Borno State

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Nickname(s): Home of Peace
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000Coordinates: 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000
Country  Nigeria
Date created 3 February 1976
Capital Maiduguri
 • Governor[1] Kashim Shettima (APC)
 • Total 70,898 km2 (27,374 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd of 36
Population (1991 census)
 • Total 2,596,589
 • Estimate (2005) 4,588,668
 • Rank 12th of 36
 • Density 37/km2 (95/sq mi)
 • Year 2007
 • Total $5.18 billion[2]
 • Per capita $1,214[2]
Time zone WAT (UTC+01)
ISO 3166 code NG-BO

Borno, also known as Borno State, is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State.


The state is dominated by the Kanuri and Babur while few Shuwa Arab[citation needed] ethnic groups are found. Shuwa Arabs are mainly the descendants of Arab people[3] and is an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa, where the emirs of the former Kanem-Bornu Empire have played a part in the politics of this area for nearly 1,000 years. The current dynasty gained control of the Borno Emirate in the early 19th century and was supported by the British, who prevented a military defeat for the group and established a new capital for the dynasty at Maiduguri or Yerwa (as referred to by the natives) in 1905, which remains the capital to this day.[citation needed]

After Nigerian independence in 1960, Borno remained fairly autonomous until the expansion of the number of states in Nigeria to 12 in 1967. Local government reform in 1976 further reduced the power of the emirs of the former dynasty, and by the time of Nigeria's return to civilian rule in 1979, the emirs' jurisdiction has been restricted solely to cultural and traditional affairs. The emirs still exist, and serve as advisers to the local government. Mala Kachallah was elected governor of Borno State in 1999 under the flagship of the then APP(All Peoples Party) later ANPP. Ali Modu Sheriff was elected governor of Borno State in Nigeria in April 2003. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Ali Sheriff was the first governor in Borno state to win the seat two consecutive times.[4]

On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Northeast Nigeria,[5] including Borno State along with the neighboring states of Adamawa and Yobe.[6] This happened after fighting between Boko Haram and the state armed forces killed as many as 200 people in the town of Baga. A spokesman for the Nigerian Armed Forces declared that the offensive would continue "as long as it takes to achieve our objective of getting rid of insurgents from every part of Nigeria."[7] Borno has been one of the most raided states in Nigeria by Boko Haram in the past 2 years, with 48 reported raids.[citation needed]

In July 2014, Borno state governor Kashim Shettima said that "176 teachers had been killed and 900 schools destroyed since 2011."[8] After the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping in April 2014, most schools in Borno State were closed. They were scheduled to reopen in November 2014.[9]

In November 2014, UNICEF reported it has increased its Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) centres in Borno State "from 5 to 67 and is planning to increase this to 100."[10]

Local Government Areas[edit]

Borno State consists of twenty-seven (27) Local Government Areas, grouped into three Senatorial Districts (shown below with their areas and 2006 Census population figures):[11]

Borno Central
Senatorial District
Area in
1,666,541 Borno South
Senatorial District
Area in
1,245,962 Borno North
Senatorial District
Area in
Maiduguri 137.36 540,016 Askira/Uba 2,431.83 143,313 Abadam 4,172.27 100,065
Ngala 1,519.82 236,498 Bayo 985.78 79,078 Gubio 2,575.09 151,286
Kala/Balge 1,962.13 60,834 Biu 3,423.86 175,760 Guzamala 2,631.44 95,991
Mafa 2,976.99 103,600 Chibok 1,392.00 66,333 Kaga 2,802.46 89,996
Konduga 6,065.89 157,322 Damboa 6,426.18 233,200 Kukawa 5,124.41 203,343
Bama 5,158.87 270,119 Gwoza 2,973.15 276,568 Magumeri 5,057.61 140,257
Jere 900.72 209,107 Hawul 2,160.99 120,733 Marte 3,280.02 129,409
Dikwa 1,836.89 105,042 Kwaya Kusar 754.69 56,704 Mobbar 3,280.02 116,633
Shani 1,238.93 100,989 Monguno 1,993.20 109,834
Nganzai 2,572.35 99,074

In addition, there are seven Emirate Councils (Borno, Dikwa, Biu, Askira, Gwoza, Shani and Uba Emirates),[12] which advise the local governments on cultural and traditional matters.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See List of Governors of Borno State for a list of prior governors
  2. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  3. ^ Scheinfeldt, L.B., Soi, S., & Tischkoff, S.A. (2010). The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. p. 96. 
  4. ^ "Governor Ali Modu Sheriff of Borno State". Nigeria Governors Forum. Retrieved 13 September 2009. 
  5. ^ "Nigeria: State of Emergency Declared". New York Times. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "Army crackdown on Nigeria's Islamist militants". BBC News. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  7. ^ "Nigeria army's offensive to continue 'as long as it takes'". BBC News. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Nigeria: Shettima Orders Investigation Into Mass Abduction of Women". 26 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  9. ^ Michael Olugbode. Nigeria: Borno Public Schools to Reopen Soon,, 27 August 2014.
  10. ^ Nigeria: Humanitarian Update on the North East Nigeria,, November 2014.
  11. ^ 2006 Population Census, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009.
  12. ^ Borno State overview, Borno State Government
  13. ^ Borno State information, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics; accessed 28 September 2015.


  • Aborisade, Oladimeji; Robert J. Mundt (2001). Politics in Nigeria. White Plains, New York: Longman. ISBN 9780321085610. 

External links[edit]