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Temporal range: 17–0.781 Ma
Zygolophodon skull fossil.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Mammutidae
Genus: Zygolophodon
Vacek 1877
  • Zygolophodon aegyptensis Sanders and Miller, 2002
  • Zygolophodon lufengensis Zhang Xingyong 1982
  • Zygolophodon proavus (Cope, 1873)
  • Zygolophodon turicensis (Schintz, 1824)
  • Zygolophodon tapiroides (Cuvier, 1824)(type)
  • Zygolophodon borsoni (Hays, 1834)
Zygolophodon distribution.svg
The inferred range of Zygolophodon
  • Mastodon tapiroides
  • Mastodon turicensis
  • Mastodon borsoni
  • Mammut tapiroides
  • Mammut turicensis
  • Mammut borsoni

Zygolophodon is an extinct genus of African, Asian, North American and European mammutid that lived from the Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene.[1][2]


Zygolophodon tapiroides tusks excavated in Milia (Greece)
Skeletal diagram of a large Z. borsoni from Milia (Greece)

It may have evolved from Tetralophodon. While collecting fossils in the Clarno Formation of Oregon during 1941, noted paleobotanists Alonzo W. Hancock and Chester A. Arnold recovered the most complete Zygolophodon skull known at the time.


Zygolophodon borsoni is a large species that was sometimes considered as a species of Mammut, and it was one of the largest terrestrial mammals of all time. With a shoulder height of about 3.9–4.1 metres (12.8–13.5 ft) and a weight of about 14–16 tonnes (15.4–17.6 short tons), it approached the size of Paraceratherium, and was heavier than several sauropod dinosaurs.[3]


  1. ^ Freeman, Leslie G. (1978-01-01). Views of the Past: Essays in Old World Prehistory and Paleanthropology. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110800074. 
  2. ^ Youping, Yuzhu, Hongxiang, Suyin, Zhang, Long, Ji, Ding (November 1999) [March 1989]. "The Cenozoic Deposits of the Yunnnan Region (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology, Paleoanthropology Academia Sinica)" (PDF). Professional Papers on Stratigraphy and Paleontology, No. 7 Geological Publishing House, Peking, China, pp. 1-21. 
  3. ^ Larramendi, A. (2016). "Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 61. doi:10.4202/app.00136.2014.