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Placostylus ambagiosus priscus.JPG
A shell of the subspecies Placostylus ambagiosus priscus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Sigmurethra
Superfamily: Orthalicoidea
Family: Bothriembryontidae
Iredale, 1937
102 species

Placostylidae Pilsbry, 1946[2]

Eumecostylus hargravesi from the Solomon Islands.

Bothriembryontidae is a family of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Orthalicoidea.


This family has been named Placostylidae and had no subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005).[4]

Breure et al. (2010)[5] moved Prestonella and Bothriembryon to Placostylidae.

Breure & Romero (2012)[3] confirmed previous results from 2010 and they renamed Placostylidae to Bothriembryontidae.[3]

  • subfamily Bothriembryontinae Iredale, 1937
  • subfamily Placostylinae Pilsbry, 1946 - for species from New Zealand and Melanesia[3]

Prestonellinae was formally described as a new subfamily within Bothriembryontidae in 2016.[6] Therefore three subfamilies are recognized in Bothriembryontidae:

  • subfamily Bothriembryontinae Iredale, 1937
  • subfamily Placostylinae Pilsbry, 1946
  • Prestonellinae van Bruggen, Herbert & Breure, 2016[6]


Genera within the family Bothriembryontidae include:





A cladogram based on nuclear ITS2, 28S rRNA and histone 3 (H3) and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase I (COI) genes showing phylogenic relations of Bothriembryontidae by Breure & Romero (2012):[3]



Plectostylus peruvianus


Discoleus ameghinoi


Prestonella bowkeri

Prestonella nuptialis


Bothriembryon dux

Bothriembryon indutus


Placostylus eddystonensis

Placostylus ambagiosus


Eumecostylus uliginosus


Placocharis strangei


Bothriembryontidae have Gondwanan distribution.[3]


  1. ^ Breure A., Groenenberg D. & Schilthuizen M. (2010). "Gondwana revisited: New insights in the phylogenetic relationships within the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Stylommatophora)". poster. PDF Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback Machine..
  2. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1946). "Notes on the anatomy of Australian and Galapagos Bulimidae (Mollusca, Pulmonata)." Notulae Naturae of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 168: 1-4. Placostylidae is on the page 3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Breure A. S. H. & