Boston (UK Parliament constituency)

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Boston
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1547–1918
Number of memberstwo (1547-1885); one (1885-1918)
Replaced byHolland with Boston
Created fromLincolnshire
1352–1353s
Number of memberstwo
Replaced byLincolnshire

Boston was a parliamentary borough in Lincolnshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1547 until 1885, and then one member from 1885 until 1918, when the constituency was abolished.

History[edit]

Boston first elected Members of Parliament in 1352-1353, but after that the right lapsed and was not revived again until the reign of Edward VI. The borough consisted of most of the town of Boston, a port and market town on the River Witham which had overgrown its original boundaries as the river had been cleared of silt and its trade developed. In 1831, the population of the borough was 11,240, contained 2,631 houses.

The right to vote belonged to the Mayor, aldermen, members of the common council and all resident freemen of the borough who paid scot and lot. This gave Boston a relatively substantial electorate for the period, 927 votes being cast in 1826 and 565 in 1831. The freedom was generally obtained either by birth (being the son of an existing freemen) or servitude (completing an apprenticeship in the town), but could also be conferred as an honorary status, and Boston charged a consistently escalating sum to its Parliamentary candidates who wanted to be admitted as freemen - set at £20 in 1700, it was raised to £50 in 1719, to £100 in 1790 and to £135 in 1800.

Major local landowners had some influence over election outcomes through deference of the voters - the Duke of Ancaster, for example, was generally allowed to choose one of the members up to the end of the 18th century - but in the last few years before the Reform Act at least one of the two members seems consistently to have been the free choice of the people of the town. However, bribery was rife in some of the early 19th-century elections, and the election of Thomas Fydell in 1802 was overturned when it was discovered that not only had he been paying electors five guineas for a vote, but that many of these were not qualified to vote anyway. (They were freemen not resident in the borough, whose names had been fraudulently entered as paying the poor rate at houses where they did not live, so as to appear eligible.)

Boston retained both its MPs under the Reform Act, but its boundaries were extended slightly, taking in more of the town and part of the neighbouring parish of Skirbeck. This increased the population of the borough to 12,818, although only 869 of these were eligible to vote in the first election after Reform; this had grown to just over 1,000 by the time of the Second Reform Act, when the widening of the franchise more than doubled it, over 2,500 electors being registered for the 1868 general election which followed. But by the 1870s, electoral corruption had again become a problem in Boston. The result of the 1874 election was overturned for bribery, and a Royal Commission set up to investigate; when the next general election, in 1880, had to be declared void for the same reasons, Boston's representation was suspended for the remainder of the Parliament.

Boston had its right to vote restored for the 1885 election, but the boundary changes which came into effect at the same time slightly reduced the size of the borough and allowed it only one MP. The constituency at this period was mainly middle-class but non-conformists had a strong presence, enabling the Liberals to be competitive where they might otherwise have struggled. The deciding factor which may have tilted the constituency towards the Conservatives in its final years may have been the benefit that the local fisherman saw in Tariff Reform.

The borough was abolished with effect from the general election of 1918, Boston being included in the new Holland with Boston county division.

Members of Parliament[edit]

1547-16401640-18801885-1918Jump to Elections

1547-1640[edit]

Year First member Second member
1547 John Wendon William Naunton[1]
1553 (Mar) Leonard Irby George Foster [1]
1553 (Oct) Francis Allen George Foster [1]
1554 (Apr) Leonard Irby George Foster [1]
1554 (Nov) Leonard Irby George Foster [1]
1555 Leonard Irby George Foster [1]
1558 Leonard Irby George Foster [1]
1559 (Jan) Robert Carr Leonard Irby [2]
1562/3 Thomas Heneage, sat for Lincolnshire,
replaced Jan 1563 by
John Tamworth
Leonard Irby [2]
1571 Christopher Hatton, sat for Higham Ferrers,
replaced 1571 by
Thomas Lyfield
Leonard Irby [2]
1572 Stephen Thymbleby William Dodington [2]
1584 (Nov) Nicholas Gorges Vincent Skinner [2]
1586 (Oct) Vincent Skinner Richard Stevenson [2]
1588/9 Vincent Skinner Anthony Irby [2]
1593 Anthony Irby Richard Stevenson [2]
1597 (Sep) Anthony Irby Richard Stevenson [2]
1601 (Oct) Anthony Irby Henry Capell [2]
1604 Anthony Irby Francis Bullingham
1614 Anthony Irby Leonard Bawtree
1621 Anthony Irby Sir Thomas Cheek, sat for Harwich
replaced by
Sir William Airmine
1624 William Boswell Sir Clement Cotterell, sat for Grantham
replaced by
Sir William Airmine
1625 Sir Edward Barkham William Boswell
1626 Sir Edward Barkham Richard Oakley
1628 Richard Bellingham Richard Oakley, unseated after petition
replaced by
Anthony Irby
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

