Bosnian language

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Bosnian
bosanski / босански
Pronunciation [bɔ̌sanskiː]
Native to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Slovenia, Kosovo and the Bosnian diaspora
Native speakers
2.5–3.5 million  (2008)[1]
(number is ambiguous)
Latin (Gaj)
Cyrillic (Serbian Cyrillic)[Note 1]
Yugoslav Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Recognised minority language in

 Serbia
 Montenegro
 Macedonia
 Croatia
 Kosovo[a]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 bs
ISO 639-2 bos
ISO 639-3 bos
Glottolog bosn1245[3]
Linguasphere part of 53-AAA-g
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Bosnian Listeni/ˈbɒzniən/ (Bosnian: bosanski / босански [bɔ̌sanskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Bosniaks.[4][5][6]

Bosnian is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[7] along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia,[8] Montenegro,[9] and the Republic of Kosovo.[10]

Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet.[Note 1] It is notable among the varieties of Serbo-Croatian for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language's interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties.[11][12][13]

Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin. Until the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia, they were treated as a unitary Serbo-Croatian language, and that term is still used in English to subsume the common base (vocabulary, grammar and syntax) of what are today officially four national standards, although this term is controversial for native speakers,[14] and paraphrases such as "Serbo-Croat-Bosnian" (SCB) or "Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian" (BCS) are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.

Several linguists and socio-political advocates[who?] claim Bosnian to be a standard language not only of the Bosniaks, but of all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, drawing on historical evidence in which the regional term "Bosnian" is attested.

History

Early attestations

The first dictionary in the Bosnian language, authored by Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi, written in Arebica script, dates from the early 1630s, [15][16] Charter of Ban Kulin was one of the oldest written South Slavic state documents and one of the earliest to be written in Bosnian Cyrillic (Bosančica).[17][18]

Name development

Although Bosniaks are, on the level of colloquial idiom, linguistically more homogeneous than either Serbs or Croats, unlike those nations they failed to codify a standard language in the 19th century, with at least two factors being decisive:

  • The Bosniak elite, as closely intertwined with Ottoman life, wrote predominantly in foreign (Turkish, Arabic, Persian) languages.[19] Vernacular literature written in Bosnian with the Arebica script was relatively thin and sparse.
  • The Bosniaks' national emancipation lagged behind that of the Serbs and Croats, and because denominational rather than cultural or linguistic issues played the pivotal role, a Bosnian language project did not arouse much interest or support amongst the Bosniak intelligentsia of the time.

Modern standardization

Nevertheless, the literature of the so-called "Bosniak revival" at the start of the 20th century was written in an idiom that was closer to the Croatian standard than to the Serbian one: it was a western Shtokavian dialect with an Ijekavian accent and used a Latin script, but had recognizable Bosniak lexical traits. The main authors were the polymath, politician and poet Safvet-beg Bašagić and the storyteller Edhem Mulabdić.

The modern Bosnian standard took shape in the 1990s and 2000s. Lexically, Islamic-Oriental loanwords are becoming more frequent; phonetically: the phoneme /x/ (letter h) is reinstated in many words as a distinct feature of vernacular Bosniak speech and language tradition; also, there are some changes in grammar, morphology and orthography that reflect the Bosniak pre-World War I literary tradition, mainly that of the Bosniak renaissance at the beginning of the 20th century.

Controversy

The name "Bosnian language" is a controversial issue for Croats and Serbs, who also refer to it as the "Bosniak" language (bošnjački). Bosniak linguists however insist that the only legitimate name is "Bosnian" language (bosanski), and that that is the name that both Croats and Serbs should use. The controversy arises because the name "Bosnian" implies that it is the language of all Bosnians, while Bosnian Croats and Serbs reject that designation for their idioms.

