|The Right Honourable
|Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs|
13 July 2016
|Prime Minister||Theresa May|
|Preceded by||Philip Hammond|
|Mayor of London|
4 May 2008 – 9 May 2016
|Preceded by||Ken Livingstone|
|Succeeded by||Sadiq Khan|
|Shadow Minister for Higher Education|
6 December 2005 – 16 July 2007
|Preceded by||Stephen O'Brien|
|Succeeded by||Rob Wilson|
|Shadow Minister for the Arts|
14 April 2004 – 17 November 2004
|Preceded by||Gerald Howarth|
|Succeeded by||Tony Baldry|
|Member of Parliament
for Uxbridge and South Ruislip
7 May 2015
|Preceded by||John Randall|
|Member of Parliament
9 June 2001 – 4 June 2008
|Preceded by||Michael Heseltine|
|Succeeded by||John Howell|
|Born||Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson
June 19, 1964
New York City, New York, United States
United States (1964–2016)
|Residence||1 Carlton Gardens|
|Alma mater||Balliol College, Oxford|
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson PC MP (born 19 June 1964), known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist. He has served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and a Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015. He had previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008 and Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. A member of the Conservative Party, Johnson identifies as a one-nation conservative and has been associated with both economically and socially liberal policies.
Born in New York City to wealthy upper-middle class English parents, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, and Eton College. He studied Classics at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1986. He began his career in journalism at The Times but was sacked for falsifying information. He later became The Daily Telegraph's Brussels correspondent, with his articles exerting a strong influence on growing Eurosceptic sentiment among the British right-wing. He was assistant editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking the editorship of The Spectator from 1999 to 2005. Joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001, and under party leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron he was in the Shadow Cabinet. He largely adhered to the Conservatives' party line but adopted a more socially liberal stance on issues like LGBT rights in parliamentary votes. Making regular television appearances, writing books, and remaining active in journalism, Johnson became one of the most conspicuous politicians in Britain.
Selected as Conservative candidate for the London mayoral election of 2008, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone and resigned his seat in parliament. During his first term as mayor, he banned alcohol consumption on public transport, championed London's financial sector, and introduced the New Routemaster buses, cycle hire scheme, and Thames cable-car. In 2012, he was re-elected mayor, again defeating Livingstone; during his second term he oversaw the 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2015 he was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as mayor the following year. In 2016, Johnson became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union. He became Foreign Secretary under Theresa May's premiership.
Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining, humorous, and popular figure with appeal beyond traditional Conservative voters. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, accused of elitism, cronyism, dishonesty, laziness, and using racist language. Johnson is the subject of several biographies and a number of fictionalised portrayals.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early career
- 3 Mayor of London
- 4 Return to Parliament
- 5 Political ideology
- 6 Public image
- 7 Personal life
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Johnson was born on 19 June 1964 at a hospital on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City, to British parents. His birth was registered with both the US authorities and the city's British Consulate and he was granted both American and British citizenship. His father, Stanley Johnson, was then studying economics at Columbia University. Stanley's paternal grandfather was Circassian-Turkish journalist Ali Kemal, while his other ancestry is English, German and French. A 2008 episode of BBC's Who Do You Think You Are? claimed that his German 3rd great-grandmother Karoline von Rothenburg was the illegitimate daughter of Prince Paul of Württemberg by an actress; the prince was himself a descendant of King George II of Great Britain and King Frederick William I of Prussia. Stanley had married Johnson's mother, Charlotte Fawcett, in 1963, before they moved to the United States; she was an artist from a family of liberal intellectuals. She was the granddaughter of Americans Elias Avery Lowe, a palaeographer of Russian Jewish descent, and Helen Tracy Lowe-Porter, a famous translator. In reference to his varied ancestry, Johnson has described himself as a "one-man melting pot" – with a combination of Muslims, Jews, and Christians as great-grandparents. Johnson was given his middle name of "Boris" after a Russian émigré the couple had once met in Mexico.
Johnson's parents were then living in an apartment opposite the Chelsea Hotel, although they soon embarked on a tour of Canada and New England with their newborn. In September 1964, they returned to Britain, enabling Charlotte to study for a degree at the University of Oxford. She lived with her son in Summertown, Oxford and gave birth to a daughter, Rachel, in 1965. In July 1965, the family moved to Crouch End in North London; in February 1966, they relocated to Washington D.C., where Stanley had gained a job with the World Bank. A third child, Leo, was born in September 1967, while Charlotte took up the painting for which she would become publicly known. Stanley then gained employment with a policy panel on population control, in June moving the family to Norwalk, Connecticut.
In summer 1969, the family returned to the United Kingdom, settling into Stanley's family farm at Nethercote, near Winsford in Exmoor. At Nethercote, Johnson gained his first experiences with fox hunting. Stanley was regularly absent from Nethercote, leaving Johnson to be raised largely by his mother and au pairs. As a child, Johnson was quiet and studious, although he suffered from severe deafness, resulting in several operations to insert grommets into his ears. He and his siblings were encouraged to engage in high-brow activities from a young age, with high achievement being greatly valued; Johnson's earliest recorded ambition was to be "world king". Having few or no friends other than their siblings, the children became very close. In autumn 1969 the family relocated to Maida Vale, North London, where Stanley began post-doctoral research at the London School of Economics. In 1970, Charlotte and the children briefly returned to Nethercote, where Johnson was schooled at the Winsford Village School, before returning to London to settle in Primrose Hill, there being educated at Primrose Hill Primary School. In late 1971 another son, Jo Johnson, was born to the family.
After Stanley secured employment at the European Commission, he moved his family to Brussels in April 1973, where they settled in Uccle and Johnson became fluent in French. Charlotte had a nervous breakdown and was hospitalised with clinical depression, with Johnson and his siblings being sent to Ashdown House preparatory boarding school in East Sussex in 1975. There he developed a love of rugby and excelled at Ancient Greek and Latin; he was appalled at the teachers' use of corporal punishment. Meanwhile, Stanley and Charlotte's relationship broke down in December 1978 and they divorced in 1980. Charlotte moved into a flat in Notting Hill, where her children spent much of their time with her.
Eton and Oxford: 1977–87
Johnson was awarded a King's Scholarship to study at Eton College, the elite independent boarding school in Eton, Berkshire. Arriving there in the autumn term of 1977, at Eton, Johnson began using the given name "Boris" rather than "Alex" and developed "the eccentric English persona" for which he later became known. He also abandoned his mother's Catholicism and became an Anglican, joining the Church of England. Although school reports complained about his idleness, complacency, and lateness, he established himself as a popular and well-known figure within the school. His friends were largely from the wealthy upper middle-classes, his best friends being Darius Guppy and Charles Spencer, both of whom would accompany him to Oxford University and remain friends into adulthood. Johnson excelled in English and Classics, winning prizes in both, became secretary of the school debating society, and then editor of the school newspaper, The Eton College Chronicle. In autumn 1981 he was admitted to the Eton Society. Upon finishing his time at Eton, Johnson went on a gap year to Australia, where he taught English and Latin at Geelong Grammar, an elite independent boarding school.
Johnson won a scholarship to read Literae Humaniores, a four-year course based in the study of Classics, at Balliol College, Oxford. Arriving at the university in the autumn of 1983, he was part of a generation of Oxford undergraduates who later dominated British politics and media in the early 21st century, among them senior Conservative Party members David Cameron, William Hague, Michael Gove, Jeremy Hunt, and Nick Boles. At the university, he played rugby for Balliol, and associated primarily with Old Etonians, joining the Old Etonian-dominated Bullingdon Club, an upper-class drinking society known for its acts of local vandalism. Johnson entered into a relationship with the aristocrat Allegra Mostyn-Owen and they became engaged while at university.
Johnson became a popular and well-known public figure at Oxford. With Guppy, he co-edited the university's satirical magazine Tributary. In 1984, Johnson was elected secretary of the Oxford Union, before campaigning for the position of Union president, losing the election to Neil Sherlock. In 1986, Johnson ran for president again, aided by undergraduate Frank Luntz; his campaign focused on reaching out from his established upper-class support base by emphasising his persona and downplaying his connections to the Conservatives. Hoping to court their vote, Johnson associated with university groups affiliated with the centrist Social Democratic Party (SDP) and Liberal Party. Luntz later alleged that Johnson portrayed himself as an SDP supporter during the campaign, although Johnson claims no recollection of this. Johnson won the election and was appointed president, although his presidency was not seen as particularly distinguished or memorable, and questions were raised regarding his competency and seriousness. Having specialised in the study of ancient literature and classical philosophy, Johnson graduated from Balliol College with an upper second-class degree, but was deeply unhappy that he did not receive a first.
The Times and The Daily Telegraph: 1987–94
Johnson and Mostyn-Owen married in West Felton, Shropshire, in September 1987; a violin piece was specially commissioned for the wedding from Hans Werner Henze. The couple honeymooned in Egypt before settling into a flat in West Kensington, West London. There, Johnson secured work for a management consultancy company, L.E.K. Consulting; finding it incredibly boring, he resigned after a week. Through family connections, in late 1987 he began work as a graduate trainee at The Times, shadowing one of its journalists. Scandal erupted when Johnson wrote an article on the archaeological discovery of Edward II's palace for the newspaper. Johnson invented a quote for the article that he falsely claimed came from the historian Colin Lucas, his own godfather. After The Times' editor Charles Wilson learned of the deception, Johnson was sacked.
Johnson secured employment on the leader writing desk of The Daily Telegraph, having known its editor, Max Hastings, through his Oxford University presidency. His articles were designed to appeal to the newspaper's conservative, middle-class, middle-aged "Middle England" readership and were known for their unique literary style, replete with old-fashioned words and phrases, and for regularly referring to the readership as "my friends". In spring 1989, Johnson was appointed to the newspaper's Brussels bureau to report on the European Commission. A strong critic of Commission President Jacques Delors, he established himself as one of the few Eurosceptic journalists in the city. Many of his fellow journalists based in the city were critical of his articles, opining that they often contained untruths designed to discredit the Commission; The Guardian's John Palmer stated that "as a journalist he is thoroughly irresponsible, making up stories."
