songs by Bulat Okudzhava (1999)
- Bardo (2002) with Gabrielle Roth
- Salt (2014)
- Vremya N (2018)
- The Sign of Fire (2020)
|US Hot 100||US Modern Rock||US Mainstream Rock||UK|
|1989||"Radio Silence"||–||7||44||–||Radio Silence|
- Colin Larkin, ed. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music (First ed.). Guinness Publishing. p. 1023. ISBN 0-85112-939-0.
- "Boris Grebenshikov – Chart history | Billboard". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "The Bodhisattvas of Babylon". Dharmafish.org.
- "Сайт "Аквариума"". Aquarium.ru. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Billboard, 30 March 1998". Billboard. 30 March 1996.
- Гаккель В. Аквариум как способ ухода за теннисным кортом. – М.: Сентябрь, 2000.
- Гребенщиков Б. Б. Правдивая автобиография Аквариума. (Письмо Артемию Троицкому, 1980 год.)
- Гребенщиков Б. Б. Краткий отчёт о 16-ти годах звукозаписи. – 1997.
- Рыбин А., Кушнир А., Гребенщиков Б., Соловьёв-Спасский В. Аквариум. Сны о чём-то большем... – М.: Нота-Р, 2003.
- Троицкий А. Рок в Союзе: 60-е, 70-е, 80-е… – М.: Искусство, 1991. – 203 с – ISBN 5-210-02476-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boris Grebenshchikov.|
- Tomi Huttunen: Russian rock: Boris Grebenschikov, Intertextualist
- Aquarium website
- This article borrows from the "Short history of Aquarium", which seems to be public domain.
- Boris Grebenshikov Concert – Site for Grebenshikov's concerts at the Royal Albert Hall.
- Aquarium Bookshelf with Buddhist materials translated to Russian by Grebenshchikov
- The Bodhisattvas of Babylon, an English-language fan site
- Boris Grebenshchikov at IMDb
- Boris Grebenshchikov discography at Discogs