|in Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.|
Triana & Planch.
Boswellia serrata is a plant that produces Indian frankincense, Salai, referred to in Sanskrit as shallaki and in Latin as Olibanum Indicum. the plant is native to much of India and the Punjab region that extends into Pakistan.
Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, particularly for osteoarthritis of the knee, with the research showing a slight improvement of both pain and function compared to a placebo. Positive effects of Boswellia in some chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have been reported. A Boswellia extract marketed under the name Wokvel has undergone human efficacy, comparative, pharmacokinetic studies. Some see Boswellia serrata as a promising alternative to NSAIDs, warranting further investigation in pharmacological studies and clinical trials.
Boswellia serrata has been recently developed for topical use in a patent-pending formula in Sano Relief Gel. Boswellia serrata is used in the manufacture of the supposed anti-wrinkle agent "Boswelox", which has been criticised as being ineffective.
Mechanism of action
Animal studies performed in India show ingestion of a defatted alcoholic extract of Boswellia decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and migration, decreased primary antibody synthesis and almost totally inhibited the classical complement pathway.
Shallaki has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that can reduce the pain and inflammation of joints. 
- BBC News Health - Frankincense 'can ease arthritis' Friday 01/08/08
- Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data.
- European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (2009). E/S/C/O/P Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. Second Edition, Supplement 2009. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. p. 184. ISBN 9781901964080.
- "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "JOINT RELIEF". www.herbcompanion.com. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- Cameron, M; Chrubasik, S (May 22, 2014). "Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis". Cochrane Summaries. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Ammon HP."Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids. [Review]" Phytomedicine. 17(11):862-7, 2010 Sep.
- Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2007; 39(1) 27-29
- Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):3-7.
- Pharmacokinetic study of 11-Keto beta-Boswellic acid. Phytomedicine. 2004 Feb;11(2-3):255-60.
- Abdel-Tawab M, Werz O, Schubert-Zsilavecz M.,"Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data." Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 Jun 1;50(6):349-69
- Wrinkle breakthrough claim from L'Oreal
- L'Oreal slammed over cream claims
- Sharma ML, Khajuria A, 1. Kaul A, et al. Effects of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata on cellular and humoral immune responses and leukocyte migration. Agents Actions 1988;24:161-164.
- Sharma ML, Bani S, Singh GB. Anti-arthriticactivity of boswellic acids in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced arthritis. Int J Immunopharmacol 1989;11:647-652.
- (Planta Med. 1971 Apr; 19(4): 333-41 for analgesic and psychopharmacological effects of gum resin of Boswalia Serrata by Memon MK)
- Abdel-Tawab M, Werz O, Schubert-Zsilavecz M."Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data." Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 Jun 1;50(6):349-69