Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bosnia and Herzegovina
convertible mark
Konvertibilna marka (Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian)
Конвертибилна марка (Bosnian and Serbian)
Convertible marks coins and banknotes
Convertible marks coins and banknotes1
ISO 4217 code BAM
Central bank Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Website www.cbbh.ba
Date of introduction 22 June 1998
 Source [1]
User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Inflation −0.9%
 Source The World Factbook, 2014 est.
 Method CPI
Pegged with euro = 1.95583 convertible marks
Subunit
 1/100 Pfenig
"Fening" was introduced later and is used officially alongside "pfenig".
Symbol KM
 Pfenig pf
Nickname mark (marka)
 Pfenig none
Plural marks (marke)
The language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
 Pfenig pfenigs/fenings (pfenizi/feninzi)
Coins 5, 10, 20 and 50 pfenigs;
1, 2 and 5 marks
 Freq. used all of the above
 Rarely used none
Banknotes 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 marks
 Freq. used 10, 20, 50 and 100 marks
 Rarely used 200 marks
Printer Imprimerie Oberthur
(by François-Charles Oberthür)
Mint Royal Mint, Llantrisant
1 Designs for 10, 20, 50 and 100 KM banknotes differ for two entities of FBiH and RS in some aspects (images, order of scripts etc.). Residual banknote (200 KM) and all of the coins are same for both entities.

The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian and Serbian: konvertibilna marka / конвертибилна марка; Croatian: konvertibilna marka) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is divided into 100 pfenigs or fenings (Bosnian: pfenig/пфениг / fening/фенинг; Serbian: pfenig/пфениг; Croatian: pfenig), and locally abbreviated KM.[1]

History[edit]

The convertible mark was established by the 1995 Dayton Agreement. It replaced the Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar, Croatian kuna and Republika Srpska dinar as the single currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1998. Mark refers to the German mark, the currency to which it was pegged at par.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The names derive from the German language. Three official languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian) have adopted German nouns die Mark and der Pfennig as loanwords marka and pfenig. The Official Gazette of BiH (Bosnian: Službeni glasnik BiH), Official newspaper of FBiH (Bosnian: Službene novine FBiH) and other official documents recognized pfenig or пфениг[2] (depending on the script; Bosnian and Serbian use both Latin and Cyrillic on an equal footing, while Croatian uses only Latin) as the name of the subdivision.

Banknotes of 50 pfenigs were in circulation from 1998 to 2000.[1] They were denoted as "50 KONVERTIBILNIH PFENIGA" / "50 КОНВЕРТИБИЛНИХ ПФЕНИГА"; however, the word convertible should never be next to the pfenig because only the mark can be convertible.[3] (See Mistakes for all of the mistakes on banknotes and coins.) Coins of 10, 20 and 50 pfenigs have been in circulation since 1998[1] (the 5-pfenigs coin was released in 2006).[1] All of them are inscribed "~ feninga" / "~ фенинга" on the obverse. Misspelling fening/фенинг has never been corrected, and it took that much hold that is now officially adopted and not recognized as an incorrect name.[1]

Plurals and cases[edit]

Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian have a complicated case system. In addition, it is important to note that they use three plural forms.

  • In combination with numbers 1, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 101, 1001, … nouns use the nominative case singular (the base form):
màrka (màr: a – short vowel, rising tone) and pfénig/féning ((p)fé: e – short vowel, rising tone)
  • In combination with numbers that for rightmost digit have 2, 3 or 4 (except 12, 13 and 14) nouns use the nominative case plural (so called "the paucal form"):
màrke (màr: a – short vowel, rising tone) and pféniga/féninga ((p)fé: e – short vowel, rising tone)
  • In combination with numbers 0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 100, 1000, 10000 etc. nouns use the genitive case plural:
mȁrākā (mȁr: a – short vowel, falling tone; vowels ā are not accentuated but have genitive length) and pfénīgā/fénīngā ((p)fé: e – short vowel, rising tone; vowels ī and ā are not accentuated but have genitive length)
(For further information on accents in BSC, see Serbo-Croatian phonology and Shtokavian dialect#Accentuation.)

For the pfenig, the plural is pfeniga/feninga with a short unaccentuated a, whereas the genitive plural is pfeniga/feninga (same) but with a long unaccentuated i and a. A syllable after an accentuated syllable whose vowel is pronounced as a long and with a continuous tone (neither rising or falling) is said to have a genitive length (although, word need not to be necessarily in the genitive case in order to have genitive length on its syllable; it can be in locative, too).

