Borscht

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"Borsch", "borshch", and "borsht" redirect here. For other uses, see Borsch (disambiguation).
Borscht
Borscht served.jpg
A bowl of borscht garnished with dill and a dollop of smetana (sour cream)
Alternative names Borsch, borshch, borsht, bortsch
Type Soup
Place of origin Ukraine
Associated national cuisine Various East European cuisines
Cooking time 3 hours to 6 hours
Serving temperature Hot or cold
Main ingredients Beetroot

Borscht is a soup of Ukrainian origin[1] that is popular in many Eastern and Central European cuisines, including those of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians, Poles, Russians, and some Ashkenazi Jews. In most of traditional recipes, it is made with beetroot as the main ingredient.[2] In some regions, tomato is used as the main ingredient, while beetroot may act as a secondary ingredient. Other varieties that do not use beetroot also exist, such as green borscht and white borscht.

Etymology[edit]

The English word borscht, also spelled borsch, borsht, or bortsch,[3] comes from Yiddish באָרשט‎ (borsht), which derives from Ukrainian or Russian борщ (borshch).[4][5] The latter, together with cognates in other Slavic languages,[a] comes from Proto-Slavic *bŭrščǐ 'hogweed', and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bhr̥sti- < *bhares-/bhores- 'point, stubble'.[6][7][8] Common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium) was the soup's principal ingredient[9] before it was replaced with other vegetables, notably beetroot. The beetroot borscht was invented in what is now Ukraine and first popularized to North America by Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe[10] (see History below).

Ingredients and preparation[edit]

Typical Ukrainian borscht is traditionally made from meat and/or bone stock, sautéed vegetables, and beet sour, that is, fermented beetroot juice. Depending on the recipe, some of these components may be omitted or substituted.

The stock is typically made by boiling meat, bones, or both. Beef, pork or a combination of both are most commonly used, with brisket, ribs, shank and chuck considered to give the most flavorful results, especially if cooked on a high flame. Marrow bones are considered best for the bone stock. Meat stock is usually cooked for about two hours, whereas bone stock takes four to six hours to prepare. Meat and bones are usually removed afterwards and the meat is only added back into the soup about 10–15 minutes before the borscht is done. Some recipes call for smoked meats, resulting in a distinctively smokey borscht, while other use poultry or mutton stock. Fasting varieties are typically made with fish stock to avoid the use of meat, while purely vegetarian recipes often substitute the stock with forest mushroom broth.[2][11]

The vegetables most commonly added to borscht are beetroots, white cabbage, carrots, parsley root, potatoes, onions, and tomatoes. Some recipes may additionally call for beans, tart apples, turnip, celery, zucchini or bell peppers. Parsnip may be used as a substitute for parsley root, and tomato paste is often used in addition to or instead of fresh tomatoes.[11] The traditional technique of preparing the soup is to precook the vegetables – by sautéing, braising, boiling or baking – separately from the meat and only then to combine them with the stock. This distinctive feature of borscht derives from the practice of slow cooking in the Russian oven (traditional masonry stove, used for both cooking and heating), wherein the differences in cooking times of individual ingredients had to be taken into account in order to ensure that all components reach doneness at the same time. The importance of this method is reflected in the Russian language, where a variant in which all vegetables are added raw directly into the stock, is referred to by the diminutive form borshchok[b] rather than borshch.[12] Vegetables are usually julienned, except for potatoes and zucchini, which are diced. The beetroots may be partially baked before being sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice to preserve the color and braised separately from other vegetables. Onions, carrots, parsley root, turnip and other root vegetables are sautéed (traditionally in animal fat, especially lard or butter) and then mixed with tomatoes or tomato paste. Dry beans are boiled separately. Potatoes and cabbage are boiled in the stock for about 15 minutes before the precooked vegetables are added.[11][13]

A tureen of hearty Russian borscht

The dominant tastes in borscht are sweet and sour. This combination is traditionally obtained through the addition of beet sour.[12] It is made by covering sliced beetroots with lukewarm preboiled water and allowing bacteria to ferment some of the sugars present in beetroots into dextran (which gives the liquid a slightly viscuous consistency), mannitol, acetic acid and lactic acid.[14] Stale rye bread is often added to hasten the process, but usually omitted in Jewish recipes, as the addition of chametz (leavened bread) would make the sour unfit for Passover meals. Sugar, salt and lemon juice may be also added to balance the flavor. After about 2–5 days (or 2–3 weeks without bread), the deep red, sweet and sour liquid may be strained and is ready to use. It is added to borscht shortly before the soup is done, as prolonged boiling would cause the tart flavor to dissipate.[11] The beet sour is known in Slavic languages as kvas[c] (literally 'sour, acid'; compare kvass) and in Yiddish as rosl[d] (from a Slavic word originally referring to any brine obtained by steeping salted meat or vegetables in water; compare Russian rassol[e] 'pickle juice', Polish rosół 'broth'). Apart from its employment in borscht, it may be also added to prepared horseradish or used as pot roast marinade.[15][16]

As the traditional method of making borscht with beet sour often requires planning at least several days ahead, many recipes for quicker borscht replace the beet sour with fresh beetroot juice, while the sour taste is imparted by other ingredients, such as vinegar, lemon juice or citric acid, tomatoes, tart apples, dry red wine, dill pickle juice, sauerkraut juice, fermented rye flour and water mixture, etc.[13][17] The soup is typically flavored with a wide selection of herbs, spices and condiments. Salt, black pepper, garlic, bay leaves, and dill are among the most commonly used. Other aromatics often added to borscht include allspice, celery, parsley, marjoram, hot peppers, saffron, horseradish, ginger, and prunes. Some recipes require the addition of flour or roux to further thicken the borscht. A common opinion is that a good borscht should be thick enough for a spoon to stand upright in it.[11][18]