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1640-1880[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 William Ellis Parliamentarian Sir Anthony Irby
November 1640 Sir Anthony Irby Parliamentarian
December 1648 Irby excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant
1653 Boston was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 William Ellis Boston had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656 Sir Anthony Irby
January 1659 Francis Mussenden
May 1659 William Ellis One seat vacant in restored Rump
February 1660 Sir Anthony Irby
April 1660 Thomas Hatcher
1661 Lord Willoughby de Eresby
1666 Sir Philip Harcourt
February 1679 Sir William Ellis
May 1679 Sir William Yorke
1685 Lord Willoughby de Eresby Peregrine Bertie
1689 Sir William Yorke
1690 Peregrine Bertie
1698 Richard Wynn Edmund Boulter
January 1701 Sir William Yorke
December 1701 Peregrine Bertie
1702 Sir Edward Irby
1705 Richard Wynn
1708 Peregrine Bertie
1711 William Cotesworth
1713 Henry Heron
1719 Richard Ellys
1722 Henry Pacey
1730 The Lord Coleraine
1734 Albemarle Bertie Richard Fydell
1741 Lord Vere Bertie John Michell
1754 Lord Robert Bertie Charles Amcotts
1761 John Michell
1766 Charles Amcotts
1777 Humphrey Sibthorp
1782 Sir Peter Burrell
1784 Dalhousie Watherston
1790 Thomas Fydell I Tory[3]
1796 Thomas Colyear Whig[3]
1802 William Madocks Whig[3]
1803 Thomas Fydell II Tory[3]
1806 Thomas Fydell I Tory[3]
1812 Peter Drummond-Burrell Whig[3]
1820 Gilbert Heathcote Whig[3] Henry Ellis Tory[3]
1821 William Augustus Johnson Whig[3]
1826 Neil Malcolm Tory[3]
1830 John Wilks Whig[3]
1831 Gilbert Heathcote Whig[3]
1832 Benjamin Handley Whig[3]
1835 John Studholme Brownrigg Conservative[4][5][3]
1837 Sir James Duke Whig[5][6][4][7][8][3]
1847 Benjamin Bond Cabbell Conservative[9][10][7]
1849 Hon. Dudley Pelham Whig[8][11][12]
1851 James William Freshfield Conservative
1852 Gilbert Heathcote Whig[13][14]
1856 Herbert Ingram Radical[15][16]
1857 William Henry Adams Peelite[15][14]
1859 Liberal Meaburn Staniland Liberal
1860 John Malcolm Conservative
1865 Thomas Parry [17] Liberal
1866 Meaburn Staniland Liberal
1867 Thomas Parry Liberal
1868 Thomas Collins Conservative
1874 William Ingram Liberal Thomas Parry Liberal
1874 John Malcolm [18] Conservative
1878 Thomas Garfit Conservative
1880 Representation suspended

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1885-1918[edit]

Election Member Party
1885 Representation restored and reduced to one Member
1885 William Ingram Liberal
1886 Henry Farmer-Atkinson Conservative
1892 Sir William Ingram Liberal
1895 William Garfit Conservative
1906 George Henry Faber Liberal
Jan. 1910 Charles Harvey Dixon Conservative
1918 constituency abolished

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Elections[edit]

