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Personification of the river god Borysthenes, represented with horns and flowing hair, on a coin of Pontic Olbia from the third century BCE.

Borysthenes (Ancient Greek: Βορυσθένης) is a geographical name from classical antiquity. The term usually refers to the Dnipro River and its eponymous river god, but also seems to have been an alternative name for Pontic Olbia, a town situated near the mouth of the same river on the Black Sea coast, or the earlier settlement on Berezan Island.

Herodotus describes both the river and the town in some detail in the fourth book of his histories:

This is the name that Herodotus in his Histories chooses to talk about Olbia. Supposedly, it was originally the name of another settlement located on Berezan island which is located at the mouth of Dnieper and in the vicinity of Olbia.

In Greek mythology, the daughter of Borysthenes is the nymph Borysthenis.[2]

The Borysthenes is mentioned numerous times in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. It was used as a route to the Black Sea by, among others, the Goths.


  1. ^ de Sélincourt, Aubrey (trans.) (1996). Herodotus: The Histories (New ed.). London [u.a.]: Penguin Books. pp. 232–3. ISBN 0-14-044638-9. 
  2. ^ Braund, David; Kryzhitskiy, S.D. (2007). Classical Olbia and the Scythian world: from the Sixth Century BC to the Second Century AD (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780197264041.