Jump to content


Coordinates: 55°8′N 14°55′E / 55.133°N 14.917°E / 55.133; 14.917
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

LocationBaltic Sea
Coordinates55°8′N 14°55′E / 55.133°N 14.917°E / 55.133; 14.917
Area588.36 km2 (227.17 sq mi)
Highest elevation162 m (531 ft)
Highest pointRytterknægten
RegionCapital Region
Largest settlementRønne (pop. 13,772 (2020))
Population39,332 (January 2024)
Pop. density66.85/km2 (173.14/sq mi)

Bornholm (Danish pronunciation: [pɒːnˈhʌlˀm]) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of Poland.

Strategically located, Bornholm has been fought over for centuries. It has usually been ruled by Denmark, but also by Sweden and by Lübeck. The ruin of Hammershus, at the northwestern tip of the island, is the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, testament to the importance of its location. Bornholm and Ertholmene comprise the last remaining Danish territory in Skåneland east of Øresund, having been surrendered to Sweden in 1658, but regained by Denmark in 1660 after a local revolt.

The island is known as solskinsøen ("sunshine island") because of its weather and klippeøen ("rock island") because of its geology, which consists of granite, except along the southern coast. The heat from the summer is stored in the rock formations and the weather is quite warm until October. As a result of the climate, a local variety of the common fig, known as Bornholm's Diamond (Bornholms Diamant), can grow locally on the island. The island's topography consists of dramatic rock formations in the north (unlike the rest of Denmark, which is mostly gentle rolling hills) sloping down towards pine and deciduous forests (greatly affected by storms in the 1950s), farmland in the middle and sandy beaches in the south.[1]

The island is home to many of Denmark's round churches. Occupying an area of 584.59 square kilometres (225.71 sq mi),[2] the island had a total population of 39,332 as of January 2024.



Hammershus ruin
Windmill in Gudhjem

In Old Norse the island was known as Burgundaholmr, and in ancient Danish especially the island's name was Borghand or Borghund; these names were related to Old Norse borg 'height' and bjarg/berg 'mountain, rock' because it is an island that rises high from the sea.[3] Other names known for the island include Burgendaland (9th century), Hulmo / Holmus (Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum), Burgundehulm (1145), and Borghandæholm (14th century).[4] The Old English translation of Orosius uses the form Burgenda land.[5] There are scholars who believe that the Burgundians are named after Bornholm. The Burgundians were a Germanic people which, migrating west after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, occupied and named the region of Burgundy in France.[6]


An 1877 windmill at Aarsdale

Bornholm was pawned to Lübeck for 50 years starting in 1525. Its first militia, Bornholms Milits, was formed in 1624. Swedish forces conquered the island in 1645, but returned the island to Denmark in the following peace settlement. After the war in 1658, Denmark ceded the island to Sweden under the Treaty of Roskilde along with the rest of the Skåneland, Bohuslän and Trøndelag, and it was occupied by Swedish forces. A revolt broke out the same year, culminating in Villum Clausen's shooting of the Swedish commander Johan Printzensköld on 8 December 1658.[7] After the revolt, the inhabitants handed back their island to the Danish kings.


Bornholm attracted many famous artists at the beginning of the 20th century, forming a group now known as the Bornholm school of painters. In addition to Oluf Høst, they include Karl Isaksson (1878–1922) from Sweden, and the Danes Edvard Weie (1879–1943), Olaf Rude (1886–1957), Niels Lergaard (1893–1982), and Kræsten Iversen (1886–1955).[8]

German and Soviet occupation[edit]

On 22 August 1942 a V-1 flying bomb crashed on Bornholm during a test – the warhead was a dummy made of concrete. The wreckage was photographed and sketched by the Danish Naval Officer-in-Charge on Bornholm, Lieutenant Commander Hasager Christiansen. This was one of the first signs British Intelligence saw of Germany's aspirations to develop flying bombs and rockets which were to become known as V-1. The Bornholm rocket turned out to be from Peenemünde.[9]

During the Soviet bombing of the two main towns on 7-8 May 1945, Danish radio was not allowed to broadcast the news because it was thought it would spoil the liberation festivities in Denmark.[10] On 9 May Soviet troops landed on the island, and after a short fight, the German garrison (about 12,000 strong[11]) surrendered.[12] Soviet forces left the island on 5 April 1946.[13]

Cold War[edit]