1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s1890s1900s1910s

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General election 1841: Boston (2 seats)[19][3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Studholme Brownrigg 527 34.9
Whig James Duke 515 34.2
Conservative Charles Alexander Wood 466 30.9
Turnout 920 80.3
Registered electors 1,146
Majority 12 0.8
Conservative hold Swing
Majority 49 3.2
Whig hold Swing
General election 1847: Boston (2 seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig James Duke 590 42.3 +8.1
Conservative Benjamin Bond Cabbell 466 33.4 −32.4
Radical David William Wire 339 24.3 N/A
Turnout 698 (est) 64.4 (est) −15.9
Registered electors 1,083
Majority 124 8.9 +5.7
Whig hold Swing +12.2
Majority 127 9.1 +8.3
Conservative hold Swing −18.2

Duke resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds in order to contest a by-election at City of London.

By-election, 2 August 1849: Boston[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Dudley Pelham 422 56.8 +14.5
Radical David William Wire 321 43.2 +18.9
Majority 101 13.6 +4.7
Turnout 743 77.2 +12.8
Registered electors 963
Whig hold Swing −2.2

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Elections in the 1850s[edit]

Pelham's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 22 April 1851: Boston[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative James William Freshfield 368 59.5 +26.1
Radical David William Wire[20][21][22] 251 40.5 +16.2
Majority 117 18.9 +9.8
Turnout 619 64.0 −0.4
Registered electors 967
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +5.0

Wire retired from the contest.[21]

General election 1852: Boston (2 seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Gilbert Heathcote 547 33.4 N/A
Conservative Benjamin Bond Cabbell 490 29.9 −3.5
Whig John Alexander Hankey[23][24] 437 26.6 N/A
Whig Thomson Hankey[25] 148 9.0 N/A
Peelite William Henry Adams 18 1.1 N/A
Turnout 820 (est) 83.1 (est) +18.7
Registered electors 987
Majority 57 3.5 −5.4
Whig hold Swing N/A
Majority 53 3.2 −5.9
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Heathcote resigned to contest the 1856 by-election at Rutland.

By-election, 7 March 1856: Boston[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Herbert Ingram 521 63.8 N/A
Peelite William Henry Adams 296 36.2 +35.1
Majority 225 27.5 N/A
Turnout 817 81.5 −1.6
Registered electors 1,003
Radical gain from Whig Swing N/A
General election 1857: Boston (2 seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Herbert Ingram Unopposed
Peelite William Henry Adams Unopposed
Registered electors 1,057
Radical gain from Whig
Peelite hold

Herbert's appointment as Recorder of Derby required a by-election.

By-election, 3 February 1859: Boston[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Peelite William Henry Adams Unopposed
Peelite hold
General election 1859: Boston (2 seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Herbert Ingram 621 37.3 N/A
Liberal Meaburn Staniland 593 35.6 N/A
Conservative John Hardwick Hollway[26] 452 27.1 N/A
Majority 141 8.5 N/A
Turnout 833 (est) 77.3 (est) N/A
Registered electors 1,078
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

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Elections in the 1860s[edit]

Ingram's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 30 Oct 1860: Boston (1 Seat)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Malcolm 533 63.8 +36.7
Liberal George Parker Tuxford[27] 303 36.2 −36.7
Majority 230 27.5 N/A
Turnout 836 82.0 +4.7
Registered electors 1,019
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +36.7
General election 1865: Boston (2 Seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Malcolm 646 41.3 +14.2
Liberal Thomas Parry* 465 29.7 −7.6
Liberal Meaburn Staniland 453 29.0 −6.6
Majority 181 11.6 N/A
Turnout 782 (est) 71.7 (est) −5.6
Registered electors 1,090
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +14.2
Liberal hold Swing −7.1

* On petition, Parry's election was declared void on grounds of bribery and Staniland was duly elected in his place.[28]

Staniland then resigned, causing a by-election.