Varieties[edit]

Ukrainian borscht with beans

As the home country of the beetroot borscht, Ukraine boasts great diversity of the soup's regional variants, with virtually every district having its own recipe. Differences between particular varieties may regard the type of stock used (meat, bone, or both), the kind of meat (beef, pork, poultry, etc.), the choice of vegetables and the method of cutting and cooking them. For example, while the typical recipe calls for beef and pork, the Kiev variant uses mutton or lamb instead, while in the Poltava region, the stock for borscht is cooked on poultry meat, that is, chicken, duck or goose. The use of zucchini, beans and apples is characteristic of the Chernihiv borscht; additionally, in this variety, beetroots are sautéed in vegetable oil rather than lard, and the sour taste comes solely from tomatoes and tart apples. The Lviv borscht is based on bone stock and is served with chunks of Vienna sausages.[19][20]

Many regional recipes for borscht have also developed in Russian cuisine. Examples include the Moscow borscht, served with pieces of beef, ham and Vienna sausages; Siberian borscht with meatballs; and Pskov borscht with dried smelt from the local lakes. Other unique Russian variants include a monastic Lenten borscht with marinated kelp instead of cabbage, and the Russian Navy borscht (flotsky borshch[f]), whose defining characteristic is that the vegetables are cut into square or diamond-shaped chunks rather than julienned.[11][18][21]

Polish clear Christmas Eve borscht served over uszka, or ear-shaped mushroom-filled dumplings

In addition to the hearty, thick borschts described above, Polish cuisine offers a ruby-colored beetroot bouillon known as barszcz czysty czerwony, or clear red borscht. It is made by combining strained meat-and-vegetable stock with wild mushroom broth and beet sour. In some versions, smoked meat may be used for the stock and the tartness may be obtained or enhanced by the addition of lemon juice, dill pickle brine, or dry red wine. It may be served either in a soup bowl or – especially at dinner parties – as a hot beverage in a twin-handled cup, with a croquette or a filled pastry on the side. Unlike other types of borscht, it is not whitened with sour cream.[22] Barszcz wigilijny, or Christmas Eve borscht, is a variant of the clear borscht that is traditionally served during the Polish Christmas Eve supper. In this version, meat stock is either omitted or replaced with fish broth, usually made by boiling the heads cut off from fish used in other Christmas Eve dishes. The mushrooms used for cooking the mushroom broth are reserved for uszka (small filled dumplings), which are then served with the borscht.[23]

Lithuanian cold borscht blended with sour cream or yogurt, and sprinkled with chives

In the summertime, cold borscht is a popular, refreshing alternative to the aforementioned variants, which are normally served hot. It consists of beet sour or beet juice blended with sour cream, buttermilk, soured milk, kefir and/or yogurt, and refrigerated. The mixture has a distinctive lively pink color. It is typically served over finely chopped beetroot, cucumbers, radishes and green onion, together with halves of a hard-boiled egg and sprinkled with fresh dill. Chopped veal, ham, or crawfish tails may be added as well.[11][24][25][26] This soup probably originated in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which comprised the territories of modern-day Lithuania and Belarus, and it is still part of the culinary traditions of these and neighboring nations. The Lithuanian language is the only one in the region which actually refers to it as 'cold borscht' (šaltibarščiai). In Belarusian it is known simply as khaladnik,[g] or 'cold soup'; in Polish as chłodnik litewski, or 'Lithuanian cold soup'; and in Russian as svekolnik,[h] or 'beetroot soup'.[12][26]

Ashkenazi Jews living in Eastern Europe have adopted beetroot borscht from their Slavic neighbors and adapted it to their taste and religious requirements. As combining meat with milk is proscribed by kosher dietary laws, Jews have developed two variants of the soup: meat (fleischik) borscht and dairy (milchik) borscht. The meat variant is typically made from beef brisket (pork is never used[27]) and cabbage, while the dairy one is vegetarian, blended with sour cream or a mixture of milk and egg yolks. Both variants typically contain beetroots and onions, and are flavored with beet sour, vinegar or citric acid for tartness and beet sugar for sweetness. Galician Jews have traditionally liked their borscht particularly sweet. Jewish borscht may be served either hot or cold, typically with a hot boiled potato on the side.[10]

Without beets[edit]

Sorrel-based green borscht served with sour cream and a hard-boiled egg

While in the English language borscht refers almost invariably to a beet-based soup, in some culinary cultures there exist soups with the same or similar names where beetroots are absent or merely optional. The principal common trait among them is a tart flavor obtained by the addition of various sour-tasting ingredients.[12]

Green borscht (zeleny borshch[i]), a light soup made from leaf vegetables, is an example common in Ukrainian and Russian cuisines. The naturally tart-tasting sorrel is most commonly used, but spinach, chard, nettle, garden orache, and occasionally dandelion, goutweed or ramsons, may be added as well, especially after the spring season for sorrel has passed.[12][28][29][30][31] Like beetroot borscht, it is based on meat or vegetable broth and is typically served with boiled potatoes and hard-boiled eggs, sprinkled with dill.[11] There is also a variety of Ukrainian green borscht which includes both sorrel and beetroots.[32]

Polish white borscht served over fresh sausage, bacon and eggs

In Polish cuisine, white borscht (barszcz biały, also known as żur or żurek, 'sour soup'[j]) is made from a fermented mixture of rye flour or oatmeal and water. It is typically flavored with garlic and marjoram, and served over eggs and boiled fresh sausage; the water in which the sausage was boiled is often used instead of meat stock.[34] In the Carpathian Mountains of southern Poland, variants of borscht are also made in which the tart taste comes from fermented milk products, such as whey or buttermilk.[35] While the deep red color of beetroot borscht may bring blood to the minds of the uninitiated, the kind of borscht that does contain animal blood mixed with vinegar is dark brownish-gray in color and aptly called "gray borscht" (barszcz szary), which is a regional name of the Polish blood soup better known as czernina.[36]