After the evacuation of their forces from Bornholm, the Soviets took the position that the stationing of foreign troops on Bornholm would be considered a declaration of war against the Soviet Union, and that Denmark should keep troops on it at all times to protect it from such foreign aggression. This policy remained in force after NATO was formed, with Denmark as a founding member. The Soviets accepted the stationing there of Danish troops, which were part of NATO but viewed as militarily inferior elements of the alliance, but they strongly objected to the presence of other NATO troops on Bornholm, US troops in particular.[14]

On 5 March 1953, the day of Stalin's death, Polish pilot Franciszek Jarecki defected from the Eastern Bloc and landed a MiG-15 fighter on the island. He was later granted asylum and rewarded for providing Western intelligence with the then-newest Soviet jet fighter.[15]

In 2017, Denmark's Defence Intelligence Service decided to build a listening tower near Østermarie, almost 90 meters high, to intercept radio communications across the Baltic Sea and in parts of Russia.[16]


Result of referendum 29 May 2001 on merger of municipalities with the county 1 January 2003
Municipality Yes No
Votes Percent Votes Percent
Allinge-Gudhjem 3,590 74 1,287 26
Hasle 2,886 70 1,219 30
Nexø 3,218 59 2,252 41
Rønne 7,754 85 1,366 15
Aakirkeby 3,131 74 1,118 26
Total:27821 20,579 74 7,242 26
Ferry routes to and from Bornholm
Bornholm and Christiansø hundreds and 5 municipalities (1970–2002) in green colour and 21 municipalities before 1 April 1970
Parishes in Church of Denmark numbered
Unofficial flag of Bornholm (the tourist flag)
Unofficial flag of Bornholm. The Dannebrog is clearly visible with the green cross inserted in the white cross.
Old coat of arms of Bornholm.[17]

Bornholm Regional Municipality is the local authority (Danish, kommune) covering the entire island. Its formal name is Bornholm Municipality. It is given the right in the law establishing it to be called Bornholm Regional Municipality. (For explanation read on). It is the result of a merger of the five former (1 April 1970 until 2002) municipalities on the island (Allinge-Gudhjem, Hasle, Nexø, Rønne and Aakirkeby) and the former Bornholm County. Bornholm Regional Municipality was also a county in its own right during its first four years from 1 January 2003 until 31 December 2006. From 1 January 2007 all counties were abolished, and Bornholm became part of the Capital Region of Denmark whose main responsibility is the health service. In the bill (Danish forslag) (Bill of Law on merger of the municipalities of Bornholm) presented 30 January 2002 by the Minister of Interior and Health to Folketinget, it says in §1 that (1st sentence) "The 1st of January 2003 Bornholm Municipality is established by a merger of (names of municipalities mentioned, and county's name mentioned), and (2nd sentence) Bornholm Municipality is called Bornholm Regional Municipality".

The island had 21 municipalities until March 1970, of which 6 were market towns and 15 parishes. In addition to supervising parish municipalities, which was the responsibility of the counties in all of Denmark, the market town municipalities of Bornholm were supervised by Bornholm County as well and not by the Interior Ministry as was the case in the rest of Denmark. The seat of the municipal council is the island's main town, Rønne. The voters decided to merge the county with the municipalities in a referendum 29 May 2001, effective from 1 January 2003. The question on the ballot was, "Do you want the six municipal entities of Bornholm to be joined to form one municipal entity as of 1 January 2003?" 73.9% voted in favour. The lowest percentage for the merger was in Nexø municipality (966 more people voting "Yes" than "No"), whose mayor, Annelise Molin, a Social Democrat, spoke out against the merger. It was required that each municipality had more "Yes" votes than "No" votes. Otherwise the merger would have to be abandoned altogether. The six municipal entities had up to 122 councillors (of which county clls were 18, from 1998 15), reduced to 89 in the municipalities from the 1990s, in the 1970s and the new regional municipality would have 27 councillors from the start 1 January 2003. They were reduced to 23 from 1 January 2018 (election November 2017). From 1 January 2003 until 31 December 2006 the 27 cllrs were called Regional Council (Danish Regionsråd), from 1 January 2007 changed to Municipal Board (Danish Kommunalbestyrelse) as is the usual term in almost all Danish municipalities. This was to avoid confusion with the Regional Council in Region Hovedstaden, and in the other regions