By-election, 16 Mar 1867: Boston (1 Seat)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Parry Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 1868: Boston (2 Seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Malcolm 1,306 29.8 +9.1
Conservative Thomas Collins 1,119 25.5 +4.8
Liberal Meaburn Staniland 1,029 23.5 −5.5
Liberal Thomas Mason Jones[29][30] 926 21.1 −8.6
Majority 90 2.1 −9.5
Turnout 2,190 (est) 86.7 (est) +15.0
Registered electors 2,527
Conservative hold Swing +8.9
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +5.2

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Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General election 1874: Boston (2 Seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Ingram 1,572 37.1 +13.6
Conservative John Malcolm 996 23.5 −6.3
Liberal Thomas Parry 994* 23.4 +2.3
Conservative Thomas Collins 679 16.0 −9.5
Turnout 2,297 (est) 86.6 (est) −0.1
Registered electors 2,651
Majority 576 13.6 N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +11.6
Majority 2 0.1 −2.0
Conservative hold Swing −4.3

* An election petition found extensive bribery relating to Parry's votes, which on the initial count totalled 1,347. However, 353 of these were struck off - and further may have been taken if the process had not stopped on 8 June 1874 - leading to Malcolm's election instead. A Royal Commission was established to investigate the borough.[31] A separate petition against Ingram was dropped.

In 1878, Malcolm then resigned in order to contest a by-election in Argyllshire, leading to a by-election in Boston.

By-election, 12 Aug 1878: Boston (1 Seat)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Garfit Unopposed
Conservative hold

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Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General election 1880: Boston (2 Seats)[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Garfit 1,412 26.6 +3.1
Liberal William Ingram 1,367 25.7 −11.4
Conservative George Fydell Rowley[32] 1,350 25.4 +9.4
Liberal Sydney Buxton 1,182 22.3 −1.1
Turnout 2,656 (est) 85.8 (est) −0.8
Registered electors 3,094
Majority 45 0.8 +0.7
Conservative hold Swing +2.1
Majority 17 0.3 −13.3
Liberal hold Swing −10.4

Bribery convictions led to the Boston writ being suspended and the 1880 result being voided.[33] The seat was again reconstituted in 1885, when it was reduced to one member.

General election 1885: Boston (1 seat)[34][35][36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Ingram 1,295 56.5 +8.5
Conservative Nehemiah Learoyd 996 43.5 −8.5
Majority 299 13.0 +12.7
Turnout 2,291 84.3 −1.5 (est)
Registered electors 2,718
Liberal hold Swing +8.5
General election 1886: Boston[34][36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Henry Atkinson 1,192 51.0 +7.5
Liberal William Ingram 1,144 49.0 -7.5
Majority 48 2.0 N/A
Turnout 2,336 85.9 +1.6
Registered electors 2,718
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +7.5

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Elections in the 1890s[edit]

Willoughby
General election 1892: Boston[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Ingram 1,355 51.2 +2.2
Conservative Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby 1,293 48.8 -2.2
Majority 62 2.4 N/A
Turnout 2,648 86.7 +0.8
Registered electors 3,054
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +2.2
Garfit
General election 1895: Boston[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Garfit 1,633 56.9 +8.1
Liberal William Ingram 1,237 43.1 -8.1
Majority 396 13.8 N/A
Turnout 2,870 87.0 +0.3
Registered electors 3,299
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +8.1

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Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General election 1900: Boston[37][36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Garfit 1,710 59.7 +2.8
Liberal William Turner Simonds 1,155 40.3 -2.8
Majority 555 19.4 +5.6
Turnout 2,865 83.1 -3.9
Registered electors 3,448
Conservative hold Swing +2.8
Faber
General election 1906: Boston<[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal George Henry Faber 1,801 51.5 +11.2
Conservative William Garfit 1,694 48.5 -11.2
Majority 107 3.0 N/A
Turnout 3,495 89.7 +6.6
Registered electors 3,896
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +11.2

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Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General election January 1910: Boston[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Harvey Dixon 1,975 53.5 +5.0
Liberal Henry Lunn 1,715 46.5 -5.0
Majority 260 7.0 10.0
Turnout 91.4 +1.7
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +5.0
Hemphill
General election December 1910: Boston[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Charles Harvey Dixon 1,875 52.3 -1.2
Liberal Fitzroy Hemphill 1,712 47.7 +1.2
Majority 163 4.6 -2.4
Turnout 88.9 -2.5
Conservative hold Swing -1.2