In Romanian and Moldovan cuisines, a mixture of wheat bran or cornmeal with water that has been left to ferment, similar to that used in Polish white borscht, is called borș.[37] It is used to impart a sour taste to a variety of tangy Romanian soups, known as either also borș or ciorbă. Variants include ciorbă de perișoare (with meatballs), ciorbă de burtă (with tripe), borş de peşte (with fish), and borş de sfeclă roşie (with beetroots).[38][39]

A bowl of luó sòng tāng, or Chinese borscht, made from cabbage and tomatoes

The Armenian version of borscht is a hot soup made with beef stock, green peppers and other vegetables, which may or may not include beetroots, and flavored with parsley and cilantro.[40] A soup known as luó sòng tāng,[k] or "Russian soup", also known as "Chinese borscht", which originated in Harbin, close to the Russian border in northeast China, is based on red cabbage and tomatoes, but lacks beetroots altogether.[41]

In ethnic Mennonite cuisine, borscht refers to a whole range of seasonal vegetable soups based on beef or chicken stock – from spring borscht made with spinach, sorrel and chard; to summer borscht with cabbage, tomatoes, corn and squash; to fall and winter borscht with cabbage, beets and potatoes.[42] The Mennonites are a group of Dutch or German religious dissidents who settled in Poland and Russia before migrating to North America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[43]

Garnishes and sides[edit]

The diversity of borscht styles is matched by the wide choice of garnishes and side dishes with which various kinds of borscht may be served.

Borscht sprinkled with parsley, served with a dollop of sour cream and a slice of rye bread

Most often, borscht is dished up with sour cream, the East European version of which, known as smetana, is runnier than its American counterpart.[11] The sour cream may be served in a separate pitcher for the diners to add the desired amount themselves or the borscht may come already "whitened",[l] that is, blended with sour cream. Sometimes the cream is thickened with flour before being added to the soup.[44] Yogurt[11] and a mixture of milk and yolks[45][10] are possible substitutes.

Chopped herbs are often sprinkled on the surface of the soup; dill is most common, but parsley, chives or scallion are often added as well. Individual helpings may be spiced up with minced hot peppers or garlic.[11][44] Many kinds of borscht are served over halves or quarters of hard-boiled chicken or quail eggs.[46] Navy beans, broad beans or string beans are also a common addition.[11][44][47]

Ukrainian borscht served with a side of pampushky (garlic rolls), pork cracklings and sour cream

Meat, removed from the stock on which the borscht was based, may be cut into smaller chunks and either added back into the soup or served on the side with horseradish or mustard.[48] Bacon and sausages are also commonly used as borscht garnishes.[18] Borscht based on bone stock may be served Old Polish style, with marrow from the bones.[44]

Some kinds of the soup, such as Poltava borscht, may be served with halushky, or thick noodles of wheat or buckwheat flour.[11][49] Siberian borscht is eaten with boiled meatballs (frikadelki[m]) of minced beef and onion.[11][18] In Poland and parts of western Ukraine, borscht is typically ladled over uszka, or bite-sized ear-shaped dumplings made from pasta dough wrapped around mushroom, buckwheat or meat filling. Mushroom-filled uszka are particularly associated with Polish Christmas Eve borscht.[11][50][51][18]

Borscht, like any other soup in East Slavic cuisines, is seldom eaten by itself, but rather accompanied by a side dish. At a minimum, spoonfuls of borscht are alternated with bites of a slice of bread. Buckwheat groats or boiled potatoes, often topped with pork cracklings, are other simple possibilities,[11][47] but a range of more involved sides exists as well.

A bouillon cup of Polish clear borscht with a croquette and a gherkin on the side

In Ukraine, borscht is often accompanied with pampushky,[n] or savory, puffy yeast-raised rolls glazed with oil and crushed garlic.[48][11][52][18] In Russian cuisine, borscht may be served with various side dishes based on tvorog, or the East European variant of farmer cheese, such as vatrushki, syrniki or krupenik. Vatrushki are baked round cheese-filled tarts; syrniki are small pancakes wherein the cheese is mixed into the batter; and a krupenik[o] is a casserole of buckwheat groats baked with cheese.[11][18]

Pirozhki, or baked dumplings with fillings as for uszka, are another common side for both hearty and clear variants of borscht.[48][11][53] Polish clear borscht may be also served with a croquette or paszteciki. A typical Polish croquette (krokiet) is made by wrapping a crêpe (thin pancake) around a filling and coating it in breadcrumbs before refrying; paszteciki (literally, 'little pâtés') are variously shaped filled hand-held pastries of yeast-raised or flaky dough. An even more exquisite way to serve borscht is with a coulibiac, or a large loaf-shaped pie. Possible fillings for croquettes, paszteciki and coulibiacs include mushrooms, sauerkraut and minced meat.[11][54][55]

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

Common hogweed, originally, the principal ingredient of borscht

Borscht derives from a soup originally made by the Slavs from common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium, also known as cow parsnip), which lent the dish its Slavic name (see Etymology above). Growing commonly in damp meadows throughout the north temperate zone, hogweed was used not only as fodder (as its English names suggest), but also for human consumption – from Eastern Europe to Siberia, to northwestern North America.[56][57]