The merger was approved in a law by the Folketing 19 (and signature by the head of state 25) March 2002, transferring the tasks of the abolished county and old municipalities to the new Bornholm Regional Municipality. The first regional mayor in the first three years from 2003 until 2005 was Thomas Thors (born 28 July 1949), a physician and member of the Social Democrats and previously the last mayor of Rønne Municipality for five years from 1998 until 2002. He became a mayor again in 2021. Bjarne Kristiansen, who was the last mayor of Hasle 2+12 years from the summer of 2000 until 2002, representing the local Borgerlisten political party, served as mayor for four years from 1 January 2006 until 2009. From 1 January 2007, Bornholm became a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. From 1 January 2010 until 31 December 2020 the mayor was Winni Grosbøll, a high school teacher and a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokratiet) political party. The deputy mayor Morten Riis was mayor for a short interlude from 1 January until 4 January 2021. He is from the Red-Green Alliance. Thomas Thors, who was elected again in 2017, became mayor again from 4 January 2021. After the 2021 Danish local elections Jacob Trøst became mayor from January 2022. He is from the Conservative party. This was after an agreement (aftale om konstituering) between the Red-Green Alliance, amongst whom Morten Riis will be deputy mayor, and the Danish People's Party with the Conservatives.

Municipal council[edit]

Bornholm's municipal council today consists of 23 members, elected every four years. In the first four local elections in the newly created municipality there were 27 members elected to the municipal council. The 2002 local election only took place on Bornholm. From the election in 2017 the number of councillors elected was reduced to 23 members, serving their term of office from 1 January 2018 until 31 December 2021.

Below are the election results to the new merged municipal council beginning with the first election 29 May 2002.

Election Party Total
Turnout Elected
2002 8 1 1 9 8 27 79.3% Thomas Thors (A)
2005 7 2 3 1 2 1 5 6 78.0% Bjarne Kristiansen (L)
2009 8 1 1 4 1 3 1 8 72.1% Winni Grosbøll (A)
Morten Riis (Ø)(1-4 January 2021)
Thomas Thors (A)(Jan-Dec 2021)
2013 12 1 2 1 2 6 1 2 77.1%
2017 8 1 1 4 5 1 2 1 23 75.6%
2021 4 3 1 4 2 2 7 72.91% Jacob Trøst (C)
Data from KMDValg.dk


Ferry services connect Rønne to Świnoujście (Poland), Sassnitz (Germany), Køge, 45 kilometres (28 miles) by road (34 kilometres or 21 miles as the crow flies) south of Copenhagen, Denmark; the destination to Køge replaced the nighttime route directly to and from Copenhagen (for both cargo and passengers) from 1 October 2004; and catamaran services to Ystad (Sweden). Simrishamn (Sweden) has a ferry connection during the summer. There are also regular catamaran services between Nexø and the Polish ports of Kołobrzeg, Łeba and Ustka. There are direct bus connections Ystad-Copenhagen, coordinated with the catamaran. There are also flights from Bornholm Airport to Copenhagen and other locations.

Because of its remote location Bornholm Regional Municipality has its own traffic company, BAT, and is its own employment region, and also performs other tasks normally carried out by the regions in the rest of Denmark. In some respects the municipality forms a region of its own.

Bornholm Regional Municipality was not merged with other municipalities on 1 January 2007 in the nationwide Municipal Reform of 2007.

Towns and villages[edit]

The larger towns on the island are located on the coast and have harbours. There is however one exception, centrally placed Aakirkeby, which was also the name of the municipality from 1970 until 2002, but it included the harbour of Boderne, 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) to the south. The largest town is Rønne; it is the seat, in the southwest on the westernmost point of the island. The other main towns (clockwise around the island) are Hasle, Sandvig, Allinge, Gudhjem, Svaneke and Nexø. Monday morning 22 September 2014 it was documented by Folkeregistret in the municipality that the number of people living in the municipality that day were 39,922, the lowest number in over 100 years.[18]

As of 2018, Statistics Denmark gave the populations as follows:[19]

Rønne 12,887
Nexø 3,644
Aakirkeby 2,083
Hasle 1,622
Allinge-Sandvig 1,489
Svaneke 1,078
Tejn 890
Gudhjem 723
Snogebæk 715
Nyker 701
Klemensker 639
Sorthat-Muleby 519
Østermarie 486
Aarsdale 387
Lobbæk 355
Østerlars 238
Balka 214
Vestermarie 256
Pedersker 242
Nylars 228
Listed 204

