Borommakot

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Borommakot
บรมโกศ
King of Ayutthaya
King of Siam
Reign 1733–1758
Predecessor Thai Sa
Successor Uthumphon
Spouse Princess Aphai Nuchit
Princess Phiphit Montri
Issue Chaofa Tham Thibet
Chaofa Ekathat
Chaofa Uthumphon
Khaek
Mongkhut
Rot
Pan
House Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty
Father King Suriyenthrathibodi
Born 1680
Died 1758
Ayutthaya, Ayutthaya Kingdom

Borommakot[1] (Thai: บรมโกศ) or Borommarachathirat III (Thai: บรมราชาธิราชที่ 3) was the king of Ayutthaya from 1733 to 1758. His reign was the last blooming period of Ayutthaya as the kingdom would fall nine years after his death.[2]:68–69

"His reign of 25 years is important for being the last peaceful period of Ayudhya during which literature with the arts and crafts flurished." However, the king himself was known for "cruelty to people and animals alike," with seven of his sons meeting violent deaths.[2]:67–68

Prince Phon (Thai: พร) was the son of Phra Chao Suea. His elder brother, Prince Phet (เพชร), succeeded the throne as Thai Sa in 1708.[3]:277 Phon was then appointed as the Front Palace. Upon the death of Thai Sa, however, Thai Sa decided to give his throne to his second eldest son, Prince Aphai, since his eldest son had entered the priesthood. In 1732, Thai Sa died and a civil war commenced. Phon led his armies against his nephews, Prince Aphai and Prince Paramet. The civil war within Ayutthaya was "a big fight, bigger than any which had occurred in Siam in former times". With the victory ensured, Phon executed his nephews, the government civil servant allies, and took the throne as King Borommakot.[3]:280–281

Because the Samuha Kalahom had lent the support to Prince Aphai, Borommakot removed the power of Samuha Kalahom by depriving its authorities over southern Siam and transferred the power to Kromma Tha instead. The Samuha Kalahom remained as a mere military figurehead.

In spite of the bloodshed that preceded his reign, Borommakot was known for his reconstruction of Buddhist temples and the peace and prosperity Ayutthaya finally enjoyed again. In 1753, Borommakot sent two Siamese monks to rehabilitate Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka.[3]:282–283,295

In 1741, Borommakot made his son Thammathibet the Front Palace. Thammathibet proved to be an able prince and was a poet. However, Thammathibet had affairs with two of Borommakot's concubines, Princess Sangwan[3]:296 and Princess Nim - a severe crime. The lovers were caught in 1746 and the three were beaten. The Front Palace was lashed 120 stokes and the two concubines 30 each. The Front Palace died while he was beaten and Princess Sangval died 3 days later. Princess Nim survived, but she was banished from the court.

Borommakot then appointed his third son, Duea (เดื่อ; later became Uthumporn), as the Front Palace. Borommakot skipped his second son, Ekkathat, because he thought that Ekkathat was not suitable to be a king.[3]:297

However, Ekkathat still had designs on the throne, and the subsequent struggles of the princes for the throne would contribute to the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, during the reign of Ekkathat.[3]:298–300

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ พระนามพระมหากษัตริย์สมัยอยุธยา [Names of Ayutthayan Kings] (in Thai). Royal Institute of Thailand. 2002-06-03. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  2. ^ a b Chakrabongse, C., 1960, Lords of Life, London: Alvin Redman Limited
  3. ^ a b c d e f Rajanubhab, D., 2001, Our Wars With the Burmese, Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd., ISBN 9747534584
Borommakot
Born: 1680 Died: 1758
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sanphet IX
Front Palace
1709–1733
Succeeded by
Thammathibet
Preceded by
Sanphet IX
King of Ayutthaya
1733–1758
Succeeded by
Uthumphon