Johnson biographer Andrew Gimson believed that these articles made Johnson "one of [Euroscepticism's] most famous exponents". According to fellow biographer Sonia Purnell, he helped to make Euroscepticism "an attractive and emotionally resonant cause for the Right", whereas previously it had been associated with the British Left. Johnson's articles established him as the favourite journalist of the Conservative Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, although Thatcher's successor, John Major, was annoyed by Johnson and spent much time attempting to refute his claims. Johnson's articles exacerbated tensions between the Eurosceptic and Europhile factions of the Conservative Party, and it was these tensions which were widely viewed as a contributing factor to the party's failure in the 1997 general election. As a result, Johnson earned the mistrust of many party members. His writings were also a key influence on the emergence of the right-wing Eurosceptic UK Independence Party (UKIP) in the early 1990s.
In February 1990, Allegra left Johnson and returned to London. After several attempts to reconcile, they divorced in April 1993. He had entered a relationship with a childhood friend, Marina Wheeler, who had moved to Brussels in 1990. In May 1993, they married at Horsham, Sussex, and gave birth to a daughter soon after. Johnson and his new wife settled in Islington, North London, an area known for its left-liberal intelligentsia. Under the influence of this milieu and his wife, Johnson moved in a more liberal direction on issues like climate change, LGBT rights, and race relations. There, the couple had three further children, each given the joint surname of Johnson-Wheeler, who were sent to the local Canonbury Primary School and then private secondary schools. Devoting much time to his children, Johnson authored a book of verse, Perils of the Pushy Parents – A Cautionary Tale, which was published to largely poor reviews.
Political columnist: 1994–99
Back in London, Hastings turned down Johnson's request to become a war reporter, instead promoting him to the position of assistant editor and chief political columnist. Johnson's column received praise for being ideologically eclectic and uniquely written, and earned him a Commentator of the Year Award at the What the Papers Say awards. He was also accused of bigotry; in one column he used the words "piccannies" and "watermelon smiles" when referring to Africans, and championed European colonialism in Uganda, while in another he referred to gay men as "tank-topped bumboys".
Contemplating a political career, in 1993 Johnson outlined his desire to stand as a Conservative candidate to be a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) in the 1994 European Parliament elections. Although Major considered vetoing Johnson's candidacy, Andrew Mitchell convinced him not to. Nevertheless, Johnson found it impossible to find a constituency and did not stand in that election. He subsequently turned his attention to obtaining a seat in the UK House of Commons. After being rejected as Conservative candidate for Holborn and St. Pancras, he was selected as the party's candidate for Clwyd South in North Wales, a Labour Party safe seat. Spending six weeks campaigning, he attained 9,091 votes (23%) in the 1997 general election, losing to the Labour candidate.
Scandal erupted in June 1995 when a recording of a 1990 telephone conversation between Johnson and his friend Guppy was made public. In the conversation, Guppy revealed that his criminal activities were being investigated by News of the World journalist Stuart Collier, and he asked Johnson to provide him with Collier's private address, seeking to have the latter beaten up. Johnson agreed to supply the information although he expressed concern that he would be associated with the attack. When the phone conversation was published in 1995, Johnson insisted that he did not ultimately give the information to Guppy; Hastings reprimanded Johnson's behaviour but did not sack him.
Johnson was given a regular column in The Spectator, The Daily Telegraph's sister publication; it attracted mixed reviews and was often thought rushed. In 1999, he was also given a column on new cars in the magazine GQ. His behaviour regularly annoyed his editors; those at GQ were frustrated by the large number of parking fines that Johnson acquired while testing cars for them, while he was consistently late in providing his columns for The Telegraph and The Spectator, forcing many staff to stay late to accommodate him; they related that if they went ahead and published without his work included, he would get angry and shout at them with expletives.
Johnson's appearance on an April 1998 episode of Have I Got News for You brought him to a far wider audience; emphasising a bumbling upper-class persona, he was viewed as entertaining and invited back on to later episodes, including as a guest presenter. After these, he came to be recognised on the street by the public, and was invited to appear on other television shows, such as Top Gear, Parkinson, Breakfast with Frost, and Question Time.
The Spectator and MP for Henley: 1999–2008
In July 1999, Conrad Black – the then proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Spectator – offered Johnson the editorship of the latter on the condition that he abandoned his parliamentary aspirations; Johnson agreed. He brought in contributions from figures whom he had known from his past and, while retaining The Spectator's traditional right-wing bent, he also welcomed contributions from leftist writers and cartoonists. Under Johnson's editorship, the circulation of The Spectator grew by 10% to 62,000 and it began to turn a profit. His editorship also drew criticism; some opined that under his leadership The Spectator avoided covering serious issues and focused on trivial topics, while colleagues became annoyed that he was regularly absent from the office and often missed meetings and events. He gained a reputation as a poor political pundit as a result of the incorrect political predictions that he made in the magazine, and was also strongly criticised – including by his father-in-law Charles Wheeler – for allowing Spectator columnist Taki Theodoracopulos to publish racist and anti-Semitic language in the magazine.
Following the retirement of Michael Heseltine, Johnson decided to stand as the Conservative candidate for Henley, a Conservative safe seat in Oxfordshire. The local Conservative branch were split over Johnson's candidacy; some found him amusing and charming, while others were critical of his flippant attitude to serious matters and his lack of knowledge about the local area, although he was nevertheless selected. Boosted by his television fame, Johnson stood as the Conservative candidate for the constituency in the 2001 general election, winning with a majority of 8,500 votes. Alongside his main Islington home, Johnson purchased a farmhouse outside Thame in his new constituency. He regularly attended Henley social events and wrote an occasional column for the Henley Standard. His constituency surgeries proved popular, and he involved himself in local campaigns to save Townlands Hospital and the local air ambulance from closure, as well as to keep Brakspear as an independent brewer.
In becoming a Member of Parliament, Johnson broke his promise to Black that he would not do so while editing The Spectator. Although labelling Johnson as "ineffably duplicitous", Black did not sack him, viewing him as "a capable editor" who "helped promote the magazine and raise its circulation". In Parliament, Johnson was appointed to serve on a standing committee assessing the Proceeds of Crime Bill, although he missed many of its meetings. Despite his credentials as a public speaker, his speeches in the House of Commons were widely deemed lacklustre and lacking in passion, with Johnson later admitting that they were "crap". In his first four years as MP for Henley he attended just over half of the votes in the House of Commons, although by his second term this had declined to 45%. In most cases, he supported the Conservative party line, only rebelling against it five times during this period, when he adopted a more socially liberal attitude than the mainstream party; he for instance voted to repeal Section 28 and supported the Gender Recognition Act 2004. Although initially claiming that he would not do so, he voted in support of the government's plans to join the US in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and in April 2003 visited occupied Baghdad. By August 2004 he seemingly regretted his decision by supporting calls to impeach Prime Minister Tony Blair for his role in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and in December 2006 he described the invasion as "a colossal mistake and misadventure"
Alongside his full-time job as an MP, he continued editing The Spectator, writing columns for The Daily Telegraph and GQ, and making television appearances. He also published a book, Friends, Voters, Countrymen: Jottings on the Stump, which recounted his experiences with the 2001 election campaign. His next publication was 2003's Lend Me Your Ears, a collection of previously published columns and articles. In 2004 this was followed by his first novel, Seventy-Two Virgins: A Comedy of Errors, which revolved around the life of a Conservative MP and contained various biographical elements. Responding to critics who argued that he was juggling too many positions, he cited prominent Conservative politicians Winston Churchill and Benjamin Disraeli as exemplars who combined their political and writing careers. To manage the stress he took up jogging and cycling, and became so well known for the latter that Gimson suggested that he was "perhaps the most famous cyclist in Britain".
Following William Hague's resignation as Conservative leader, Johnson used The Spectator to support the candidacy of the only pro-EU figure, Kenneth Clarke. Johnson argued that Clarke was the only candidate capable of winning a general election, however Iain Duncan Smith was selected. Johnson had a strained relationship with Duncan Smith, with The Spectator becoming very critical of the latter's party leadership. Duncan Smith was removed from his position in November 2003 and replaced by Michael Howard; Howard deemed Johnson to be the most popular Conservative politician with the electorate and appointed him vice-chairman of the party, responsible for overseeing its electoral campaign. In his shadow cabinet reshuffle of May 2004, Howard appointed Johnson to the position of shadow arts minister.
In August 2004, Johnson was one of several MPs who supported the commencement of impeachment procedures against Prime Minister Tony Blair for "high crimes and misdemeanours" in relation to his role in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. However, the impeachment motion was quickly defeated. In October 2004 Howard ordered Johnson to go to Liverpool and issue a public apology for an article anonymously authored by Simon Heffer that Johnson had published in The Spectator; in the article, Heffer claimed that the crowds at the Hillsborough disaster had contributed towards the incident and that Liverpool had a predilection for reliance on the welfare state.
In November 2004, the British tabloids revealed that since 2000, Johnson had been having an affair with Spectator columnist Petronella Wyatt, resulting in two terminated pregnancies. Johnson initially dismissed the claims as "piffle". After the allegations were proven, Howard asked Johnson to resign from his position as vice-chairman and shadow arts minister, not because of the affair but because he had publicly lied about it. Johnson refused, at which point Howard sacked him from those positions. The scandal was satirised by The Spectator's theatre critics Toby Young and Lloyd Evans in a play, Who's the Daddy?, performed at Islington's King's Head Theatre in July 2005; the play upset Johnson. In April 2006, the News of the World alleged that Johnson was having an affair with the journalist Anna Fazackerley; both Fazackerley and Johnson refused to comment although the former stepped down from her job and was subsequently employed by Johnson. That month, he attracted further public attention for taking part in a charity football match between former professional footballers and celebrities from England and Germany, in which he rugby tackled Maurizio Gaudino. In September 2006 his comparison between the frequently changing leadership of the Conservatives to cannibalism in Papua New Guinea drew criticism from the latter country's high commission.
In the 2005 general election, Johnson was re-elected MP for Henley, increasing his majority to 12,793. Following Labour's victory in the election, Howard stood down as Conservative leader, with Johnson backing David Cameron as his successor. After being successfully selected, Cameron appointed Johnson as the shadow higher education minister, acknowledging his popularity among students. Johnson's main interest was in streamlining university funding, as part of which he supported Labour's proposed top-up fees. In September 2006, his image was used in 'Boris needs you' and 'I Love Boris' material to promote the Conservative Party's image during Freshers' Week in universities. In 2006 Johnson campaigned to become Rector of Edinburgh University, but his support for top-up fees damaged his campaign and he ultimately came third, losing to Mark Ballard.