The town of Rønne after the merger of the island's administrative entities 1 January 2003 reached a low point of 13,568 inhabitants 1 January 2014. 15,957 people in 1965 (date unknown;number not registerbased) lived in the two parishes that would become Rønne municipality from 1 April 1970. In the table, numbers for Rønne are for the parish of Rønne, Rønne Sogn, alone. The year is unknown but sometime between 2000 and 2005. It does not include Knudsker Sogn, which was also part of Rønne Municipality. Other localities (with approximate populations, not updated) include Aarsballe (86), Arnager (151), Olsker (67), Rutsker (64), (181), Stenseby (?) and Vang (92). In 2010 and 2018 10,297 and 9,111 respectively lived in rural districts, and 88 and 71 had no fixed address. A rural district is defined by Statistics Denmark as a settlement with less than 200 inhabitants.


On 22 September 2014 population numbers showed fewer than 40,000 inhabitants on the island for the first time in over 100 years. The Folkeregister in the municipality could document 39,922 inhabitants in the municipality on that date.[18]

Historical population
Source: statistikbanken.dk Statistical Yearbook 2009: Area and population. Regions and inhabited islands


Many inhabitants speak the Bornholmsk dialect, which is officially a dialect of Danish.[20]


Most inhabitants are members of the Lutheran Church of Denmark (Folkekirken). Various Christian denominations have become established on the island, most during the 19th century.

Sights and landmarks[edit]

Geological formations are immediately visible in Bornholm in a way not common elsewhere in Denmark. The still-operated Stubbeløkken and Klippeløkken granite quarries in Knudsker parish just east of central Rønne are among the few remaining of many formerly active quarries on the island. The island's varied geography and seascapes attract visitors to its many beauty spots from the Hammeren promontory in the northwest to the Almindingen forest in the centre and the Dueodde beaches in the southeast. Of special interest are the rocky sea cliffs at Jons Kapel and Helligdomsklipperne, the varied topography of Paradisbakkerne and rift valleys such as Ekkodalen and Døndalen.[21] Furongian (late Cambrian period) sediments of the Alum Shale Formation of Bornholm presented by all six superzones; three agnostoid and fourteen trilobite zones are defined by fossils. 8502 specimens, most of which are disarticulated sclerites, have been collected from these strata. Described gerena include Ctenopyge, Eurycare, Leptoplastus, Olenus, Parabolina, Peltura, Protopeltura, Sphaerophthalmus, Lotagnostus and Triangulopyge.[22]

Bornholm's numerous windmills include the post mill of Egeby and the well-kept Dutch mill at Aarsdale. The lighthouse at Dueodde is Denmark's tallest, while Hammeren Lighthouse stands at a height of 85 metres (279 ft) above sea level and Rønne Lighthouse rises over the waterfront.[23]

Examples of roads that have (very) steep climbs and descents are: (inland) Simblegårdsvej in Klemensker, which begins by the village inn Klemens Kro, and Slamrebjergvej just outside Nexø extending northward from the main road from Rønne. Along the coast there are several steep roads, which is also the case in some parts of Denmark as a whole, for instance in and around Vejle.[24]

Østerlars Church, one of Bornholm's four round churches
Ruins of Hammershus, a medieval fortress

The island hosts examples of 19th- and early-20th-century architecture, and about 300 wooden houses in Rønne and Nexø, donated by Sweden after World War II, when the island was repairing damage caused by the war. The island is home to 15 medieval churches, four of which are round churches with unique artwork and architecture.[25] The ancient site of Rispebjerg has remains of sun temples from the Neolithic and earthworks from the Iron Age.[26]

There are 14 European bison near Åkirkeby, attracting 100,000 visitors a year.[27][28]


Because of the dilapidated state of their buildings, all secondary educational facilities in Rønne, including adult evening classes, are being transferred to new facilities at Campus Bornholm in 2018.[29] Campus Bornholm is a merger formed in June 2010 consisting of Bornholms Erhvervsskole (youth and adults), Bornholm High School (youth) and VUC Bornholm (adults), then occupying separate addresses. Learning institutions not part of this formalised collaboration will also be housed at Minervavej in Rønne. The building costs were over 300 million DKK (US$46.9 million (29 June 2018)). The A.P. Møller Foundation contributed a sum of 56 million DKK (US$8.76 million (29 June 2018)) to the project.[30]


Among Bornholm's chief industrial activities are dairy farming and arts and crafts industries such as glass production and pottery using locally worked clay. Jensen-Group, an industrial washing and folding machine company, was founded on the island and has a factory in Rønne. It is headquartered in Belgium.