These matters should be noted when one uses the local names in English. For example, English plural "ten pfenigas" / "ten feningas" is incorrect as the final a in BSC plural pfeniga/feninga already indicates the plural. So, "ten pfenigs" / "ten fenings" should be used instead. The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CBBH) uses "fenings" as the English plural.[1] Likewise, "twenty-one markas" / "two markes" / "twelve marakas" is incorrect; "twenty-one marks" / "two marks" / "twelve marks" should be used instead.

Coins[edit]

In December 1998, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 pfenigs.[1] Coins of 1, 2 and 5 marks were introduced later.[1] The coins were designed by Bosnian designer Kenan Zekic[4] and minted at the Royal Mint in Llantrisant (Wales, UK).[1]

Coins of the convertible mark (1998–present)[1]
Image
O R
Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse minting issue withdrawal lapse
O R 5 pfenigs 18.00 mm 2.66 g nickel-plated steel reeded Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, denomination Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, year 2005–present 5 January 2006 Current
O R 10 pfenigs 20.00 mm 3.90 g copper-plated steel plain Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, denomination Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, year 1998–present 9 December 1998 Current
O R 20 pfenigs 22.00 mm 4.50 g reeded 1998–present
O R 50 pfenigs 24.00 mm 5.15 g 1998–present
O R 1 mark   23.25 mm 4.95 g nickel-plated steel milled and smooth Denomination, country name, indented and inverted triangles* Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2000–present 31 July 2000 Current
O R 2 marks 25.75 mm 6.90 g cupro-nickel (inner ring);
golden 5.5%;
nickel-brass combination (outer ring)
Peace dove 2000–present
O R 5 marks 30.00 mm 10.35 g nickel-brass (inner ring);
copper-nickel (outer ring)
milled 2005–present 5 January 2006
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.
  • The triangles are intended for the visually impaired.

Banknotes[edit]

In 1998, notes were introduced in denominations of 50 pfenigs, 1 mark, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 marks. 200-mark notes were added in 2002, whilst the 50-pfenig, 1- and 5-mark notes were later withdrawn from circulation. All current notes are valid throughout the country.[1]

The banknotes are issued by the Central Bank of Bosnia Herzegovina, with distinct designs for the entities of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska,1 except for the largest denomination – 200-mark note.[1] On the notes of the Republika Srpska, inscriptions are printed in Cyrillic, then Latin script, and vice versa. Banknotes, with the exception of the 200-mark note, are printed by the French company Oberthur.[1][5]

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina issues[edit]

Banknotes of the convertible mark for FBiH (1998–present)[1]
Image
O R
Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Dimensions Watermark Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
O R 50 pfenigs 120 mm × 60 mm Central Bank monogram repeated vertically Skender Kulenović Stećak Zgošca fragment No date
(1998)
22 June 1998 1 January 2003[6] 1 April 2018[7]
O R 1 mark   120 mm × 60 mm Ivan Frano Jukić Stećak Stolac fragment 1 January 2009[8]
O R 5 marks 122 mm x 62 mm Meša Selimović Trees No date
(1998)
1 January 2010[9] 1 April 2018[7]
O R 10 marks 130 mm x 65 mm Mehmedalija Mak Dizdar Stećak Radimlja fragment No date
(1998)
(2008)
(2012)

22 June 1998
4 November 2008
1 June 2012
Current
O R 20 marks 138 mm x 68 mm Antun Branko Šimić Stećak Radimlja fragment
O R 50 marks 146 mm x 71 mm Musa Ćazim Ćatić Stone relief No date
(1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2009)
(2012)

22 June 1998
No date (2002)
1 March 2007
No date (2008)
14 December 2009
1 June 2012
O R 100 marks 154 mm x 74 mm Nikola Šop Stećak Zgošca fragment No date
(1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2012)

27 July 1998
No date (2002)
1 March 2007
No date (2008)
1 June 2012
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Republika Srpska issues[edit]

Banknotes of the convertible mark for RS (1998–present)[1]
Image
O R
Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Dimensions Watermark Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
O R 50 pfenigs 120 mm × 60 mm Central Bank monogram repeated vertically Branko Ćopić House and books No date
(1998)
22 June 1998 1 January 2003[6] 1 April 2018[7]
O R 1 mark   120 mm × 60 mm Ivo Andrić The Bridge on the Drina 15 July 1998[a][10]
O R [b]5 marks 122 mm x 62 mm Meša Selimović Trees No date
(1998)
1 January 2010[9] 1 April 2018[7]
O R 10 marks 130 mm x 65 mm Aleksa Šantić Loaf of bread No date
(1998)
(2008)
(2012)

22 June 1998
4 November 2008
1 June 2012
Current
O R 20 marks 138 mm x 68 mm Filip Višnjić Gusle (musical instrument)
O R 50 marks 146 mm x 71 mm Jovan Dučić pen, eyeglasses and book No date
(1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2009)
(2012)

22 June 1998
No date (2002)
1 March 2007
No date (2008)
14 December 2009
1 June 2012
O R 100 marks 154 mm x 74 mm Petar Kočić pen, eyeglasses and book No date
(1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2012)

27 July 1998
No date (2002)
1 March 2007
No date (2008)
1 June 2012
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Nationwide issues[edit]

The portrait of Meša Selimović, a writer, was featured by consensus between both entities on all 5 KM notes used between 1998 and 2010.[1]

On 15 May 2002, a 200 KM banknote, designed by Robert Kalina, was introduced during a promotion that was held in the Central Bank of BH. The reverse design which depicts a bridge is meant to resemble the euro banknotes, which were also designed by Robert Kalina. After an international tender, the Austrian company Oesterreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck GmbH (OeBS) in Vienna was chosen to print the notes. Initially, six million were ordered.[11]

Banknotes of the convertible mark for both entities (1998–present)[1]
Image
O R
Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Dimensions Watermark Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
O R 200 marks 156 mm x 76 mm Image of the Bridge on River Drina[12] Ivo Andrić The Bridge on the Drina No date
(2002)

15 May 2002
Current
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Exchange rates[edit]

Initially the mark was pegged to the German mark at par.[1] Since the replacement of the German mark by the euro in 2002, the Bosnian convertible mark uses the same fixed exchange rate to euro that the German mark has (that is, 1 EUR = 1.95583 BAM).[1]

Current BAM exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From TransferWise: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From Currency.Wiki: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USDHRK

Mistakes[edit]

Detail on 1 KM banknote for Republika Srpska with misspelled name of Ivo Andrić written in Cyrillic as "ИВО АНДРИЂ" instead of "ИВО АНДРИЋ"

Banknotes and coins of Bosnia and Herzegovina have many mistakes and inconsistencies (maybe more than any other currency).[1]

Officially, only one banknote hasn't been released in circulation because of a mistake, even though other banknotes with mistakes had been issued.[1]

Examples[edit]

These are the most important mistakes that have been noticed till now:

  1. 50 pfenigs banknote in both designs had the adjective "convertible" next to the noun "pfenig" although only mark can be convertible ("50 KONVERTIBILNIH PFENIGA" / "50 КОНВЕРТИБИЛНИХ ПФЕНИГА").[3]
  2. 1 KM banknote for Republika Srpska was printed as "ИВО АНДРИЂ" instead of "ИВО АНДРИЋ". This banknote was immediately removed from circulation.[a]
  3. 5 KM banknote in both designs had the Cyrillic word "five" incorrectly printed in Latin script on its reverse side ("PET КОНВЕРТИБИЛНИХ МАРАКА").
  4. 10 KM banknote for Republika Srpska (first series, 1998) had Aleksa Šantić's name printed in Latin script although it should have been printed in Cyrillic script as it is on all other examples in 1998 series.
  5. 100 KM banknote[which?] in both designs was incorrectly printed with the Cyrillic abbreviation (acronym) of Central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina with "Џ" instead of "Ц" (i.e. "ЏББХ" instead of "ЦББХ") in safety bar.
  6. The name of the subdivision of convertible mark found on coins has been incorrectly written, the word "pfenig" being written as "fening". This mistake took so much hold (especially because there were no (and are no) 50 pfenigs banknotes in circulation) that "fening" is now officially adopted and not recognized as incorrect for the KM's hundredth part.[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This Republika Srpska issue of 1 KM was immediately removed from circulation because of a typo. Instead of "Иво Андрић" it was written "Иво Андриђ". The decision not to release into the circulation the banknote in denominations of 1 convertible mark was published in Official Gazette of BiH (No 13/98).
  2. ^ This Republika Srpska issue of 5 KM is same as the one for FBiH but for RS issue denominations are written in Cyrillic script first and then in Latin (for FBiH issue vice versa).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "BH Currency – KM Banknotes and Coins". http://cbbh.ba/. Sarajevo: Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina. p. 1. Retrieved 20 December 2015. Fening details: | Mint: Royal Mint, Llantrisant | Released into Circulation: December 9th, 1998, with the exception of the 5 fening coin which is in circulation from January 5, 2006. | Face: Map of BH with overlay of denomination | Reverse: Flag of BH | The Words: "Bosna i Hercegovina" and "Fening" are on the face and reverse edges in both Latin and Cyrillic script. The date of production is on the reverse side on the left from the BH flag. | 10, 20 and 50 fening coins are made of copper-plated steel, while 5 fening coin is made of nickel-plated steel.  External link in |website= (help)
  2. ^ Mulaomerović, Jasminko (2004). "Novi numizmatičar" [New numismatist] (in Bosnian) 2 (5) (3 (8) ed.). Sarajevo: Numizmatičko društvo – Sarajevo: 20–21. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Scribd. Mi, u našoj veseloj zemlji, imamo konvertibilnu marku kao novčanu jedinicu. Marka ima svoj najsitniji dio koji se zove pfenig. Tako kaže Službeni glasnik BiH, a Službeni glasnik – to ti je zakon. Ko misli da to i nije baš zakon, jer se tu objavljuju stvari koje se tiču vesele zemlje Bosne i Hercegovine, tu su i Službene novine Federacije BiH koje to potvrđuju, i to na sva tri jezika i u dva pisma. (...) Međutim, imamo mi i kovanice. Iako su i one dijelovi marke, samo odmetala, one se kod nas drugačije zovu – fening. Tako na kovanicama možemo pročitati 10 feninga, 20 feninga i 50 feninga. 
  3. ^ a b Mulaomerović, Jasminko (2004). "Novi numizmatičar" [New numismatist] (in Bosnian) 2 (5) (3 (8) ed.). Sarajevo: Numizmatičko društvo – Sarajevo: 20–21. Retrieved 20 December 2015 – via Scribd. ... i u dva pisma. Da je to tako vidi se na novčanicama od 50 KONVERTIBILNIH PFENIGA, i onim sa Skenderom Kulenovićem i onim sa Brankom Ćopićem. Doduše, „Službeni(e)...” i stvarne novčanice se malo razilaze u detaljima pa tako u Službeni(e)... imamo „konvertibilnu marku, apoen od 50 pfeniga”, a na novčanicama „50 KONVERTIBILNIH PFENIGA”. Dakle, prema Službeni(e)... marka jeste konvertibilna, ali pfenig nije, dok je prema novčanici i PFENIG konvertibilan. Ima tu još malo nejasnoća oko velikog i malog slova u riječi „pfenig”, ali kao da je to, uostalom, i važno, i ko će sve to, bogati, gledati!? 
  4. ^ Website of Kenan Zekic. Available at: http://kenanzekic.com.ba/
  5. ^ Mulic, Josef (2000). Papirini novac na tlu Bosne i Hercegovine od 1918. godine do danas
  6. ^ a b "CBBH". Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=854
  8. ^ http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=538
  9. ^ a b "CBBH". Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  10. ^ The decision not to release into the circulation the banknote in denominations of 1 convertible mark (Official Gazette of BiH (No 13/98))
  11. ^ "CBBH". Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  12. ^ Central Bank. http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=312M

External links[edit]

Currencies of Former Yugoslavia
territory 1918 1920 1941 1944 1992 1994 1995 1998 1999 2002 2003 2007 territory
 Macedonia Serbian dinar
(Kingdom of Serbia)
Yugoslav dinar
(Kingdom of Yugoslavia)
Bulgarian lev Yugoslav dinar
(SFR Yugoslavia 1944-1992,
FR Yugoslavia 1992-1999,
Serbia 1999-2003,
Republika Srpska 1994-1998)
Macedonian denar Macedonia
 Serbia   Serbian dinar (Occupied Serbia)     Serbian dinar Serbia
Kosovo Albanian lek
(Kosovo and Western Macedonia)
German mark Euro   Kosovo
 Montenegro Montenegrin perper
(Kingdom of Montenegro)
Italian lira
(Occupied Montenegro)
Montenegro
 Slovenia Yugoslav krone
(State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs)
German Reichsmark Slovenian tolar Slovenia
 Croatia   Independent State of Croatia kuna Croatian dinar   Croatian kuna Croatia
Republic of Serbian Krajina Krajina dinar
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar
(Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska dinar Yugoslav dinar