In 2005, The Spectator's new chief executive, Andrew Neil, removed Johnson from the editorship of the magazine. With his reduction of earnings, Johnson convinced The Daily Telegraph to raise his annual fee from £200,000 to £250,000, averaging at £5,000 per column, each of which took up around an hour and a half of his time. He presented a popular history television show, The Dream of Rome, for Tiger Aspect; the show was broadcast in January 2006 and a book followed in February. Through his own production company, he then produced a sequel, After Rome, which focused on early Islamic history. As a result of his various activities, in 2007 he earned £540,000, making him the UK's third highest earning MP that year.
Mayor of London
Mayoral election: 2008
In March 2007, Johnson suggested that he stand for the position of Mayor of London in the 2008 mayoral election. His candidacy was not initially taken seriously within the Conservative Party, who favoured Nick Boles as its candidate. However, after Boles withdrew, Johnson gained the support of Cameron, as well as the London Evening Standard newspaper. In July, he officially announced his candidacy, and was selected as Conservative candidate in September after gaining 79% of the vote in a public London-wide primary. The Conservatives hired election strategist Lynton Crosby to run Johnson's campaign, which was primarily funded by sympathetic individuals in London's financial sector. Johnson's campaign focused on reducing youth crime, making public transport safer, and replacing the articulated buses with an updated version of the AEC Routemaster. It also targeted the Conservative-leaning suburbs of outer London, hoping to capitalise on a perception that they had been overlooked by a Labour Mayoralty that had paid more attention to inner London. His campaign capitalised on his popularity, even among those who opposed his policies, with opponents complaining that a common attitude among voters was that "I'm voting for Boris because he is a laugh".
Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone took Johnson seriously, referring to him as "the most formidable opponent I will face in my political career." Livingstone's campaign portrayed Johnson as both an out-of-touch toff and a bigot, as evidenced by racist and homophobic language that he had used in his column; Johnson responded that these quotes had been taken out of context and were meant as satire. Johnson insisted that he was not a bigot, declaring that "I'm absolutely 100% anti-racist; I despise and loath racism". Publicly emphasising his Turkish ancestry, he went contrary to Conservative policy by declaring his support for an earned amnesty for illegal immigrants. However, the allegations were exacerbated when the far-right British National Party (BNP) urged its supporters to give their second preference votes to Johnson; he responded by "utterly and unreservedly" condemning the BNP. Controversy was also generated during the campaign when Johnson admitted that as a student he had used cannabis and cocaine.
The election took place in May 2008, and witnessed a turnout of approximately 45% of eligible voters, with Johnson receiving 43.2% and Livingstone 37% of first-preference votes; when second-preference votes were added, Johnson proved victorious with 53.2% to Livingstone's 46.8%. Johnson benefited from a large voter turnout in Conservative strongholds, in particular Bexley and Bromley. Johnson thus won the largest personal electoral mandate in the UK. Following his victory, he praised Livingstone as a "very considerable public servant" and added that he hoped to "discover a way in which the mayoralty can continue to benefit from your transparent love of London". He also announced that, as a result of his victory, he would resign as Member of Parliament for Henley, generating some anger from Henley party members and constituents who felt that Johnson was abandoning them for London.
First term: 2008–12
Settling into the Mayoral offices at City Hall, Johnson's first official engagement was an appearance at the Sikh celebrations for Vaisakhi in Trafalgar Square. His first policy initiative, issued that month, was a ban on drinking alcohol on public transport. He received criticism during the early weeks of his administration, largely because he was late to two official functions in his first week on the job, and because after three weeks he embarked on a holiday to Turkey. In July 2008 Johnson visited the closing ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, there offending his Chinese hosts with his attire. Rather than bringing a team of assistants with him to the job as Livingstone had done, Johnson built his team over the following six months. Those in City Hall who were deemed too closely allied to Livingstone's administration had their employment terminated. Johnson appointed Tim Parker to be first deputy mayor, but after Parker began taking increasing control at City Hall and insisted that all staff report directly to him, Johnson sacked him. As a result of these problems, many in the Conservative Party initially distanced themselves from Johnson's administration, fearing that it would be counter-productive to achieving a Conservative victory in the 2010 general election.
During the electoral campaign, Johnson had confided to Brian Paddick that he was unsure how he would retain his current lifestyle while relying upon the Mayoral salary of £140,000 a year. To resolve this problem, he agreed to continue his Telegraph column alongside his Mayoral job, thus earning a further £250,000 a year. His team believed that this would cause controversy, and made him promise to donate a fifth of his Telegraph fee to a charitable cause providing bursaries for students. Johnson resented this, and ultimately did not pay a full fifth. Controversy erupted when he was questioned about his Telegraph fee on BBC's HARDtalk; here, he referred to the £250,000 as "chicken feed", something that was widely condemned given that this was roughly ten times the average yearly wage for a British worker.
Johnson made no major changes to the mayoral system as developed by Livingstone. He did, however, reverse a number of measures implemented by Livingstone's administration, ending the city's oil deal with Venezuela, abolishing The Londoner newsletter, and scrapping the half yearly inspections of black cabs, although the latter were reinstated three years later. Abolishing the western wing of the congestion charging zone, he cancelled plans to increase the congestion charge for four-wheel drives. He was subsequently accused of failing to publish an independent report on air pollution commissioned by the Greater London authority. The report, available in 2013, showed London had been in breach of levels of diesel nitrogen dioxide levels since 2010 in areas affecting 433 primary schools. Poor areas, such as Newham, Hackney, and Tower Hamlets, were on average more polluted than more affluent areas and nearly 6,000 Londoners die annually from nitrogen dioxide levels above EU standards.
He retained Livingstone projects like Crossrail and the 2012 Olympic Games, but was accused of trying to take credit for them. He introduced a public bicycle scheme which had been mooted by Livingstone's administration; colloquially known as "Boris Bikes", the partly privately financed system cost £140 million and was a significant financial loss although it proved popular. Despite Johnson's support of cycling in London – and his much publicised identity as a cyclist himself – his administration was criticised by some cycling groups who argued that he had failed to make the city's roads safer for cyclists. As per his election pledge, he also commissioned the development of the New Routemaster buses for central London. He also ordered the construction of a cable-car system that crossed the River Thames between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks. At the beginning of his tenure as Mayor, Johnson announced plans to extend Pay As You Go Oyster cards to national rail services in London. One of the pledges in Johnson's election manifesto was to retain Tube ticket offices, in opposition to Livingstone's proposal to close up to 40 London Underground ticket offices. On 2 July 2008 the Mayor's office announced that the closure plan was to be abandoned and that offices would remain open. On 21 November 2013, Transport for London announced that all London Underground ticket offices would close by 2015. In financing these projects, Johnson's administration borrowed £100 million, while public transport fares were increased by 50%.
Johnson assumed control at City Hall on 4 May 2008. He appointed Richard Barnes as his Deputy Mayor on 6 May 2008, as well as appointing the following to newly devolved offices; Ian Clement as Deputy Mayor for Government Relations, Kit Malthouse as Deputy Mayor for Policing and Ray Lewis as Deputy Mayor for Young People. The Mayor also appointed Munira Mirza as his cultural adviser and Nick Boles, the founder of Policy Exchange, as Chief of Staff. Sir Simon Milton became Deputy Mayor for Policy and Planning, as well as Chief of Staff. Political opponents questioned Johnson's judgement when Ray Lewis resigned on 4 July 2008, shortly after taking up his post, following allegations of financial misconduct during his prior career as a Church of England priest and inappropriate behaviour in respect of a false claim to have been appointed as a magistrate.
During the first term of his mayoralty, Johnson was perceived as having moved leftward on certain issues, for instance by supporting the London Living Wage and the idea of an amnesty for illegal migrants. He tried placating critics who had deemed him a bigot by appearing at London's gay pride parade and praising ethnic minority newspapers. In 2012, he banned London buses from displaying the adverts of Core Issues Trust, a Christian group, which compared being gay to an illness. In August 2008, Johnson broke from the traditional protocol of those in public office not publicly commenting on other nations' elections by endorsing Barack Obama for the presidency of the United States.
Johnson appointed himself Chairman of the Metropolitan Police Authority (MPA), and in October 2008 successfully pushed for the resignation of Metropolitan Police Commissioner Ian Blair after the latter was criticised for allegedly handing contracts to friends and for his handling of the death of Jean Charles de Menezes. This earned Johnson great respect among Conservatives, who interpreted it as his first act of strength and assertiveness. Although resigning as MPA chairman in January 2010, throughout his mayoralty Johnson was highly supportive of the Metropolitan Police, particularly during the controversy surrounding the death of Ian Tomlinson. Overall crime in London fell during his administration, although his claim that serious youth crime had decreased was shown to be false, as it had increased. Similarly, his claim that Metropolitan Police numbers had increased was also shown to be incorrect, as the city's police force had decreased in size under his administration, in line with the rest of the country. He was also criticised for his response to the 2011 London riots; holidaying with his family in British Columbia when the rioting broke out, he did not immediately return to London, only returning 48 hours after it had begun and addressing Londoners 60 hours after. Upon visiting shopkeepers and residents affected by the riots in Clapham, he was booed and jeered away by some elements within the crowds.
Johnson championed London's financial sector and denounced what he saw as "banker bashing" following the financial crisis of 2007–08, condemning the anti-capitalist Occupy London movement that appeared in 2011. He spent much time with those involved in the financial services, and criticised the government's 50p tax rate for higher earners. He collected donations from the city's wealthy for a charitable enterprise, the Mayor's Fund, which he had established to aid disadvantaged youths; although initially announcing that it would raise £100 million, by 2010 it had only spent £1.5 million. He also retained extensive personal contacts throughout the British media, which resulted in widespread favourable press coverage of his administration. In turn he remained largely supportive of his friends in the media, among them Rupert Murdoch, during the News International phone hacking scandal.
The formation of the Forensic Audit Panel was announced on 8 May 2008. The Panel is tasked with monitoring and investigating financial management at the London Development Agency and the Greater London Authority. Johnson's announcement was criticised by Labour for the perceived politicisation of this nominally independent panel, who asked if the appointment of key Johnson allies to the panel – "to dig dirt on Ken Livingstone" – was "an appropriate use of public funds". The head of the panel, Patience Wheatcroft is married to a Conservative councillor and three of the four remaining panel members also have close links to the Conservatives: Stephen Greenhalgh (Conservative Leader of Hammersmith and Fulham Council), Patrick Frederick (Chairman of Conservative Business Relations for South East England and Southern London) and Edward Lister (Conservative Leader of Wandsworth Council).