The Slavs collected hogweed in May and used its roots for stewing with meat,[9] while the stems, leaves and umbels were chopped, covered with water and left in a warm place to ferment. After a few days, lactic and alcoholic fermentation produced a mixture described as "something between beer and sauerkraut".[58] This concoction was then used for cooking a soup characterized by a mouth-puckering sour taste and pungent smell.[59] As the Polish ethnographer Łukasz Gołębiowski wrote in 1830, "Poles have been always partial to tart dishes, which are somewhat peculiar to their homeland and vital to their health."[p][60]

The earliest written reference to the Slavic hogweed soup can be found in Domostroy (Domestic Order), a 16th-century Russian compendium of moral rules and homemaking advice. It recommends growing the plant "by the fence, around the whole garden, where the nettle grows", to cook a soup of it in springtime and reminds the reader to, "for the Lord's sake, share it with those in need."[12] Simon Syrenius (Szymon Syreński), a 17th-century Polish botanist, described "our Polish hogweed"[q] as a vegetable that was well known throughout Poland, Rus', Lithuania and Samogitia (that is, most of the northern part of Eastern Europe), typically used for cooking a "tasty and graceful soup"[r] with capon stock, eggs, sour cream and millet. More interested in the plant's medicinal properties than its culinary use, he also recommended pickled hogweed juice as a cure for fever or hangover.[61]

Hogweed borscht was mostly a poor man's food. The soup's humble beginnings are still reflected in Polish fixed expressions, where "cheap like borscht"[s] is the equivalent of "dirt cheap" (also attested as a calque in Yiddish and Canadian English),[62][63] whereas adding "two mushrooms into borscht"[t] is synonymous with excess.[64] For the professors of the University of Kraków, who led a monastic way of life in the 17th century, hogweed borscht was a fasting dish which they ate regularly (sometimes with deviled eggs) from Lent till Rogation days.[65] It was uncommon on the royal table,[9] although according to the 16th-century Polish botanist Marcin of Urzędów – citing Giovanni Manardo, a court physician to the Jagiellonian kings of Hungary – the Polish-born King Vladislaus II used to have a Polish hogweed-based dish prepared for him at his court in Buda.[66]

Diversification[edit]

With time, other ingredients were added to the soup, eventually replacing hogweed altogether, while the names borshch or barszcz became generic terms for any sour-tasting soup. In 19th-century rural Poland, this term included soups made from barberries, currants, gooseberries, cranberries, celery or plums.[67][68][69]

Rye meal mixed with water and left to sour is the main ingredient of Polish white borscht

When describing the uses of common hogweed, John Gerard, a 17th-century English botanist, observed that "the people of [Poland] and Lithuania use to make [a] drink with the decoction of this herb and leaven or some other thing made of meal, which is used instead of beer and other ordinary drink."[u][70] It may suggest that hogweed soup was on some occasions combined with a fermented mixture of water and barley flour, oatmeal or rye flour. Such soured, gelatinous flour-and-water mixture, originally known as kissel[v][71] (from the Proto-Slavic root *kyslŭ, 'sour'[72][73]) had been already mentioned in The Tale of Bygone Years, a 12th-century chronicle of Kievan Rus',[74][75] and continued to be a staple of Ukrainian and Russian cooking until the middle of the 19th century.[76] In Poland, a soup based on diluted kissel became known as either żur[77] (from Middle High German sur 'sour'[78]) or barszcz, and later – to distinguish it from the red beetroot borscht – as barszcz biały 'white borscht'.[79]

The earliest known Polish recipes for borscht, written by chefs catering to Polish magnates (aristocrats), contain neither hogweed nor beetroots. Stanisław Czerniecki, head chef to Prince Aleksander Michał Lubomirski, included several borscht recipes in his Compendium ferculorum (A Collection of Dishes), the first cookbook published originally in Polish, in 1682. They include such sour soups as lemon borscht and "royal borscht", the latter made from assorted dried, smoked or fresh fish and fermented rye bran.[80] A manuscript recipe book from the Radziwiłł family court, dating back to ca. 1686, mentions green borscht and almond borscht.[59]

Cabbage-based borscht may be indistinguishable from the Russian shchi.

Borscht also evolved into a variety of sour soups to the east of Poland. Examples include onion borscht, a recipe for which was included in a 1905 Russian cookbook[81] and sorrel-based green borscht, which is still a popular summer soup in Ukraine and Russia. A Gift to Young Housewives by Elena Molokhovets, the best-selling Russian cookbook of the 19th century,[82] first published in 1861, contains nine recipes for borscht, some of which are based on kvass, a traditional Slavic fermented beverage made from rye bread.[83] Kvass-based varieties were also known in Ukraine at that time; some of them were types of green borscht, while others were similar to the Russian okroshka.[29] Before the advent of beet-based borscht, cabbage borscht was of particular importance. Made from either fresh cabbage or sauerkraut, it could be indistinguishable from the Russian shchi.[84] Indeed, the mid-19th-century Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language defines borshch as "a kind of shchi" with beet sour added for tartness.[85][12] The significance of cabbage as an essential ingredient of borscht is manifest in the Ukrainian proverb, "without bread, it's no lunch; without cabbage, it's no borscht."[w][86]

Novel ingredients[edit]

Ukrainian peasants harvesting beets, painted by Leon Wyczółkowski in 1893

Beets (Beta vulgaris), a plant native to the Mediterranean Basin, was already grown in antiquity.[87] Only the leaves were of culinary use, as the tapered, tough, whitish, and bitter-tasting root was considered unfit for human consumption.[88] It is likely that beet greens were used in variants of green borscht long before the invention of the beetroot-based red borscht.[12] Beet cultivars with round, red, sweet taproots, known as beetroots, were not reliably reported until the 12th century[89] and did not spread to Eastern Europe before the 16th century.[90] Mikołaj Rej, a Polish Renaissance poet and moralist, included the earliest known Polish recipe for pickled beetroots in his 1568 book, Life of an Honest Man.[91] It would later evolve into ćwikła,[92] or chrain mit burik,[93] a beet-and-horseradish relish popular in Polish and Jewish cuisines. Rej also recommended the "very tasty brine"[x] left over from beetroot pickling,[94] which was an early version of beet sour. The sour found some applications in Polish folk medicine as a cure for hangover and – mixed with honey – as a sore throat remedy.[68]

The addition of tomatoes may give borscht an orange tinge instead of the purplish red imparted by beetroots.

It may never be known who first thought of using beet sour to flavor borscht, which also gave the soup its now-familiar red color. Jerzy Samuel Bandtke's Polish-German dictionary published in 1806 was the first to define barszcz as a tart soup made from pickled beetroots.[95] The fact that certain 19th-century Russian and Polish cookbooks, such as Handbook of the Experienced Russian Housewife (1842) by Yekaterina Avdeyeva[96][97] and The Lithuanian Cook (1854) by Wincenta Zawadzka,[98] refer to beetroot-based borscht as "Little Russian borscht"[y] (where "Little Russian" is a term used at the time for ethnic Ukrainians under imperial Russian rule) suggests that this innovation took place in what is now Ukraine,[10] whose soils and climate are particularly well suited to beet cultivation. Ukrainian legends, probably of 19th-century origin, attribute the invention of beetroot borscht either to Zaporozhian Cossacks, serving in the Polish army, on their way to break the siege of Vienna in 1683, or to Don Cossacks, serving in the Russian army, while laying siege to Azov in 1695.[12]

Spanish conquistadors brought potatoes and tomatoes from the Americas to Europe in the 16th century, but these vegetables only became commonly grown and consumed in Eastern Europe in the 19th century. Eventually, both became staples of peasant diet and essential ingredients of Ukrainian and Russian borscht. Potatoes replaced turnips in borscht recipes, while tomatoes – fresh, canned or paste – took over from beet sour as the source of tartness. The turnip is rarely found in modern recipes, and even then, together with potatoes.[12] In Ukraine, beet sour and tomatoes were both used for some time until the latter ultimately prevailed during the last third of the 19th century.[99]

Spread[edit]

Over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, borscht's popularity spread beyond its Slavic homeland, largely due to such factors as territorial expansion of the Russian Empire, Russia's growing political clout and cultural stature, and waves of emigration out of the country. As Russia grew to cover most of northern and central Eurasia, borscht was introduced to the cuisines of various peoples inhabiting the territories both within and adjacent to the empire, from Finland[100] to Azerbaijan[101] and Iran,[102] to China, to Alaska (Russian America).[103]

Auguste Escoffier, known in France as the "king of chefs and chef of kings", was fascinated by borscht's ruby-red color.

Borscht's westward expansion was less successful; Germans used to scoff at the soup along with other East European fare.[10] What helped familiarize Western Europe with borscht was the practice of Russian emperors, as well as Russian and Polish aristocrats, to employ celebrated French chefs, who later presented their own versions of the dish as a foreign curiosity back in France. One of the first French chefs to do so was Marie-Antoine Carême, who worked beriefly for Emperor Alexander I in 1819.[104] In his take on borscht, the original Russian soup served only as inspiration for an extravagant haute cuisine dish with an air of eastern exoticism.[105] Apart from vegetables and beet sour, his recipe calls for a roast chicken, a fried chicken, a duck, a piece of veal, an oxtail, a marrow bone, one pound of bacon, and six large sausages, and suggests serving with beef quenelles, deviled eggs, and croutons.[11] Auguste Escoffier, Carême's apprentice, who was mostly fascinated by the soup's vivid ruby-red color, simplified his master's recipe, while also securing the place of potage bortsch ("borscht soup") in French cuisine.[106] Urbain Dubois and Émile Bernard, both of whom had been employed at Polish aristocratic courts, presented borscht to the French public as a Polish soup; their cookbook, La cuisine classique, published in 1856, contains a borscht recipe under the descriptive name, potage au jus de betteraves à la polonaise ("Polish-style beet-juice soup"),[107] which had been changed to potage barsch à la polonaise by the third edition in 1868.[108]

Mass migration from the Russian Empire to North America – initially mosty by members of persecuted religious minorities – was instrumental in bringing borscht across the Atlantic. The earliest waves of migration occured at a time when cabbage-based borscht was still the dominant variant of the soup in at least parts of Russia. The Mennonites, who began arriving in Canada and the United States from Russia's Volga region in the 1870s,[27] still eschew beetroots in their borscht;[12] instead, Mennonite varieties of borscht include Komst Borscht (with cabbage or sauerkraut) and Somma Borscht (sorrel-based "summer borscht").[27] According to the Jewish Encyclopedia published in 1906, cabbage-based kraut borscht was also more popular than the beet-based variety in American Jewish cuisine at the time.[45] Subsequent Jewish immigration helped popularize the red borscht in America.

In the 1930s, when most American hotels refused to accept Jewish guests due to widespread anti-Semitism, New York Jews began flocking to Jewish-owned resorts in the Catskill Mountains for their summer vacations. The area grew into a major center of Jewish entertainment, with restaurants offering all-you-can-eat Ashkenazi Jewish fare, including copious amounts of borscht. Grossinger's, one of the largest resorts, served borscht throughout the day, every day of the year. The region became known, initially in derision, as the "Borscht Belt", reinforcing the popular association between borscht and American Jewish culture.[10] As most visitors arrived in the summertime, the borscht was typically served cold. Marc Gold was one of its largest suppliers, producing 1,750 short tons (1,590 t) a year in his business's heyday.[109] Gold's borscht consists of puréed beetroots seasoned with sugar, salt and citric acid;[110] it is usually blended with sour cream and served as a refreshing beverage, more aptly described as a "beet smoothie". According to Burlakoff, it is this kind of "purplish, watery broth" that is "associated in America with borsch, in general, and Jewish borsch in particular."[111]

Tubed borscht as space food

In the Soviet Union, borscht was one of the most popular everyday dishes. It was described by James Meek, a British correspondent in Kiev and Moscow, as "the common denominator of the Soviet kitchen, the dish that tied together (...) the high table of the Kremlin and the meanest canteen in the boondocks of the Urals, (...) the beetroot soup that pumped like a main artery through the kitchens of the east Slav lands".[112] Among Soviet leaders, the Ukrainian-born Leonid Brezhnev was especially partial to borscht, which his wife continued to personally cook for him even after they had moved into the Kremlin.[104] The soup has even played a role in the Soviet space program. In March 1961, as part of a communications equipment test, a pre-recorded recipe for borscht was broadcast from the Korabl-Sputnik 4 spacecraft. The craft, carrying animals and a mannequin, had been launched into low Earth orbit in preparation for manned space flights.[113] Actual borscht eventually made its way into outer space as space food for Soviet and, later, Russian cosmonauts. All ingredients for the space borscht (which include beef, beetroots, cabbage, potatoes, carrots, onions, parsley root, and tomato paste) are cooked separately, then combined one by one in strictly controlled order, sterilized, packed into tubes, sealed airtight, and autoclaved.[114]

In culture[edit]

As a ritual dish[edit]

Borscht is often associated with its role in religious traditions of various denominations (Eastern Orthodox, Greek and Roman Catholic, and Jewish) that are common in Eastern Europe. In East Slavic countries, "memorial borscht"[z] is served as the first course at a post-funeral wake. According to a traditional belief, the soul of the departed either feeds on or is carried up to heaven by puffs of steam raising from bowls of borscht and other hot dishes, such blini, porridge, boiled potatoes or freshly baked bread.[115][27] In the region of Polesye, straddling the Belarusian-Ukrainian border, the same steaming-hot dishes, including borscht, are given as an offering to the souls of deceased ancestors during the annual semi-pagan remembrance ceremony known as Dzyady, or Forefathers' Night.[116][117]

A tureen of clear borscht among other dishes on a Polish Christmas Eve table

In Poland and Ukraine, borscht is usually one of the dishes served at a Christmas Eve dinner. Celebrated after the first star has appeared in the sky[118] on December 25 (Roman Catholic) or January 6 (Greek Catholic), it is a meal which is at the same time festive and fasting, a multicourse affair (traditionally, with twelve distinct dishes) that excludes ingredients of land-animal origin.[119] Christmas Eve borscht is, therefore, either vegetarian or based on fish stock, and is not typically mixed with sour cream. In Ukraine, the soup contains vegetables that are sautéed in vegetable oil rather than lard, as well as beans and mushrooms. It may be also thickened with wheat flour dry-roasted in a pan instead of the usual roux.[99] The Polish version of Christmas Eve borscht is a clear ruby-red broth. Both Ukrainian and Polish variants are often served with uszka.[17][51]

While Christmas in Poland is traditionally linked with red borscht, Lent – the fasting period that leads up to Easter – is associated with a meatless version of white borscht, or żur. Youths used celebrate Holy Saturday, the last day of the fast, with a mock "funeral" of the white borscht, in which a pot of the soup was either buried in the ground or broken, sometimes – to the crowd's amusement – while being carried by an unsuspecting boy on his head.[77] On the next day, the white borscht would reappear on the Easter table, but this time, in its more coveted, meat-based guise with sausage, bacon and eggs.[59]

In Eastern European Ashkenazi Jewish tradition, vegetarian borscht served with sour cream and boiled potatoes on the side, known as peysakhdiker borsht, is considered an essential dish during the Passover period. As the holiday is observed in spring (March or April), the preparation of Passover borscht used to provide an opportunity to use up the beet sour left over from pickled beetroots that had been consumed during winter, remaining potatoes that had been stored throughout the winter, and sour cream that was readily available in the new calving season.[10] Cold borscht blended with sour cream is also popular on Shavuot (Feast of Weeks), a holiday customarily associated with dairy foods, observed in late May or early June.[120] Seudah Shlishit, or the third meal of the Shabbat, often includes borscht as well.[10]

As an ethnic dish[edit]

Borscht is associated with and claimed by several ethnic groups, especially Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, and Ashkenazi Jews, as their own national or ethnic dish and cultural icon.[121][122] Such claims are not necessarily mutually exclusive, as the soup's history predates the emergence of modern nation states, with their ever-shifting borders, in Eastern Europe. Borscht, in the words of Nikolai Burlakoff, "is perfectly suited to a global culture." He describes it as "a global phenomenon", in which "local variants are so numerous and diverse that it is hard sometimes for a non-specialist to grasp that any single example of it is something that is part of a unified tradition." In his view, borscht "is an almost perfect example of (...) 'glocalization' – a phenomenon that is global in distribution but reflective of local needs and ways in its variants and adaptation; (...) a highly localized product that became globalized, and in the process adapted to conditions other than the original ones."[104] However, according to Irina Perianova, "people tend to be very proprietal about their food and proud of it." A "connection between culinary and territorial claims" may be observed, which results in the culinary area turning into "a battlefield generating and proliferating all kinds of myths."[121]

Borshch stamp UA026-05 transparent.pngBorshch stamp UA027-05 transparent.png
A bowl of borscht together with its usual ingredients featured on Ukrainian postage stamps