Some Croatian linguists (Zvonko Kovač, Ivo Pranjković, Josip Silić) support the name "Bosnian" language. However, most Croatian linguists (Radoslav Katičić, Dalibor Brozović, Tomislav Ladan and others) hold that the term Bosnian language is the only one appropriate[clarification needed] and that accordingly the terms Bosnian language and Bosniak language refer to two different things[clarification needed]. The Croatian state institutions, such as the Central Bureau of Statistics, use both terms: "Bosniak" language was used in the 2001 census,[20] while the census in 2011 used the term Bosnian language.[21]

The majority of Serbian linguists hold that the term Bosnian language is the only one appropriate,[22] which was agreed as early as 1990.[23]

The original form of The Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina called the language "Bosniac language",[24] until 2002 when it was changed in Amendment XXIX of the Constitution of the Federation by Wolfgang Petritsch.[25] The original text of the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was agreed in Vienna, and was signed by Krešimir Zubak and Haris Silajdžić on March 18, 1994.[26]

The language is called Bosnian language in the 1995 Dayton Accords[27] and is concluded by observers to have received legitimacy and international recognition at the time.[28]

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO),[29] United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN), and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) recognize the Bosnian language. Furthermore the status of the Bosnian language is also recognized by bodies such as the United Nations, UNESCO, and translation and interpreting accreditation agencies,[30] including internet translation services.

The constitution of Republika Srpska, the Serbian entity within Bosnia and Herzegovina, did not recognize any language or ethnic group other than Serbian.[31] Bosniaks were mostly expelled from the territory controlled by the Serbs from 1992, but immediately after the war they demanded the restoration of their civil rights in those territories. The Bosnian Serbs refused to make reference to the Bosnian language in their constitution and as a result had constitutional amendments imposed by High Representative Wolfgang Petritsch. However, the constitution of Republika Srpska refers to it as the Language spoken by Bosniaks,[32] because the Serbs were required to recognise the language officially, but wished to avoid recognition of its name.[33]

Serbia includes the Bosnian language as an elective subject in primary schools.[34] Montenegro officially recognizes the Bosnian language: its 2007 Constitution specifically states that although Montenegrin is the official language, also in official use are Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian.[9][35]

Differences between Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian

There are notable differences between the Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian literary standards. Bosnian employs more Turkish, Persian, and Arabic loanwords, commonly called Orientalisms.

Most common Orientalisms

Word Meaning[36]
Ahiret Hereafter
Ahlak Morale
Aferim Bravo
Ašk Love
Akšam Evening
Allah God
Aščinica Restaurant
Avaz Voice
Bukadar Many
Basamak/ci Stair/s
Baška On the other side
Bihuzuriti (to) bother
Bujrum "Here you are" or "You're welcome"
Čardak Upper flat of building
Ćumur Coal
Ćenifa Toilet
Dunjaluk World
Dever Problem
Deverati Taking care of something
Divanhana Room for talking
Dova Prayer
Damar Pulse
Džennet Paradise, Heaven
Džehennem Hell
Džezva Coffee pot
Džemat Mosque Society
Dženaza Funeral
Džuma Noon prayer each Friday
Đul Rose
Đuturum Old man (sometimes old woman)
Efendija Sir, mister
Ezan A call for worship and prayer
Evlad Kids/children
Farz Obligation in Islam concerning worship.
Fildžan Traditional Bosnian coffee cup
Fasovati Get beaten
Fajda Benefit
Fukara Poor
Halal To give as charity or alms.
Hasta ill
Haram Forbidden or evil as a way or sin and manifestation of error (in Islam)
hanuma a woman
Hatma Reading whole Qur'an for some purpose (i.e. wish)
Hair, hajr A good deed
hefta week
Hizmet Help, work for society in the name of God
Hajvan Animal (especially a farm animal)
Hava Air, also a name for Eve. (first human woman)
Hejbet Many
Hedija Gift
Iftar Evening meal breaking the Ramadan fast.
Istihare Wish
Imam Islamic leader
Iman Belief in God (Allah)
Insan Man
Ibadet good deed in the name of God
Išaret sign, signal
Kadija Judge
Kabur Grave
Kijamet The Last Day, Judgement Day (Islam).
Mubarek Happy
Melek Angel
Medresa Islamic high school
Mekteb Islamic elementary school
Musafir Guest
Nafaka Something gained due to charity or alms (also fate)
Namaz Salat (prayer in Islam)
Nejse never mind
pendžer Window
(biti) rahat (to be) peaceful
rahmetli passed away
sofra, sinija dining table
sabah early morning, also prayer in the morning
sokak alleyway
šeher City, Town
vakat, zeman time (also weather)
vaktija Islamic calendar
zulum violence
Zejtin oil
zijan mischief