During his first administration, Johnson was embroiled in several personal scandals. After moving to a new house in Islington, he built a shed on his balcony without obtaining planning permission; after neighbours complained, he dismantled the shed. The press also accused him of having an affair with Helen Macintyre and of fathering her child, allegations that he did not deny. Controversy was generated when Johnson was accused of warning the MP Damian Green that police were planning to arrest him; Johnson denied the claims and did not face criminal charges under the Criminal Justice Act. He was accused of cronyism, in particular for appointing Veronica Wadley, a former Evening Standard editor who had supported him, as the chair of London's Arts Council when she was widely regarded as not being the best candidate for the position. He was caught up in the parliamentary expenses scandal and accused of excessive personal spending on taxi journeys, with his deputy mayor Ian Clement having been found to have misused a City Hall credit card, resulting in his resignation. Johnson remained a popular figure in London with a strong celebrity status. In 2009, he rescued a woman, Franny Armstrong, from anti-social teenagers who had threatened her while he was cycling past.
Up for re-election in 2012, Johnson again hired Crosby to orchestrate his campaign. Before the election, Johnson published Johnson's Life of London, a work of popular history which the historian A. N. Wilson characterised as a "coded plea" for votes. Polls suggested that while Livingstone's approach to transport was preferred, voters in London placed greater trust in Johnson over issues of crime and the economy. During the 2012 Mayoral election, Johnson sought re-election, while Livingstone was again selected as the Labour candidate. Johnson's campaign emphasised the accusation that Livingstone was guilty of tax evasion, for which Livingstone called Johnson a "bare-faced liar". The political scientist Andrew Crines believed that Livingstone's campaign focused on criticising Johnson rather than presenting an alternate and progressive vision of London's future. In 2012, he was re-elected as Mayor, again defeating Livingstone.
Second term: 2012–16
London was successful in its bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics while Ken Livingstone was still Mayor in 2005. Johnson's role in the proceedings was to be the co-chair of an Olympic board which oversaw the Games. Two of his actions subsequent to taking on this role were to improve the transport around London by making more tickets available and laying on more buses around the capital during the busy period, when thousands of spectators were temporary visitors in London, and also to allow shops and supermarkets to have longer opening hours on Sundays. However Johnson was accused of covering up pollution ahead of the games by deploying dust suppressants to remove air particulates near monitoring stations. In November 2013, Johnson announced major changes to the operation of London Underground, including the extension of Tube operating hours to run through the night at weekends. The announcement also revealed that all staffed Underground ticket offices would be closed with the aim of saving over £40 million a year, with automated ticketing systems provided instead.
In February 2013, during a London Assembly meeting following the publication of the 2014 budget for London, Johnson was ejected from the meeting following a vote and on the grounds that his Deputy Victoria Borwick had left the chamber. Upon realising that the vote meant that he would not be questioned on the budget, Johnson referred to his political opponents as "great supine protoplasmic invertebrate jellies".
Johnson attended the launch of the World Islamic Economic Forum in London in July 2013, where he answered questions alongside Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak. He joked that Malaysian women attended university in order to find husbands, causing some offence among female attendees.
In 2014, Johnson pushed his biography of Churchill, The Churchill Factor, with media emphasising how Johnson repeatedly compared himself to Churchill throughout.
In 2016, three German-made water cannon, which he had bought for the Metropolitan Police without waiting for clearance for use by Theresa May, were sold by his successor, with the funds going to youth services.
Return to Parliament
'Brexit' campaign: 2015–16
Johnson initially denied that he would return to the House of Commons while remaining Mayor. However, after much media speculation, in August 2014 he sought selection as the Conservative candidate for the safe seat of Uxbridge and South Ruislip at the 2015 general election, being selected as the party's candidate in September. The United Kingdom general election, 2015 took place on 7 May and Johnson was elected. There was much speculation that he had returned to Parliament because he wanted to replace Cameron as Conservative leader and Prime Minister.
Johnson became the centre of media interest in early 2016 when he refused to clarify his support for Brexit. In February 2016 he endorsed Vote Leave in the "Out" campaign for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016. He labelled Cameron's fears on the matter as "greatly over exaggerated". Following this announcement, which was interpreted by financial markets as making Brexit more probable, the pound sterling slumped by nearly 2% to its lowest level since March 2009. When Obama urged the UK to remain in the EU, Johnson alleged that the President was motivated by anti-British sentiment caused by his Kenyan ancestry. The comments were condemned as racist and unacceptable by several Labour and Liberal Democratic politicians, and a King's College London student society revoked a speaking invitation to him on the basis of it. Conversely, his comments were defended by both UK Independence Party (UKIP) leader Nigel Farage and the Conservative Iain Duncan Smith. On 22 June 2016, the day before the referendum vote, Johnson declared that 23 June could be "Britain's independence day" in a televised debate in front of a 6000-member audience at Wembley Arena. David Cameron, British Prime Minister at the time, specifically addressed Johnson's claim, publicly stating; "the idea that our country isn't independent is nonsense. This whole debate demonstrates our sovereignty."
Following the success of the "Leave" campaign in the referendum, Cameron announced his resignation, and Johnson was widely regarded as the front-runner in the election of his replacement, both as Conservative leader and as Prime Minister. In what was anticipated to be the launch of his leadership campaign, Johnson declared he would not campaign for leader, as he did not believe he could provide the necessary unity or leadership for the party. This followed the surprise launch of a leadership campaign by Michael Gove, previously seen as a key ally of the Johnson campaign, who said (earlier that morning) that he had reluctantly come to the conclusion that Johnson "cannot provide the leadership or build the team for the task ahead." The Telegraph stated that Gove's actions in undermining Johnson's leadership aspirations constituted "the most spectacular political assassination in a generation." Meanwhile, Michael Heseltine stated that Johnson had "ripped apart" the Conservative Party and that "He's created the greatest constitutional crisis of modern times. He knocked billions off the value of the nation's savings". Johnson then endorsed Andrea Leadsom as a candidate for the Conservative leadership, but she dropped out of the race a week later.
Foreign Secretary: 2016–present
Following Theresa May becoming leader of the Conservative and Prime Minister, Johnson was appointed as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs on 13 July 2016. Johnson's appointment was criticised by some journalists and foreign politicians due to his history of controversial statements about other countries and their leaders. Former Prime Minister of Sweden Carl Bildt said "I wish it was a joke", and France's foreign minister Jean-Marc Ayrault stated: "I am not at all worried about Boris Johnson, but ... during the campaign he lied a lot to the British people and now it is he who has his back against the wall" as the UK tries to negotiate its future relationship with EU. Conversely, former Prime Minister of Australia Tony Abbott welcomed the appointment and called him "a friend of Australia". A senior official in the US government suggested that Johnson's appointment would push the US further towards ties with Germany at the expense of the Special Relationship with the UK.
Several analysts described the appointment as a possible tactic by May to weaken Johnson politically: the new positions of "Brexit Secretary" and International Trade Secretary leave the Foreign Secretary as a figurehead with few powers, and the appointment would ensure that Johnson would often be out of the country and unable to organise a rebel coalition, while also forcing him to take responsibility for any problems caused by withdrawing from the EU.
In August 2016, May called on "feuding ministers" Johnson and Liam Fox to 'stop playing games' after Fox wrote to Johnson saying that British trade couldn't flourish whilst future policy responsibility remained in Johnson's department. His recorded message supporting Change Britain was perceived by The Guardian as putting pressure on May to speed up the exit process though the paper also recorded the fury of former health minister Anna Soubry at the absence of the central "£350m-a-week bonanza for the NHS" pledge -a pledge she had previously described as a lie. In an article critical of Leave campaign figures, which noted his video and his lack of support for May, the Washington Post called him "bombastic".
Johnson supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen and refused to block UK arms sales to Saudi Arabia, saying there is no clear evidence of breaches of international humanitarian law by Saudi Arabia in the war in Yemen. In September 2016, he was accused of blocking the UN inquiry into Saudi war crimes in Yemen.
Johnson’s first visit to Turkey as Foreign Secretary was somewhat tense due to his having won Douglas Murray’s poetry competition about the President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, four months earlier. When questioned by a journalist whether he would apologise for the poem, which was published by The Spectator, Johnson dismissed the matter as "trivia". Johnson pledged to help Turkey join the European Union in "any way possible" and expressed Britain’s continued support for the elected Turkish Government.
Upon meeting with Australian Foreign Minister, Julie Bishop in late September 2016, Johnson reiterated his support for negotiating increased visa access between the United Kingdom and Australia, declaring it "odd" that Australians struggled harder to settle in Britain than European nations such as Slovakia. In January 2017, the former government minister Lord Wallace of Saltaire said that Johnson's work on Brexit had left civil servants "in despair" and that he was "alienating other EU foreign ministers". The Foreign Office defended Johnson.
In December 2016, at the Med 2 conference in Rome, Johnson said: "There are politicians who are twisting and abusing religion and different strains of the same religion in order to further their own political objectives. That's one of the biggest political problems in the whole region... That's why you've got the Saudis, Iran, everybody, moving in and puppeteering and playing proxy wars". These comments were interpreted as a diplomatic gaffe in Britain as Saudi Arabia is an ally of Britain and the biggest buyer of British arms. British prime minister Theresa May said that the foreign minister's comments did not represent the government's view. Other Conservatives however, defended Johnson. Scottish Conservative Party leader Ruth Davidson said: "I think Boris Johnson was absolutely right about what he said about proxy wars and about Iran. And I agree with his analysis. Now, that might not be the position of the UK Government but guess what - I am not in the UK Government and I think he was right." Later that month, Johnson visited Bahrain, met Saudi leaders and praised Saudi Arabia, saying it was "securing itself from bombardment by the Hootis" in Yemen.
Following the 2017 general election, Johnson denied media reports that he intended to challenge Theresa May for leadership of the Conservative Party.
Ideologically, Johnson has described himself as a "One-Nation Tory". Academic Tony Travers of the London School of Economics described Johnson as "a fairly classic—that is, small-state—mildly eurosceptic Conservative" who like his contemporaries Cameron and Osborne also embraced "modern social liberalism". The Guardian agreed that while Mayor, Johnson had blended economic and social liberalism, with The Economist claiming that in doing so Johnson "transcends his Tory identity" and adopts a more libertarian perspective. Stuart Reid, Johnson's colleague at The Spectator, described the latter's views as being those of a "liberal libertarian". Johnson's biographer and friend Andrew Gimson noted that while "in economic and social matters, [Johnson] is a genuine liberal", he retains a "Tory element" to his personality through his "love of existing institutions, and a recognition of the inevitability of hierarchy".