In the Soviet Union, government-sponsored cookbooks, such as The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food curated by Anastas Mikoyan, promoted a unified Soviet cuisine with standardized and nutritionally "rational" versions of traditional dishes. While inspired by the cuisines of the country's various ethnic groups, the recipes were presented as part of an overall Soviet heritage, disassociated from their individual geographic origins.[81] By many people both inside and outside the Soviet Union, borscht was increasingly seen not as an ethnic Ukrainian soup, but as a Soviet or – metonymically – Russian dish. This approach was criticized by William Pokhlebkin, a preeminent Russian food writer, who unequivocally described borscht as one of the "dishes of Ukrainian cookery" which "have entered the menu of international cuisine".[aa][123] "One could understand", he wrote, "and forgive foreigners for calling borscht or varenyky Russian national dishes, but when it turns out that they gleaned the information from Soviet cookbooks or from restaurant menus, one is embarrassed for our authors and chefs, who popularize the national cuisines of our peoples [that is, the ethnic groups of the Soviet Union] with such ignorance."[ab][124]

According to Meek, "Pokhlebkin and the Soviet Union are dead, yet Borshchland lives on. Recipes, like birds, ignore political boundaries. (...) The faint outline of the Tsarist-Soviet imperium still glimmers in the collective steam off bowls of beetroot and cabbage in meat stock, and the soft sound of dollops of sour cream slipping into soup, from the Black Sea to the Sea of Japan and, in emigration, from Brooklyn to Berlin."[112]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Belarusian: боршч (borshch); Polish: barszcz.
  2. ^ In the Cyrillic script: борщок.
  3. ^ Polish: kwas buraczany; Russian: свекольный квас (svekolny kvas); Ukrainian: буряковий квас (buryakovy kvas).
  4. ^ In the Hebrew script: ראָסל‎; also Romanized as rosel, rossel, russel or russell.
  5. ^ In the Cyrillic script: рассол.
  6. ^ In the Cyrillic script: флотский борщ.
  7. ^ In the Cyrillic script: халаднік.
  8. ^ In the Cyrillic script: свекольник.
  9. ^ Russian: зелёный борщ (zelyony borshch); Ukrainian: зелений борщ (zeleny borshch).
  10. ^ Polish terms barszcz biały 'white borscht' and żur or żurek are either used interchangeably or refer to different soups, depending on the regional dialect and ingredients used.[33]
  11. ^ In the Chinese simplified script: 罗宋汤.
  12. ^ Polish: barszcz zabielany; Russian: забеленный борщ (zabelenny borshch); literally 'whitened borscht', that is, clouded with flour or dairy products. In Yiddish, the process of whitening borscht is known as farweissen.
  13. ^ In the Cyrillic script: фрикадельки.
  14. ^ In the Cyrillic script: пампушки.
  15. ^ In the Cyrillic script: крупеник.
  16. ^ Polish: Lubili i lubią Polacy kwaśne potrawy, ich krajowi poniekąd właściwe i zdrowiu ich potrzebne.
  17. ^ Polish: barszcz nasz polski.
  18. ^ Polish: smaczna i wdzięczna (...) polewka.
  19. ^ Polish: tanio jak barszcz; Yiddish: bilik vi borscht.
  20. ^ Polish: dwa grzyby w barszcz.
  21. ^ Original spelling: The people of Polonia and Lituania vse to make drinke with the decoction of this herbe, and leuen or some other thing made of meale, which is vsed in stead of beere and other ordinarie drinke.
  22. ^ Polish: kisiel; Russian: кисель (kisel'); Ukrainian: кисiль (kysil'); today, these words refer to a sweet fruit-flavored jelly made from potato starch.
  23. ^ Ukrainian: Без хліба – не обід; без капусти – не борщ (Bez khliba – ne obid; bez kapusty – ne borshch).
  24. ^ Polish: rosołek barzo smaczny.
  25. ^ Polish: barszcz małorosyjski; Russian: борщ малороссийский (borshch malorossiysky).
  26. ^ Russian: поминальный борщ (pominalny borshch).
  27. ^ Russian: некоторые блюда украинской кухни, например борщи и вареники, вошли в меню международной кухни.
  28. ^ Russian: То, что иностранцы называют борщ или вареники русскими национальными блюдами, еще можно понять и извинить, но когда выясняется, что эти сведения они почерпнули из советских кулинарных книг или из меню ресторанов, становится стыдно за наших авторов и мастеров общепита, так безграмотно пропагандирующих национальную кухню наших народов.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schultze (2000), pp. 65–66.
  2. ^ a b Pokhlebkin (2004), p. 83.
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Borsch".
  4. ^ Dictionary.com, "borscht".
  5. ^ Harper, "borscht".
  6. ^ Rudnyc'kyj (1972), pp. 179–180 (vol. 1), "борщ".
  7. ^ Pokorny (2007), p. 312, "bhares-:bhores-".
  8. ^ Vasmer (1973), "борщ".
  9. ^ a b c Dembińska (1999), p. 127.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Marks 2010, pp. 196–200, "Borscht".
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Burlakoff (2013), Appendix.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 2.
  13. ^ a b Pokhlebkin (2004), p. 84.
  14. ^ Panek (1905), p. 41.
  15. ^ Marks 2010, pp. 1021–1022, "Rosl".
  16. ^ Small (2009), p. 99.
  17. ^ a b Strybel & Strybel (2005), pp. 190–192.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Zdanovich (2014), "Борщи".
  19. ^ Pokhlebkin (2004), p. 83–86.
  20. ^ Cookery (1955), pp. 792–793.
  21. ^ Cookery (1955), pp. 213–216.
  22. ^ Strybel & Strybel (2005), pp. 9, 180, 190.
  23. ^ Strybel & Strybel (2005), pp. 182, 190.
  24. ^ Strybel & Strybel (2005), pp. 211–212.
  25. ^ Kuroń (2004), pp. 200–201.
  26. ^ a b Pokhlebkin (2004), p. 108.
  27. ^ a b c d Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 4.
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  30. ^ Chakvin, Gurko & Kasperovich (2014), p. 78.
  31. ^ Guboglo & Simchenko (1992), p. 98.
  32. ^ Cookery (1955), p. 792.
  33. ^ Żmigrodzki, "biały barszcz".
  34. ^ Strybel & Strybel (2005), p. 193.
  35. ^ Szymanderska (2010), pp. 454–455.
  36. ^ Gloger (1900), p. 307 (vol. 3), "Jucha".
  37. ^ Gal (2003), "Borș".
  38. ^ Rennon (2007), p. 53.
  39. ^ Auzias & Labourdette (2012), p. 77.
  40. ^ Petrosian & Underwood (2006), pp. 107–108.
  41. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapters 3 and 8.
  42. ^ Fertig (2011), pp. 128–129.
  43. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapters 4.
  44. ^ a b c d Kuroń (2004), pp. 182–189.
  45. ^ a b Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), p. 257.
  46. ^ Kuroń (2004).
  47. ^ a b Artyukh (2006), p. 17.
  48. ^ a b c Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 1.
  49. ^ Pokhlebkin (2004), pp. 86, 93–94.
  50. ^ Strybel & Strybel (1993), p. 226.
  51. ^ a b Artyukh (2006), p. 16–17.
  52. ^ Artyukh (2006), p. 16.
  53. ^ Strybel & Strybel (1993), p. 234.
  54. ^ Strybel & Strybel (1993), pp. 229–238.
  55. ^ Kuroń (2004), pp. 248–253.
  56. ^ Łuczaj (2013), pp. 20–21.
  57. ^ Kuhnlein & Turner (1986).
  58. ^ Łuczaj (2013), p. 21.
  59. ^ a b c Dumanowski, Barszcz, żur i post.
  60. ^ Gołębiowski (1830), pp. 32–34.
  61. ^ Syrennius (1613), p. 673.
  62. ^ Barber (2004), "borscht".
  63. ^ Rothstein & Rothstein (1998), pp. 307.
  64. ^ Żmigrodzki, "dwa grzyby w barszcz".
  65. ^ Karbowiak (1900), pp. 28–40.
  66. ^ Marcin z Urzędowa (1595), pp. 6–7.
  67. ^ Rostafiński (1916), pp. 38–39.
  68. ^ a b Gloger (1900), pp. 116–117 (vol. 1), "Barszcz".
  69. ^ Gołębiowski (1830), p. 33.
  70. ^ Gerard (1636), p. 1009.
  71. ^ Dal (1863–66), "Кисель".
  72. ^ Vasmer (1973), "кислый".
  73. ^ Trubachyov (1987), pp. 271–272 (vol. 13), "*kyselь".
  74. ^ Matyukhina (2013), "Русские пития".
  75. ^ Artyukh (1977), p. 35.
  76. ^ Artyukh (1977), p. 38.
  77. ^ a b Gloger (1900), pp. 522–523 (vol. 4), "Żur".
  78. ^ Doroszewski (1969), "żur".
  79. ^ Rostafiński (1916), p. 45.
  80. ^ Czerniecki (1682), pp. 71–72.
  81. ^ a b Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 6.
  82. ^ Christian (1994).
  83. ^ Molokhovets (1998), Recipes 43–48, 74, 75, 77.
  84. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapters 4,6.
  85. ^ Dal (1863–66), "Борщ".
  86. ^ Pryslivya i prykazky....
  87. ^ Rostafiński (1916), pp. 5–6.
  88. ^ Rostafiński (1916), p. 10.
  89. ^ Small (2009), p. 97.
  90. ^ Rostafiński (1916), p. 11.
  91. ^ Rostafiński (1916), pp. 15–16.
  92. ^ Rostafiński (1916), p. 17.
  93. ^ Marks 2010, pp. 541–543, "Horseradish".
  94. ^ Rej (1567), Księga Druga.
  95. ^ Rostafiński (1916), p. 41.
  96. ^ Avdeyeva (1846), pp. 198–199.
  97. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 5.
  98. ^ Zawadzka (1911).
  99. ^ a b Artyukh (2006), p. 13.
  100. ^ MacVeigh (2008), p. 193.
  101. ^ King (2006), p. 12.
  102. ^ Petrosian & Underwood (2006), pp. 108.
  103. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 8.
  104. ^ a b c Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 3.
  105. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapters 3 and 10.
  106. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 10.
  107. ^ Dumanowski, Klasyczny barszcz....
  108. ^ Dubois & Bernard (1868), p. 22.
  109. ^ Lagnado 2011.
  110. ^ Gold's Borscht.
  111. ^ Burlakoff (2013), Chapter 7.
  112. ^ a b Meek (2008).
  113. ^ Garber (2013).
  114. ^ Vedernikov (2015).
  115. ^ Vinogradova & Levkievskaya (2012), p. 138.
  116. ^ Gurko, Chakvin & Kasperovich (2010), p. 73.
  117. ^ Vinogradova & Levkievskaya (2012), p. 195.
  118. ^ Łozińska & Łoziński (2013), pp. 162–165.
  119. ^ Szymula (2012), p. 280.
  120. ^ Morel (2008).
  121. ^ a b Perianova (2012), pp. 161–162.
  122. ^ Mazitova (2005).
  123. ^ Pokhlebkin (2004), p. 80.
  124. ^ Pokhlebkin (2004), p. 6–7.

Sources[edit]

Secondary[edit]

Primary[edit]

Reference works[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Borscht at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to Borscht at Wikiquote
  • The dictionary definition of borscht at Wiktionary