Tourism is also important during the summer months.

Electricity supply[edit]

Bornholm is also home to a large internationally funded demonstration project to test the viability of novel energy market mechanisms to regulate energy networks with a high prevalence of renewables (such as wind turbines and photovoltaics). 50% of the EcoGrid project is EU-funded, with the remainder coming mainly from large corporations.[31]


Almegårds Kaserne on Bornholm is home to the III Reconnaissance Battalion (III/GHR) from the Guard Hussar Regiment.[32]


Bornholm has an oceanic climate relatively similar to southern Sweden and mainland Denmark, whose summer highs and winter lows are heavily moderated by its maritime and isolated position. Though intense heat is rare, the climate is sunny during summer and rainfall is generally sparse for a climate of this type. The winter of 2010 – 2011 was exceptionally extreme with snow depth reaching at least 146 cm (58 inches) and snowdrifts of six meters (20 feet), the highest in Northern Europe. Military assistance was needed to clear roadways. The DMI estimated the weight of snow to be 100 million tons.

Climate data for Bornholm (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 2.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.1
Record low °C (°F) −15.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 16.5 12.9 13.7 11.2 10.0 11.0 10.6 10.8 13.2 14.5 16.7 16.1 157.3
Average snowy days 5.6 5.3 4.0 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 3.4 21.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 35 53 112 190 284 266 276 252 155 102 46 31 1,809
Source: Danish Meteorological Institute[33]


Bornholm's geography as an island and moderate climate makes Bornholm an ideal location for sailing and other water-based sports. Bornholm has also become an internationally recognised venue for 'match racing', a sailing sport where two identical yachts are raced in one-on-one events on the water. The Danish Open event was held in Bornholm in September 2010 at the port town of Rønne on the western coast of Bornholm. The five-day Danish Open is a key event in the World Match Racing Tour calendar which is one of only 3 events awarded 'special event' status by the International Sailing Federation. The Tour is the world's leading professional 'match racing' series and features a nine-event calendar which crosses three continents during the series. Points accrued during the Danish Open contribute directly to the World Match Racing Tour championship with the winner of the season finale at the Monsoon Cup in Malaysia claiming the ultimate match racing title ISAF World Match Racing Champion.

There are two small stadiums: Nexø Stadion, in Nexø, where NB Bornholm association football club play; and the slightly larger multi-use stadium Rønne Stadion Nord in Rønne, which serves the Bornholm national football team, multi-section club most well known for athletics IK Viking, and several local football clubs. The DBU Bornholm is the local branch governing football on the island.

Cultural references[edit]

Aerial view of Bornholm
Enlargeable, detailed map of Bornholm
  • Russian writer Nikolay Karamzin in his novella "The Island Bornholm" ("Ostrov Borngol'm") depicts formidable rocks and green meadows of the island. This story about forbidden love is considered one of the first Russian gothic tales.
  • The Academy Award-winning 1987 Bille August film Pelle the Conqueror, an adaptation of Martin Andersen Nexø's four volume novel by the same name, is set and was shot on the island.
  • A considerable part of the Second World War spy thriller Hornet Flight by Ken Follett takes place on Bornholm, depicting the island under German occupation.
  • Megaheavy by Danish filmmaker Fenar Ahmad is set on Bornholm in the 1980s. It won the Grand Prix at the 2010 Odense Film Festival.
  • The 2006 film Tempelriddernes Skat (The Lost Treasure of the Knights Templar) takes place on Bornholm.
  • Bornholm has an appearance in a Roblox game titled Dynamic Ship Simulator 3, made by CaptainMarcin and his dev team, Badyacht.
  • Minor planet 4453 Bornholm is named after the island.[34]
  • The 1933 work, Folkeliv og Indstiftelser paa Bornholm, describes the culture and history of the island.[35]
  • In the webcomic Stand Still, Stay Silent by Minna Sundberg, Bornholm is the last remaining inhabited area of Denmark after the world is ravaged by a pandemic, and the southernmost area known to still be inhabited by humans.[36]

Notable residents[edit]

Kristian Zahrtmann
Michael Ancher, self-portrait 1902
Pia Ranslet




Public affairs[edit]