Stuart Wilks-Heeg, executive director of Democratic Audit, noted that "Boris is politically nimble", while biographer Sonia Purnell stated that Johnson regularly changed his opinion on political issues, commenting on what she perceived to be "an ideological emptiness beneath the staunch Tory exterior." She later referred to his "opportunistic—some might say pragmatic—approach to politics". Former Mayor Ken Livingstone claimed in an interview with the New Statesman that while he had once feared Johnson as "the most hardline right-wing ideologue since Thatcher", over the course of Johnson's mayoralty he had instead concluded that he was "a fairly lazy tosser who just wants to be there" while doing very little work. He has sometimes been described as a "populist" and a "nationalist".
Although Johnson became widely known for his strongly Eurosceptic articles in The Daily Telegraph, many of his close associates have believed this to be an opportunistic ruse, expressing the view that he is not a genuine Eurosceptic, with some suggesting that he might be sympathetic to the cause of European federalism. In 2012, for instance, he welcomed the prospect of Turkey's entry into the EU. Purnell stated that he is "neither truly anti-European nor a Little Englander".
Purnell has noted that Johnson "is nothing if not an elitist". In an article titled "Long Live Elitism", Johnson stated that "without elites and elitism man would still be in his caves." Purnell believed that it was the influence of Johnson's maternal family, the left-wing Fawcetts, that led to him developing "a genuine abhorrence of racial discrimination".
Widely known simply as "Boris", Johnson has attracted a variety of nicknames, including "BoJo", a portmanteau of his forename and surname. Biographer Sonia Purnell described his public persona as "brand Boris", noting that he developed it while at Oxford University. Max Hastings referred to this public image as a "façade resembling that of P. G. Wodehouse's Gussie Fink-Nottle, allied to wit, charm, brilliance and startling flashes of instability", while political scientist Andrew Crines stated that Johnson had created "the character of a likable and trustworthy individual with strong intellectual capital". Private Eye editor Ian Hislop has defined him as "Beano Boris" due to his perceived comical nature, saying: "He's our Berlusconi ... He's the only feel-good politician we have, everyone else is too busy being responsible." To the journalist Dave Hill, Johnson was "a unique figure in British politics, an unprecedented blend of comedian, conman, faux subversive showman and populist media confection".
Johnson purposely cultivates a "semi-shambolic look", for instance by specifically ruffling his hair in a certain way for when he makes public appearances. Purnell described him as "a manic self-promoter" who filled his life with "fun and jokes". Described by Crines as "a joker", Johnson has stated that "humour is a utensil that you can use to sugar the pill and to get important points across." Purnell noted that colleagues regularly expressed the view that Johnson used people to advance his own interests, with Gimson noting that Johnson was "one of the great flatterers of our times". Purnell noted that he deflected serious questions using "a little humour and a good deal of bravado". According to Gimson, Johnson was "a humane man" who "could also be staggeringly inconsiderate of others" when focusing upon his own interests. Gimson also noted that Johnson has "an excessive desire to be liked".
According to Purnell, "[Johnson] is blessed with immense charisma, wit, sex appeal and celebrity gold dust; he is also recognised and loved by millions—although perhaps less so by many who have had to work closely with him (let alone depend on him). Resourceful, cunning and strategic, he can pull off serious political coups when the greater good happens to coincide with his personal advantage but these aspirations are rarely backed up by concrete achievements, or even detailed plans." Furthermore, Purnell noted that Johnson was a "highly evasive figure" when it came to his personal life, who remained detached from others and who had very few if any intimate friends. Among friends and family, Johnson is known as "Al" rather than "Boris". Gimson stated that Johnson "has very bad manners. He tends to be late, does not care about being late, and dresses without much care". Highly ambitious and very competitive, Gimson noted that Johnson was born "to wage a ceaseless struggle for supremacy". He would be particularly angered with those he thought insulted aspects of his personal life; for instance, when an article in The Telegraph upset Johnson he e-mailed commissioning editor Sam Leith with the simple message "Fuck off and die." Thus, Purnell notes, Johnson hides his ruthlessness "using bumbling, self-deprecation or humour", adding that he was a fan of "laddish banter and crude sexual references".
Johnson is a fluent speaker of French and Italian, has a good grasp of German and Spanish, and is a lover of Latin, frequently using classical references in his newspaper columns and speeches.
Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Purnell described Johnson as "the most unconventional, yet compelling politician of the post-Blair era" in British politics. She added that in Britain, he was "beloved by millions and recognised by all". Giles Edwards and Jonathan Isaby commented that Johnson appealed to "a broad cross-section of the public", with his friends characterising him as a "Heineken Tory" who can appeal to voters that other Conservatives cannot. Gimson expressed the view that "people love him because he makes them laugh", noting that he had become "the darling of the Tory rank and file".
Purnell recognised that during the 2008 mayoral election, he was "polarising opinions to the extreme", with critics viewing him as "variously evil, a clown, a racist and a bigot". Writing in The Guardian, journalist Polly Toynbee for instance referred to him as "jester, toff, self-absorbed sociopath and serial liar", while Labour politician Hazel Blears called him "a nasty right-wing elitist, with odious views and criminal friends". More recently, Johnson has evoked comparisons with United States President Donald Trump. In June 2016, Nick Clegg described him as "like Donald Trump with a thesaurus", while fellow Conservative MP Kenneth Clarke described him as a "nicer Donald Trump" and EU official Martin Selmayr described the potential election of Johnson and Trump to the leadership of their respective countries as a "horror scenario". However, Johnson has chosen to distance himself from Trump, criticising him on numerous occasions.
Johnson is the eldest of the four children of Stanley Johnson, a former Conservative Member of the European Parliament and employee of the European Commission and World Bank, and the painter Charlotte Johnson Wahl (née Fawcett), the daughter of Sir James Fawcett, a barrister and president of the European Commission of Human Rights. His younger siblings are Rachel Johnson, a writer and journalist; Leo Johnson, a partner specialising in sustainability at accountancy firm PricewaterhouseCoopers; and Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science and Conservative MP for Orpington. Johnson's stepmother, Jenny, the second wife of his father Stanley, is the stepdaughter of Teddy Sieff, the former chairman of Marks & Spencer. In April 2017, Rachel Johnson joined the Liberal Democrats in protest against Conservative's Brexit policies; she was a member of the Conservatives 2008–11.
In 1987, he married Allegra Mostyn-Owen, the daughter of the art historian William Mostyn-Owen and the Italian writer Gaia Servadio; the marriage was dissolved in 1993. Later that year, he married Marina Wheeler, a barrister and daughter of journalist and broadcaster Sir Charles Wheeler and his wife, Dip Singh. The Wheeler and Johnson families have known each other for decades, and Marina Wheeler was at the European School in Brussels at the same time as her future husband. They have four children: two daughters, Lara and Cassia, and two sons, Milo and Theodore. Johnson and his family live in Islington, North London.
In 2009, Johnson fathered a daughter with Helen MacIntyre, an arts consultant. Her existence was the subject of legal action in 2013 with the Court of Appeal quashing an injunction seeking to ban reporting of her existence; the judge ruled that the public had a right to know about Johnson's "reckless" behaviour.
Johnson had dual citizenship in both the United Kingdom and the United States, since he was born in New York City to English parents. In 2014, Johnson acknowledged he was disputing a demand for capital gains tax from the US tax authorities, which ultimately he paid. In February 2015, he announced his intention to give up US citizenship to prove his loyalty to the UK. In 2016, he renounced his US citizenship.
- Electoral history of Boris Johnson
- List of foreign ministers in 2017
- List of current foreign ministers
- "Boris Johnson forced to share Foreign Office country residence with Cabinet colleagues David Davis and Liam Fox". Telegraph, Kate McCann, 18 July 2016
- Purnell 2011, p. 10; Gimson 2012, p. 1.
- Purnell 2011, p. 11.
- Purnell 2011, p. 11; Gimson 2012, p. 2.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, pp. 19–20; Gimson 2012, pp. 5–7.
- Acar, Özgen (20 June 2008). "Bir Baba Ocağı Ziyareti" [A Visit to Family Home]. Hürriyet Daily News (in Turkish). Istanbul. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Gökçe, Deniz (25 April 2016). "Obama ile Boris Johnson Kapıştı" [Obama versus Boris Johnson]. Akşam (in Turkish). Istanbul. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Purnell 2011, p. 21; Gimson 2012, p. 10.
- Llewellyn Smith, Julia (18 May 2008). "Boris Johnson, by his mother Charlotte Johnson Wahl". The Sunday Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 11, 24–25; Gimson 2012, pp. 12–13.
- Interview: Boris Johnson – my Jewish credentials, The Jewish Chronicle, Daniella Peled, April 2008
- Woodward, Will (17 July 2007). "Phooey! One-man melting pot ready to take on King Newt". The Guardian. London.
- Purnell 2011, p. 12; Gimson 2012, p. 2.
- Purnell 2011, p. 13.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, pp. 12–13; Gimson 2012, p. 11.
- Purnell 2011, p. 14.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, p. 16; Gimson 2012, p. 14.
- Purnell 2011, p. 15; Gimson 2012, p. 14.
- Purnell 2011, p. 16.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, p. 17; Gimson 2012, p. 17, 20–22.
- Purnell 2011, p. 18.
- Purnell 2011, p. 18; Gimson 2012, p. 25.
- Purnell 2011, p. 13; Gimson 2012, p. 11.
- Purnell 2011, p. 26; Gimson 2012, p. 18.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 45; Purnell 2011, p. 28; Gimson 2012, pp. 17–18.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 28–29.
- Purnell 2011, p. 29.
- Purnell 2011, p. 30.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, p. 30; Gimson 2012, p. 26.
- Purnell 2011, p. 31.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, pp. 31–32; Gimson 2012, p. 26.
- Johnson, Stanley (18 June 2016). "Stanley Johnson: Why I remain a fan of Brussels". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, pp. 33–35; Gimson 2012, pp. 27–29.
- Purnell 2011, p. 42; Gimson 2012, pp. 30–31.
