Bothremydidae

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Bothremydidae
Temporal range: 99.6–20 Ma
Gafsachelys.jpg
Gafsachelys spp. skull
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Pleurodira
Hyperfamily: Pelomedusoides
Family: Bothremydidae
Baur, 1891

Bothremydidae is an extinct family of side-necked turtles. They belong to suborder Pleurodira and the order Testudines. Like their modern relatives, bothremydidids often inhabited freshwater habitats, but several species were instead marine;[1] they are unrelated to modern sea turtles. They were actively mobile omnivores. They became extinct in the Oligocene or Miocene.[2][3]

The family is split into two subfamilies and a number of tribes.[4]

Bothremydidae

  • Subfamily Bothremydinae Gaffney et al., 2006
    • Tribe Bothremydini Gaffney et al., 2006
      • Subtribe Bothremydina Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Araiochelys Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Araiochelys hirayamai Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Bothremys Leidy, 1865 (jr synonym: Karkaemys)
          • Bothremys arabicus (Zalmout et al., 2005)
          • Bothremys cooki Leidy, 1865
          • Bothremys kellyi Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Bothremys maghrebiana Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Chedighaii Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Chedighaii barberi (Schmidt, 1940)
          • Chedighaii hutchisoni Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Rosasia Costa, 1940
          • Rosasia soutoi Carrington da Costa, 1940
        • Inaechelys Carvalho, 2016
        • Zolhafah Lapparent de Broin and Werner, 1998
          • Zolhafah bella Lapparent de Broin and Werner, 1998
      • Subtribe Foxemydina Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Elochelys Nopsca, 1931
          • Elochelys convenarum Laurent et al., 2002
          • Elochelys perfecta Nopsca, 1931
        • Foxemys Tong et al., 1998
          • Foxemys mechinorum Tong '"et al., 1998
        • Polysternon Portis, 1882
          • Polysternon atlanticum Lapparent de Broin and Murelaga, 1996
          • Polysternon provinciale (Matheron, 1869)
        • Puentemys Cadena et al., 2012
          • Puentemys mushaisaensis Cadena et al.'", 2012
    • Tribe Taphrosphyini Gaffney et al., 2006
      • Subtribe Nigermydina Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Arenila Lapparent de Broin and Werner, 1998
          • Arenila krebsi Lapparent de Broin and Werner, 1998
      • Subtribe Taphrosphyina Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Azabbaremys Gaffney et al., 2001
          • Azabbaremys moragjonesi Gaffney et al., 2001
        • Eotaphrosphys Perez-Garcia, 2018
          • Eotaphrosphys ambiguum (Gaudry, 1890)
        • Motelomama Perez-Garcia, 2018
          • Motelomama olssoni (Schmidt, 1931)
        • Phosphatochelys Gaffney and Tong, 2003
          • Phosphatochelys tedfordi Gaffney and Tong, 2003
        • Rhothonemys Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Rhothonemys brinkmani Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Taphrosphys Cope, 1869 (jr synonyms: Amblypeza, Bantuchelys, Prochonias)
          • Taphrosphys congolensis (Dollo, 1912)
          • Taphrosphys dares Hay, 1908 (nomen dubium)
          • Taphrosphys ippolitoi Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Taphrosphys sulcatus (Leidy, 1856)
        • Ummulisani Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Ummulisani rutgersensis Gaffney et al., 2006
        • Crassachelys (nomen dubium)
          • Crassachelys neurirregularis (Bergounioux, 1952)
        • Eusarkia (nomen dubium)
        • Gafsachelys Stefano, 1903 (nomen dubium)
        • Labrostochelys Gaffney et al., 2006
          • Labrostochelys galkini Gaffney et al., 2006
    • Tribe Cearachelyini Gaffney et al., 2006
      • Cearachelys Gaffney et al.,
        • Cearachelys placidoi Gaffney et al., 2001
      • Galianemys Gaffney et al., 2002
        • Galianemys emringeri Gaffney et al., 2002
        • Galianemys whitei Gaffney et al., 2002
  • Subfamily Kurmademydinae Gaffney et al., 2006
    • Tribe Kurmademydini Gaffney et al., 2006
      • Kinkonychelys Gaffney et al., 2009
        • Kinkonychelys rogersi Gaffney et al., 2009
      • Kurmademys Gaffney et al., 2001
        • Kurmademys kallamedensis Gaffney et al., 2001
      • Sankuchemys Gaffney et al., 2003
        • Sankuchemys sethnai Gaffney et al., 2003

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is a cladogram by Gaffney et al. in 2006:[2]

Chelidae

Pelomedusoides

Araripemys

Pelomedusidae

Euraxemydidae

Dirqadium

Euraxemys

Podocnemidioidea

Podocnemidinura

Bothremydidae
Kurmademydini

Kurmademys

Sankuchemys

Bothremydinae
Cearachelyini

Galianemys

Cearachelys

Bothremyodda
Bothremydini

Foxemys (=Polysternon)

Polysternon

Zolhafah

Rosasia

Araiochelys

Chedighaii hutchisoni

Chedighaii barberi

Bothremys cooki

Bothremys magrhebiana

Bothremys kellyi

Bothremys arabicus

Taphrosphyini

Nigeremys

Arenila

Azabbaremys

Labrostochelys

Taphrosphys

Rhothonemys

Phosphatochelys

Ummulisani

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anny Rafaela de Araújo Carvalho; Aline Marcele Ghilardi; Alcina Magnólia Franca Barreto (2016). "A new side-neck turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Early Paleocene (Danian) Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, Brazil". Zootaxa 4126 (4): 491–513. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4126.4.3.
  2. ^ a b Gaffney, E. S.; Tong, H.; Meylan, P. A. (2006-11-17). "Evolution of the side-necked turtles: The families Bothremydidae, Euraxemydidae, and Araripemydidae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 300: 1–700. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)300[1:EOTSTT]2.0.CO;2.
  3. ^ Adán Pérez-García, A new turtle confirms the presence of Bothremydidae (Pleurodira) in the Cenozoic of Europe and expands the biostratigraphic range of Foxemydina, The Science of Nature August 2016, 103:50 First online: 04 June 2016
  4. ^ The Paleontology Database Bothremydidae entry accessed on 26 January 2011