Magnus Cort

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Blecher, Lone Thygesen; George Blecher (August 2004). Swedish Folktales & Legends. University of Minnesota Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 978-0-8166-4575-6.
  2. ^ "Economy and Interior Ministry: Municipal Key Figures". Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  3. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997: p. 269
  4. ^ Politikens Nudansk Ordborg (1993), 15th edition, entry "Bornholm" (in Danish)
  5. ^ King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, London, 1859, edited by J. Bosworth
  6. ^ Essai sur l'histoire du peuple burgonde, de Bornholm (Burgundarholm) vers la Bourgogne et les Bourguignons, 1965, by Rene Guichard, published by A. et J. Picard et Cie
  7. ^ "Bornholm Museum". Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  8. ^ "Bornholm's culture and heritage" Archived 3 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Visit Denmark. Retrieved 13 November 2012
  9. ^ Mindling, George; Bolton, Robert (2011). U.S. Air Force Tactical Missiles, 1949-1969: The Pioneers. Lulu.com. p. 4.
  10. ^ En Ø i krig / An island at war by Børge Kure
  11. ^ "Soviet Information Bureau report". 11 May 1945. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
  12. ^ "Bornholm during World War II". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  13. ^ "Stalin's Danish Mystery". History Today.
  14. ^ Vojtech Mastny, "NATO in the Beholder’s Eye: Soviet Perceptions and Policies, 1949–56". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 10 November 2012
  15. ^ Rubentein, Joshua (31 May 2016). The Last Days of Stalin (Kindle ed.). Yale University Press.
  16. ^ "Cold War Returns As NATO Member Denmark Builds Spy Station to Capture Russia Intelligence". Newsweek. 21 November 2017.
  17. ^ Svane, Erling (1994). Det danske Rigsvåben og Kongevåben. Odense Universitetsforlag. pp. 169–179.
  18. ^ a b Der bor nu under 40.000 på Bornholm. (in Danish) Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  19. ^ "BY1: Population 1st January, by urban area, age, and gender" database from Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  20. ^ Peter Skautrup, Det Danske Sprogs Historie, Gyldendal, 1968, vol. 4, p. 105ff (Danish)
  21. ^ "Bornholms Natur", BornholmNatur.dk. (in Danish) Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  22. ^ Arne Thorshøj Nielsen, Line Frigaard Andersen (2021). "Furongian (upper Cambrian) trilobites and agnostoids from the Alum Shale Formation of Bornholm, Denmark: revised taxonomy and biostratigraphy" (PDF). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark. 69: 123–213. doi:10.37570/bgsd-2021-69-08. ISSN 2245-7070. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2023.
  23. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of Denmark: Bornholm". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  24. ^ "STEJLESTE DANSKE VEJE: TOP 20 - Danskebjerge.dk". danskebjerge.dk.
  25. ^ Haagensen, Erling and Lincoln, Henry, The Templar's secret island, London, 2006, ISBN 9781900624374
  26. ^ "Rispebjerg" Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Naturstyrelsen. (in Danish) Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  27. ^ "Status i Bisonskoven – januar 2016". Danish Nature Agency.
  28. ^ Den imagemæssige og samfundsøkonomiske effekt af bison på Bornholm (in Danish) Center for Regional- og Turismeforskning, december 2015
  29. ^ Education on Bornholm Retrieved 8 January 2018
  30. ^ "UDDANNELSESMÆSSIGT KRAFTCENTER". AP Møller Fonden (in Danish). August 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  31. ^ "EcoGrid EU". eu-ecogrid.net. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  32. ^ "Almegårds Kaserne på Bornholm". Forsvaret. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  33. ^ "Danish Climatological Normals 1971–2000 for selected stations" (PDF). Danish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  34. ^ (4453) Bornholm In: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer. 2003. p. 383. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_4398. ISBN 9783540299257.
  35. ^ Dam, Ph. R. (1933). Folkeliv og Indstiftelser paa Bornholm. Aarkirkeby.
  36. ^ "Stand Still. Stay Silent - webcomic, page 66". sssscomic.com.
  37. ^ Julius Folkmann, IMDb Database retrieved 28 April 2020
  38. ^ Else Højgaard, IMDb Database retrieved 27 April 2020
  39. ^ "Gertrud Vasegaards testel 1956" Archived 27 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Skoletjensten Kunstindustrimuseet. (Danish) Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  40. ^ Klaus Bondam, IMDb Database retrieved 27 April 2020
  41. ^ Sofie Stougaard, IMDb Database retrieved 27 April 2020
  42. ^ Jonas Jeberg, IMDb Database retrieved 28 April 2020
  43. ^ "Madvig, Johan Nicolai" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 296.
  44. ^ "M. Møller" Den Store Danske