- Purnell 2011, p. 41; Gimson 2012, p. 33.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 36, 42.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, pp. 44–45; Purnell 2011, pp. 38–39; Gimson 2012, p. 35.
- Purnell 2011, p. 49.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, p. 42.
- Purnell 2011, p. 45.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 47–48.
- Purnell 2011, p. 48.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 44; Purnell 2011, pp. 50–51; Gimson 2012, pp. 41–44.
- Purnell 2011, p. 53.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 49–50.
- Purnell 2011, p. 55.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 49, 53.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 54–55; Gimson 2012, pp. 51–52.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 58–59.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 45; Purnell 2011, p. 57; Gimson 2012, p. 83.
- Gimson 2012, p. 56.
- Purnell 2011, p. 62.
- Gimson 2012, p. 62.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 63–65; Gimson 2012, pp. 63–66.
- "David Dimbleby Slams 'Disgraceful' Boris Johnson For Ruining Bullingdon Club". The Huffington Post. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2014.; "UK riots: how do Boris Johnson's Bullingdon antics compare?". The Guardian. London. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 72, 74–78; Gimson 2012, pp. 76–83.
- Purnell 2011, p. 70; Gimson 2012, p. 60.
- Purnell 2011, p. 68; Gimson 2012, p. 74.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 70–71.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 71–73.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 80–81.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 82–83; Gimson 2012, pp. 70–71.
- Deedes, Henry (7 August 2006). "Pandora column: A youthful flirtation comes back to haunt Boris". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008.
- Purnell 2011, p. 83; Gimson 2012, p. 72.
- Purnell 2011, p. 84.
- Purnell 2011, p. 87.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 89–90; Gimson 2012, p. 84.
- "Lyn Barber Interviews Boris Johnson". The Guardian. London. 5 October 2003.
- Purnell 2011, p. 92.
- Gimson 2012, p. 102.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 92–94; Gimson 2012, pp. 85–86.
- Purnell 2011, p. 94.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 46; Purnell 2011, pp. 94–95; Gimson 2012, pp. 87–88.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 95–99; Gimson 2012, pp. 88–90.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 100–102; Gimson 2012, pp. 90–96.
- "Boris Johnson's media scrapes". BBC News. 17 July 2007.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 102–103; Gimson 2012, p. 97.
- Purnell 2011, p. 108.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 106–107.
- Purnell 2011, p. 109.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 115–116.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 121, 126; Gimson 2012, pp. 98–99, 100–101.
- Purnell 2011, p. 127.
- Purnell 2011, p. 115.
- Purnell 2011, p. 120; Gimson 2012, p. 104.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 118, 124.
- Purnell 2011, p. 124.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 129–130, 134; Gimson 2012, pp. 107–111, 113–114.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 130–133; Gimson 2012, pp. 111–114.
- Purnell 2011, p. 134; Gimson 2012, pp. 114–115.
- Purnell 2011, p. 135; Gimson 2012, p. 115.
- Purnell 2011, p. 142.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 144, 148.
- Purnell 2011, p. 143; Gimson 2012, p. 125.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 146–147.
- Purnell 2011, p. 153.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 139–140.
- Purnell 2011, p. 161; Gimson 2012, p. 124.
- Purnell 2011, p. 168; Gimson 2012, p. 125.
- Purnell 2011, p. 169.
- Boris Johnson (10 January 2002). "If Blair's so good at running the Congo, let him stay there". The Daily Telegraph.
- Boris Johnson (1 September 2005). "Getting our knickers in a twist over China". The Daily Telegraph.
- Purnell 2011, p. 171.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 162–165.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 46; Purnell 2011, pp. 185–186; Gimson 2012, p. 125.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 173–176; Gimson 2012, pp. 117–123.
- Purnell 2011, p. 168.
- Purnell 2011, p. 171; Gimson 2012, pp. 177–178.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 179–181; Gimson 2012, p. 177.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 176–178; Gimson 2012, pp. 127–129.
- Purnell 2011, p. 178; Gimson 2012, p. 130.
- Purnell 2011, p. 219.
- Purnell 2011, p. 188; Gimson 2012, p. 131.
- Purnell 2011, p. 201.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 198–199.
- Purnell 2011, p. 191.
- Purnell 2011, p. 204.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 192, 194.
- Purnell 2011, p. 193.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 209–210; Gimson 2012, p. 141.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 211–212.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 220–221.
- Purnell 2011, p. 240.
- Purnell 2011, p. 238.
- Purnell 2011, p. 239.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 189, 190.
- Purnell 2011, p. 225.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 232–233.
- Purnell 2011, p. 230.
- Purnell 2011, p. 231.
- Purnell 2011, p. 149.
- "BBC NEWS | UK | Politics | Blair impeachment campaign starts". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Gimson 2012, p. 265.
- Purnell 2011, p. 226.
- Purnell 2011, p. 230; Gimson 2012, pp. 145–146.
- Gimson 2012, pp. 176–177.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 249–251; Gimson 2012, pp. 189–192.
- Purnell 2011, p. 227; Gimson 2012, p. 143.
- Purnell 2011, p. 228.
- Gimson 2012, p. 182.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 223–224; Gimson 2012, p. 150.
- Purnell 2011, p. 234; Gimson 2012, p. 150.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, pp. 46–47; Purnell 2011, pp. 242–243; Gimson 2012, p. 178.
- Purnell 2011, p. 243; Gimson 2012, p. 179.
- "BBC NEWS | Programmes | BBC Parliament | Impeachment in practice". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 47; Purnell 2011, pp. 251–252; Gimson 2012, pp. 193–207.
- "Boris sorry for Scouse stereotype". BBC News. 19 October 2004.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 47; Purnell 2011, pp. 257–263; Gimson 2012, pp. 162–173, 209–218.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 47; Purnell 2011, pp. 265–267; Gimson 2012, pp. 222–223.
- "On your bike, Boris: Howard sacks Johnson over private life". The Independent. London. 14 November 2004. Archived from the original on 13 December 2004. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 277–281; Gimson 2012, pp. 232–233.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 296–300; Gimson 2012, pp. 255–257.
- Barber, Lynn (19 October 2008). "No more Mr Nice Guy". The Guardian (London).
- Gimson 2012, p. 260.
- Gimson 2012, p. 266.
- Purnell 2011, p. 277; Gimson 2012, p. 232.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 283–284; Gimson 2012, pp. 235–236.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 47; Purnell 2011, p. 289; Gimson 2012, p. 243.
- Purnell 2011, p. 302.
- Purnell 2011, p. 291.
- Woodward, Will (6 September 2006). "Boris Johnson goes Warhol to become poster boy for Tories". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 September 2006.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 291–292; Gimson 2012, p. 248.
- Fazakerley, Anna (24 February 2006),"Blond has more fun but fails to thwart anti top-up fee vote". Times Higher Education Supplement (London).
- Purnell 2011, pp. 289–290; Gimson 2012, pp. 244–245.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 294–295.
- Brook, Stephen (15 May 2008). "Boris to return to Telegraph column". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 292–293; Gimson 2012, pp. 250–253.
- Purnell 2011, p. 294.
- Purnell 2011, p. 295.
- Purnell 2011, p. 307.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 207–208.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 308–310.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 52; Purnell 2011, p. 312; Gimson 2012, pp. 278–279.
- Jones, George (16 July 2007). "Boris Johnson to run for mayor". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 53; Gimson 2012, p. 279.
- "Johnson is Tory mayor candidate". BBC News. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 73; Purnell 2011, pp. 322–323; Gimson 2012, p. 281.
- Purnell 2011, p. 401.
- Purnell 2011, p. 327.
- Purnell 2011, p. 327; Gimson 2012, p. 285.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 326–327.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 67; Purnell 2011, p. 314.
- Hosken 2008, pp. 426–427; Edwards & Isaby 2008, pp. 67–69, 133; Purnell 2011, p. 315, 90.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 90; Purnell 2011, p. 332.
- Purnell 2011, p. 340.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 154; Purnell 2011, pp. 346–347; Gimson 2012, p. 299.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. ?; Purnell 2011, p. 336.
- Jones, Sam (2 April 2008). "Give second vote to Johnson, BNP tells supporters". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, pp. 144–145.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, pp. 200–201; Purnell 2011, p. 348.
- "Johnson wins London mayoral race". BBC News. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- Grice, Andrew (3 May 2008). "Cripes! Boris takes London (and rounds off a rotten day for Gordon Brown)". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 204.
- Purnell 2011, p. 351.
- Watt, Nicholas (3 May 2008). "Johnson snatches Tories' biggest prize". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Purnell 2011, p. 313.
- Purnell 2011, p. 352.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 207; Purnell 2011, p. 353.
- Purnell 2011, p. 265; Gimson 2012, p. 288.
- "Mayor unveils plan to ban alcohol on the transport network" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008.
- Purnell 2011, p. 366.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 371–372; Gimson 2012, pp. 308–309.
- Purnell 2011, p. 354.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 368–271.
- Purnell 2011, p. 368.
- Purnell 2011, p. 360.
- Purnell 2011, p. 361.
- Purnell 2011, p. 362.
- Purnell 2011, p. 363.
- "Mayor's £250,000 'chicken feed'". BBC News. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Mulholland, Hélène (14 July 2009). "Johnson condemned for describing £250,000 deal as 'chicken feed'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Purnell 2011, p. 373.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 211; Purnell 2011, p. 373.
- Purnell 2011, p. 443.
- Purnell 2011, p. 391.
- "Nearly 9,500 people die each year in London because of air pollution – study". The Guardian. 15 July 2015.
- Adam Vaughan (16 May 2016). "Boris Johnson accused of burying study linking pollution and deprived schools". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Boris Johnson accused of hiding study linking air pollution and deprived schools". Daily Telegraph. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Caroline Mortimer (16 May 2016). "Boris Johnson accused of burying report on the number of schools in London's most polluted areas". The Independent.
- Purnell 2011, p. 390.
- Martin Hoscik. "Exclusive: TfL reveals how much Barclays has paid for Cycle Hire scheme". MayorWatch.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 414–416; Gimson 2012, p. 307.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 442–443.
- Purnell 2011, p. 417; Gimson 2012, p. 307.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 417–418.
- Waugh, Paul (12 May 2008). "Boris plans to 'Oysterise' overground rail services by next May". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Johnson, Boris. "Saying No To Ticket Office Closures" (PDF). Getting Londoners Moving (Transport Manifesto for the 2008 Mayoral election). Back Boris campaign. p. 38. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Murray, Dick (2 July 2008). "Mayor scraps Ken plan to axe 40 Tube ticket offices". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "London Underground in 24-hour plans as ticket offices shut". BBC News. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Purnell 2011, p. 437.