See also

Notes

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 107 out of 193 United Nations member states.
  1. ^ a b Cyrillic is an officially used alphabet, but in practice it is mainly used in Republika Srpska, whereas in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina mainly Latin is used.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Accredited Language Services: An Outline of Bosnian Language History". Accredited Language Services. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  2. ^ Alexander 2006, pp. 1-2.
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bosnian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ David Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".
  5. ^ Benjamin V. Fortson, IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."
  6. ^ Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15-16.
  7. ^ See Art. 6 of the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, available at the official website of Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  8. ^ "European charter for regional or minority languages: Application of the charter in Serbia". Council of Europe. 2009. 
  9. ^ a b http://www.pravda.gov.me/vijesti.php?akcija=rubrika&rubrika=121 See Art. 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, adopted on 19 October 2007, available at the website of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Montenegro
  10. ^ Driton Muharremi and Samedin Mehmeti (2013). Handbook on Policing in Central and Eastern Europe. Springer. p. 129. 
  11. ^ Algar, Hamid (2 July 1994). Persian Literature in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Oxford: Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford). pp. 254–68. 
  12. ^ Balić, Smail (1978). Die Kultur der Bosniaken, Supplement I: Inventar des bosnischen literarischen Erbes in orientalischen Sprachen. Vienna: Adolf Holzhausens, Vienna. p. 111. 
  13. ^ Balić, Smail (1992). Das unbekannte Bosnien: Europas Brücke zur islamischen Welt. Cologne, Weimar and Vienna: Bohlau. p. 526. 
  14. ^ Radio Free Europe – Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? Živko Bjelanović: Similar, But Different, Feb 21, 2009, accessed Oct 8, 2010
  15. ^ Sarajevo archiv
  16. ^ "Gammel ordbok i ny drakt" (in Norwegian). University of Oslo. 2012-04-10. 
  17. ^ Čišić, Husein. Razvitak i postanak grada Mostara. Štamparija Mostar. 
  18. ^ Franz Miklosich, Monumenta Serbica, Viennae, 1858, p. 8-9.
  19. ^ "Collection of printed books in Arabic, Turkish and Persian". Gazi Husrev-begova biblioteka. 2014-05-16. Retrieved 2014-05-16. 
  20. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Croatia Census of 2001, Population by mother tongue
  21. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Croatia, Census of 2011, Population by mother tongue, retrieved January 19, 2014 
  22. ^ Odluka Odbora za standardizaciju srpskog jezika iz 1998.
  23. ^ Svein Mønnesland, »Language Policy in Bosnia-Herzegovina«, (pp 135. – 155.). In: Language : Competence–Change–Contact = Sprache : Kompetenz – Kontakt – Wandel, edited by: Annikki Koskensalo, John Smeds, Rudolf de Cillia, Ángel Huguet; Berlin ; Münster : Lit Verlag, 2012., ISBN 978-3-643-10801-2, p. 143. "Already in 1990 the Committee for the Serbian language9 decided that only the term 'Bosniac language' should be used officially in Serbia, and this was confirmed in 1998."
  24. ^ "Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  25. ^ Decision on Constitutional Amendments in the Federation, retrieved January 19, 2014 
  26. ^ Washington Agreement, retrieved January 19, 2014 
  27. ^ Alexander, Ronelle (2006). Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 409. 
  28. ^ Greenberg, Robert D. (2004). Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and Its Disintegration. Oxford University Press. p. 136. 
  29. ^ ISO 639-2 – Library of Congress
  30. ^ Sussex, Roland (2006). The Slavic Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-521-22315-6. 
  31. ^ "The Constitution of the Republika Srpska". U.S. English Foundation Research. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  32. ^ "Decision on Constitutional Amendments in Republika Srpska". Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  33. ^ Greenberg, Robert David (2004). Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration. Oxford University Press. p. 156. ISBN 0-19-925815-5. 
  34. ^ Rizvanovic, Alma (2 August 2005). "Language Battle Divides Schools". Institute for War & Peace Reporting. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  35. ^ CDM : CafedelMontenegro
  36. ^ "Turcizmi u maternjem jeziku" (in Bosnian). Avdo Nikočević. Retrieved 17 May 2014. 

Further reading

External links