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

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References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 196–198. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
  4. ^ a b Mosse, Richard B. (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc.
  5. ^ a b The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. 1838.
  6. ^ Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 159.
  7. ^ a b Ollivier, John (2007). "Alphabetical List of the House of Commons". Ollivier's parliamentary and political director. p. 37. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b "1837 Election". London Daily News. 25 July 1849. p. 5. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  9. ^ Keyes, Michael (2011). Funding the Nation: Money and Nationalist Politics in Nineteenth-century Ireland. Gill & Macmillan. p. 88. ISBN 9780717151974. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  10. ^ Gash, Norman (2013). Politics in the Age of Peel: A Study in the Technique of Parliamentary Representation, 1830–1850. Faber & Faber. p. 443. ISBN 9780571302901.
  11. ^ "Boston Election". South Eastern Gazette. 31 July 1849. p. 8. Retrieved 15 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  12. ^ "Elections". Greenock Advertiser. 7 August 1849. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 15 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  13. ^ "Election Movements". Shipping and Mercantile Gazette. 6 July 1852. p. 3. Retrieved 15 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  14. ^ a b "Boston". The Advocate. 27 February 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 16 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  15. ^ a b Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1858). Dod's Parliamentary Companion. Dod's Parliamentary Companion.
  16. ^ Hewitt, Martin (2014). "The Foundations of the Mid-Victorian Campaign". The Dawn of the Cheap Press in Victorian Britain: The End of the 'Taxes on Knowledge', 1849–1869. London: Bloomsbury. p. 19. ISBN 9781472514561. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  17. ^ On petition, Parry's election was declared void and Staniland duly elected after scrutiny of the votes
  18. ^ At the 1874 election, both Liberal candidates, Ingram and Thomas Parry, were initially declared elected but on petition Parry's election was declared void. After scrutiny 353 of Parry's 1,347 votes were struck off for bribery, and Malcolm, who had originally finished third, was declared elected. Following this election a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the conduct of elections in Boston
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  20. ^ "Boston Election". London Daily News. 19 April 1851. p. 5. Retrieved 16 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  21. ^ a b "Boston Election". Dublin Evening Mail. 23 April 1851. p. 4. Retrieved 16 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  22. ^ "Boston Election". Yorkshire Gazette. 26 April 1851. p. 2. Retrieved 16 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  23. ^ "Bolton". Morning Post. 9 July 1852. p. 3. Retrieved 17 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  24. ^ "The Elections". London Evening Standard. 2 July 1852. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 17 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  25. ^ Parry, J. P. (1986). "Disunity explicit, 1874–5". Democracy & Religion: Gladstone and the Liberal Party, 1867–1875. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 415. ISBN 0521309484.
  26. ^ "Local News". Lincolnshire Chronicle. 8 April 1859. p. 6. Retrieved 17 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  27. ^ "Representation of Boston". Coventry Herald. 20 October 1860. p. 4. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  28. ^ "The Election Petitions". The Morning Post. 22 March 1866. p. 6. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  29. ^ "Boston Election". Stamford Mercury. 6 November 1868. p. 6. Retrieved 28 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  30. ^ "Borough of Eaton". Boston Guardian. 10 April 1869. p. 2. Retrieved 6 February 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  31. ^ "The Boston Election Petition". Grantham Journal. 13 June 1874. p. 8. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  32. ^ "Boston Bribery Commissioners'". Boston Guardian. 12 Feb 1881. p. 5. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  33. ^ "The Boston Bribery Prosecutions". Stamford Mercury. 5 Aug 1881. p. 6. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  34. ^ a b Liberal Year Book 1907
  35. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  37. ^ Debrett's House of Commons 1901

Sources[edit]

  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
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  • J. E. Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • T. H. B. Oldfield, The Representative History of Great Britain and Ireland (London: Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, 1816)
  • Henry Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections, 1885-1910 (London: Macmillan, 1967)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Edward Porritt and Annie G Porritt, The Unreformed House of Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1903)
  • Frederic A Youngs, jr, "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol II" (London: Royal Historical Society, 1991)
  • Concise Dictionary of National Biography
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "B" (part 4)