- Purnell 2011, p. 416.
- "Boris Johnson announces further senior appointments to his administration" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- Watts, Robert; Oliver, Jonathan (11 May 2008). "Boris Tory HQ team puts reins on Boris Johnson". The Times. London. Retrieved 11 May 2008.(subscription required)
- Taylor, Matthew (4 July 2008). "London mayor: Johnson forced to remove his deputy mayor after magistrate claim proves false". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- Purnell 2011, p. 388.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 374–375.
- Mulholland, Helene; Booth, Robert; Strudwick, Patrick (12 April 2012). "Anti-gay adverts pulled from bus campaign by Boris Johnson". The Guardian. London.
- Mulholland, Hélène (1 August 2008). "Barack Obama gets backing from Boris Johnson". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Prince, Rosa (1 August 2008). "Boris Johnson backs Barack Obama as US President". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 377–278; Gimson 2012, p. 304.
- "Britain's top policeman resigns". BBC News. 2 October 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- O'Neill, Sean; Fresco, Adam; Coates, Sam (3 October 2008). "Boris Johnson forces Sir Ian Blair to quit as police chief". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010. (subscription required)
- Purnell 2011, p. 379.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 387–388.
- Purnell 2011, p. 436.
- Donovan, Tim (16 November 2011). "London mayor admits 'caveats' in youth crime statistics". BBC News.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 429–432; Gimson 2012, pp. 333–335.
- Purnell 2011, p. 400; Gimson 2012, p. 324.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 439–440.
- Purnell 2011, p. 400.
- Purnell 2011, p. 414.
- Purnell 2011, p. 389.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 424–425.
- "Mayor of London announces new Forensic Audit Panel to investigate GLA and LDA" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 8 May 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008.
- "Labour accuse Mayor of 'Tory witch hunt'". MayorWatch. 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- The Media Guardian 100 – 87 Patience Wheatcroft. The Guardian (London). 17 July 2006.
- "Stephen Greenhalgh | Conservative Home". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Ken Livingstone refuses to appear before LDA audit panel". London Evening Standard. 15 July 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 396–397; Gimson 2012, p. 308.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 407–410; Gimson 2012, pp. 330–331.
- Mulholland, Helene (15 December 2010). "No censure for Boris Johnson over relationship with unpaid City Hall adviser". The Guardian. London.
- Mulholland, Hélène (20 July 2010). "Boris Johnson pressed for full details of the appointment of his alleged lover". The Guardian. London.
- "Public has right to know about Boris Johnson's secret lovechild, court rules". The Daily Telegraph. London. 21 May 2013.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 380–385; Gimson 2012, pp. 305–308.
- Purnell 2011, p. 407.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 401–402.
- Mulholland, Hélène (9 October 2009). "Ken Livingstone claims Boris Johnson tried to 'pay off' former Evening Standard editor". The Guardian. London.
- Coates, Sam (8 October 2009). "Boris Johnson 'broke rules' by proposing ally for top London arts job". The Times. London. (subscription required)
- Purnell 2011, pp. 392–395.
- Purnell 2011, p. 446.
- Gimson 2012, p. 308.
- "Johnson saves woman from 'oiks'". BBC News. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- "London Mayor Boris Johnson Saves Filmmaker from Mugging". Time. New York. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- Gimson 2012, p. 338.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 447–448.
- Purnell 2011, p. 440.
- Crines 2013, p. 3.
- Crines 2013, p. 2.
- "London mayor: Boris Johnson wins second term by tight margin 5 May 2012 Last updated at 01:35". BBC News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "The Mayor of London – 2012 Olympics". London 2012. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Boris Johnson on London 2012 Olympics tickets and transport". The Guardian (video). 30 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "London 2012: Boris Johnson says capital is prepared". BBC News. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Bozier, Luke (9 September 2012). "Boris should fight for London to be open on Sundays". Conservative Home blogs. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Every Tube ticket office to close". BBC News. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Beard, Matthew (21 November 2013). "950 London Underground staff to lose their jobs in Tube ticket office shake-up". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Boris Johnson calls London St Patrick's day event lefty Sinn Féin crap". The Belfast Telegraph. 11 February 2012.
- "Johnson apologises to London Irish for St Patrick's Day slur". The Irish Times. Dublin. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Williams, Rob (25 February 2013). "Video: 'Great supine protoplasmic invertebrate jellies!' – Boris Johnson's parting shot at London Assembly members after they vote NOT to grill him over budget cuts". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Topping, Alexandra (8 July 2013). "Boris Johnson criticised for suggesting women go to university to find husband". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Wright, Oliver (8 July 2013). "Boris Johnson gaffe: Why do women go to university? To find men to marry...". The Independent. London. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Kampfner, John (3 November 2014). "The Churchill Factor review – Boris Johnson's flawed but fascinating take on his hero". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Water cannon bought by Boris Johnson to be sold off without being used". The Guardian. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- de Peyer, Robin (26 August 2014). "Boris Johnson declares he will stand in Uxbridge and South Ruislip". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Johnston, Chris (12 September 2014). "Boris Johnson selected to stand for Tories in Uxbridge and South Ruislip". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- Swinford, Steven; Holehouse, Matthew (12 September 2014). "Boris Johnson selected to stand for Tories in Uxbridge and South Ruislip". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- Bennett, Asa (17 September 2012). "Boris Johnson lacks the skills to be prime minister, says Tory chairman". LondonlovesBusiness.com. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "Boris Johnson says UK is better off outside the EU". BBC News. 21 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- Wearden, Graeme (22 February 2016). "Pound hits seven-year low after Boris Johnson's Brexit decision". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Stone, Jon (22 April 2016). "Barack Obama hits back at Boris Johnson and explains why he moved Winston Churchill bust in the Oval Office". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- "Obama hits back at Boris Johnson's alleged smears". BBC News. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Lawless, Jill (22 April 2016). "London mayor under fire for 'loaded' criticism of 'part-Kenyan' Obama". The Times of Israel. Jerusalem. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Espinoza, Javier (28 April 2016). "Boris Johnson 'no platformed' over Obama's ancestry comments". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Clark, Natasha (25 April 2016). "Duncan Smith: "There's nothing worse than hurling a word like 'racist'"". Times Red Box. Retrieved 26 April 2016. (Subscription required (. ))
- Sparrow, Andrew; McDonald, Henry; Asthana, Anushka (25 April 2016). "Duncan Smith says almost all forecasts are 'probably wrong'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Stone, Jon (25 April 2016). "Boris Johnson was not racist about Barack Obama, Iain Duncan Smith insists". The Independent. London. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- "EU debate: Boris Johnson says Brexit will be 'Britain's independence day' as Ruth Davidson attacks 'lies' of Leave campaign in front of 6,000-strong Wembley audience". The Daily Telegraph. 20 June 2016.
- "Boris Johnson's independence day claim nonsense, says David Cameron". The Guardian. 22 June 2016.
- "Boris Johnson Favourite to replace David Cameron as PM after Brexit". The Guardian. London. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- Cowburn, Ashley (30 June 2016). "Michael Gove's statement on running for Tory leadership against Boris Johnson". The Independent. London. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- "Boris Johnson rules himself out of Conservative leader race". BBC News. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- Witte, Griff (30 June 2016). "Stung by a betrayal, former London mayor Boris Johnson ends bid to lead Britain". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- "Boris Johnson won't run for Prime Minister after Michael Gove enters race". The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- Hughes, Laura (30 June 2016). "Boris Johnson announces he will not run for Prime Minister as Michael Gove declares his bid after claiming his colleague 'cannot provide the leadership'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- Swinford, Steven (1 July 2016). "Boris Johnson's allies accuse Michael Gove of 'systematic and calculated plot' to destroy his leadership hopes". The Daily Telegraph.
- May, Josh (30 June 2016). "Lord Heseltine: Boris Johnson must 'live with the shame' of his actions". Politics Home.
- Asthana, Anushka; Mason, Rowena (4 July 2016). "Boris Johnson endorses Andrea Leadsom in Tory leadership bid". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- RobDotHutton, Robert Hutton. "Boris Johnson Appointed U.K. Foreign Secretary in May Government". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Patrick Wintour (13 July 2016). "Boris Johnson and diplomacy are not synonymous". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Boris Johnson is foreign secretary: The world reacts". BBC News. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Bonnie Malkin; Philip Oltermann; Tom Phillips (14 July 2016). "'Maybe the Brits are just having us on': the world reacts to Boris Johnson as foreign minister". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Holton, Kate; Pitas, Costas (14 July 2016). "May builds new-look Brexit cabinet to steer EU divorce". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Robert Moore (14 July 2016). "Boris Johnson's appointment as Foreign Secretary has not gone down well in the United States". ITV News. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Stephen Bush (14 July 2016). "Sending Boris Johnson to the Foreign Office is bad for Britain, good for Theresa May". New Statesman. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Thomas Hüetlin (14 July 2016). "Boris Johnson als Außenminister: Der Prügelknabe" [Boris Johnson as Foreign Secretary: The whipping boy]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- John Cassidy (13 July 2016). "The Huge Challenge Facing Theresa May". New Yorker. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Steven Swinford (14 August 2016). "Theresa May tells feuding ministers to 'stop playing games' and get on with the job". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Peter Walker and Toby Helm (11 September 2016). "Boris Johnson backs Brexit pressure campaign Change Britain". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Griff Witte (17 September 2016). "What does Brexit mean? With divorce talks looming, Britain still doesn’t have a clue.". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
- "Boris Johnson urged to back probe into international law violations in Yemen". The Independent. 21 September 2016.
- "Boris Johnson defends UK arms sales to Saudi Arabia". The Guardian. 5 September 2016.
- "Boris Johnson criticised by human rights groups after blocking inquiry into war crimes in Yemen". The Independent. 27 September 2016.
- Murray, Douglas (18 May 2016). "Boris Johnson wins The Spectator’s President Erdogan Offensive Poetry competition". The Spectator.
- Steerpike (27 September 2016). "Boris Johnson refuses to apologise for his President Erdogan poem". The Spectator.
- "Boris Johnson: UK will help Turkey join the EU". Politico. 28 September 2016.
- "Julie Bishop hopes for Britain-Australia exchanges in post-Brexit deal". The Australian. 23 September 2016.
- Baxter, Holly; Watts, Joe (4 January 2017). "Brexit: Former government member says Foreign Office ‘in despair’ over Boris Johnson". The Independent. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- "Boris Johnson accuses Saudi Arabia of 'playing proxy wars'". 8 December 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Charted: the world's biggest arms importers". Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Boris Johnson's Saudi 'proxy wars' comment 'not UK's view'". 8 December 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Boris Johnson charms Gulf leaders days after Saudi Arabia 'proxy wa...". Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- Brogan, Benedict (29 April 2010). "Boris Johnson interview: My advice to David Cameron? I've made savings, so can you". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Parker, George (21 December 2014). "Boris Johnson aims to win back voters as 'One Nation Tory'". Financial Times. London.
- "Boris Johnson: classic Tory or political maverick?". Channel 4 News. 9 October 2012.
- Hill, Dave (4 December 2008). "Mayor Boris, the liberal". The Guardian. London.
- "Generation Boris". The Economist. London. 1 June 2013.
- Gimson 2012, p. 136.
- Gimson 2012, p. 342.
- Purnell 2011, p. 2.
- Purnell 2011, p. 121.
- Eaton, George (30 April 2014). "Ken Livingstone: "Boris is a lazy tosser who just wants to be there"". New Statesman. London.
- "London's Popular And Populist Mayor Makes The Case For Leaving The EU". NPR. 3 May 2016.
- "Brussels casts Boris Johnson in populist 'horror scenario'". Financial Times. 26 May 2016.
- "Luck Runs Out for a Leader of 'Brexit' Campaign". New York Times. 30 June 2016.
- "Why the new nationalists are taking over". Politico. 28 June 2016.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 121–122.
- Gimson 2012, p. 7.
- Purnell 2011, p. 122.
- Purnell 2011, p. 52.
- Purnell 2011, p. 198.
- Purnell 2011, p. 25.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 43; Purnell 2011, p. 1.
- "The BoJo, Ken and Bri show". New Statesman. London. 6 September 2007. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Purnell 2011, p. 91.
- Purnell 2011, p. 103.
- Crines 2013, p. 1.
- Frost, Caroline (3 April 2013). "17 Things We Now Know About Boris Johnson, And His Worthiness, Or Not, To Be PM...". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Hill 2016, p. 31.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 74.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 74; Purnell 2011, p. 1; Gimson 2012, p. 301.
- Purnell 2011, p. 3.
- Purnell 2011, p. 183.
- Gimson 2012, p. x.
- Purnell 2011, p. 214.
- Gimson 2012, p. 108.
- Gimson 2012, p. 258.
- Purnell 2011, p. 456.
- Purnell 2011, p. 1.
- Purnell 2011, p. 15.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 43; Purnell 2011, p. 1; Gimson 2012, p. xiii.
- Gimson 2012, p. 301.
- Gimson 2012, p. 17.
- Purnell 2011, pp. 6–7.
- Purnell 2011, p. 26.
- Purnell 2011, p. 37.
- "London's schools: The lessons of Boris". The Economist. London. 10 November 2012. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- "Boris: I took cocaine and cannabis". Oxford Mail. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "Boris Johnson: Legalise cannabis for pain relief". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 April 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- Olson, Donald (2010). London for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 21. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- Stone, Madeline (4 November 2015). "21 of the most absurd photos of London mayor Boris Johnson". Business Insider UK. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 47.
- Kirkup, James (7 January 2015). "Boris Johnson goes looking for Conservative friends in the north". The Telegraph.
- Gimson 2012, p. 20.
- Gimson 2012, p. 148.
- Purnell 2011, p. 345.
- Purnell 2011, p. 365.
- Gimson 2012, p. 279.
- Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 110.
- "Donald Trump and Boris Johnson kiss and make Out". Politico. 24 May 2016.
- "New York Post compares Boris Johnson to Donald Trump". The Guardian. 29 June 2016.
- "London mayor Boris Johnson eyes Trump-style insurgency in EU battle". Newsweek. 23 March 2016.
- Wright, Oliver (2 June 2016). "EU referendum: Boris Johnson is like Donald Trump 'with a thesaurus', claims Nick Clegg". The Independent. London.
- "Ken Clarke: Boris Johnson is just a 'nicer Donald Trump'". The Daily Telegraph. 30 May 2016.
- "Martin Selmayr's populist 'horror scenario': Trump, Le Pen, Johnson, Grillo". Politico. 26 May 2016.
- "Boris Johnson: 'I was mistaken for Donald Trump'". The Daily Telegraph. 21 March 2016.
- "Trump's Muslim comments 'extraordinary': Ex London mayor Boris Johnson". CNBC. 5 June 2016.
- Byrnes, Sholto (27 March 2008). "Who is Boris Johnson?". New Statesman. London. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008.
- Clapham, Andrew (1993). "Human Rights in the Private Sphere". OUP. p. 186.
- "Leo Johnson, partner, PwC Sustainability and Climate Change". PricewaterhouseCoopers. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Bates, Stephen (14 May 2008). "People". The Guardian. London.
- Martinson, Jane (27 April 2017). "Rachel Johnson joins Lib Dems in protest against Tory backing for Brexit". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "Boris Johnson’s first wife marries again". Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- Doward, Jamie (29 August 2004). "No dumb blond". The Observer. London. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- "Boris celebrates Vaisakhi in Southall". BackBoris.com. 6 April 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- Gimson, Andrew (2006) . Boris: The Rise of Boris Johnson. Pocket Books [Simon & Schuster]. pp. 11–12, 26–27, 71, 118, 119, 254. ISBN 0-7432-7584-5.
- Wheeler, Brian (4 May 2008). "The Boris Johnson story". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2008.
- "Public has right to know about Boris Johnson's secret lovechild, court rules". The Daily Telegraph. London. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Halliday, Josh (21 May 2013). "Public has right to know Boris Johnson fathered child during affair, court rules". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Pitel, Laura (22 May 2013). "'Boris lovechild' can be public knowledge, appeal court rules". The Times. London. Retrieved 7 May 2016. (subscription required)
- Watt, Holly (20 November 2014). "Boris Johnson could be hit with six-figure tax bill". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Siddique, Haroon (20 November 2014). "New York-born London mayor Boris Johnson refuses to pay US tax bill". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "London Mayor Boris Johnson agrees to pay US tax bill". BBC News. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Crikey! Boris gives up White House to bid for No 10". The Sunday Times. London. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015. (subscription required)
- "Мэр Лондона намерен отказаться от гражданства США" [The Mayor of London is going to give up his US citizenship] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Boris Johnson among record number to renounce US citizenship in 2016". The Guardian. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Crines, Andrew S. (2013). "Why did Boris Johnson win the 2012 mayoral election?". Public Policy and Administration Research. 3 (9): 1–7.
- Edwards, Giles; Isaby, Jonathan (2008). Boris v. Ken: How Boris Johnson Won London. London: Politico's. ISBN 978-1842752258.
- Gimson, Andrew (2012). Boris: The Rise of Boris Johnson (second ed.). Simon & Schuster.
- Hill, Dave (2016). Zac Versus Sadiq: The Fight to Become London Mayor. Not specified: Double Q. ISBN 978-1-911079-20-0.
- Hosken, Andrew (2008). Ken: The Ups and Downs of Ken Livingstone. Arcadia Books. ISBN 978-1-905147-72-4.
- Purnell, Sonia (2011). Just Boris: Boris Johnson: The Irresistible Rise of a Political Celebrity. London: Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-84513-665-9.
- Ruddock, Andy (2006). "Invisible Centers: Boris Johnson, Authenticity, Cultural Citizenship and a Centrifugal Model of Media Power". Social Semiotics. 16 (2): 263–282.
- Yates, Candida (2010). "Turning to Flirting: Politics and the Pleasures of Boris Johnson". Rising East Essays. 2 (1).
- Johnson's Column (Continuum International – Academi) ISBN 0-8264-6855-1
- Friends, Voters, Countrymen (HarperCollins, 2001) ISBN 0-00-711913-5
- Lend Me Your Ears (HarperCollins, 2003) ISBN 0-00-717224-9
- Seventy-Two Virgins (HarperCollins, 2004) ISBN 0-00-719590-7
- Aspire Ever Higher / University Policy for the 21st century (Politeia, 2006)
- The Dream of Rome (HarperCollins, 2006) ISBN 0-00-722441-9
- Have I Got Views For You (HarperPerennial, 2006) ISBN 0-00-724220-4
- Life in the Fast Lane: The Johnson Guide to Cars (HarperPerennial, 2007) ISBN 0-00-726020-2
- The Perils of the Pushy Parents: A Cautionary Tale (HarperPress 2007) ISBN 0-00-726339-2
- Johnson's Life of London (HarperPress 2011) ISBN 0-00-741893-0
- The Churchill Factor (Hodder & Stoughton 2014) ISBN 978-1-44-478302-5
- Iain Dale. The Little Book of Boris. (Harriman House Ltd., 2007) ISBN 978-1-905641-64-2
- A. Vasudevan. The Thinking Man's Idiot: The Wit and Wisdom of Boris Johnson (New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd., 2008) ISBN 978-1-84773-359-7
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Boris Johnson|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boris Johnson.|
- Mayor of London official London government website, includes biography
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005
- Voting record at Public Whip
- Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
- Articles authored at Journalisted
- Boris Johnson column archives at The Telegraph
- Portraits of Boris Johnson at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- Works by or about Boris Johnson in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Boris Johnson on Internet Movie Database
- Boris Johnson on Samuel Johnson, BBC Radio 4 Great Lives: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00mg74v
- The Boris Johnson story, Brian Wheeler, BBC News, 4 May 2008
- Boris Johnson address about the economic downturn at the Movers & Shakers Property Breakfast, Gleeds TV, March 2009 (video)
- Students interview Boris Johnson at the Beyond Sport conference, Radiowaves, 9 July 2009
- The NS Interview: Boris Johnson, Jon Bernstein, New Statesman, 26 February 2010
- 200 Achievements of Boris Johnson as Mayor of London, ConservativeHome, 2 October 2010
- The Boris dilemma, James Macintyre, Prospect, 21 September 2011
|Editor of The Spectator
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for Henley
|Member of Parliament for Uxbridge and South Ruislip
|Shadow Minister for the Arts
|Shadow Minister for Higher Education
|Mayor of London
|Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs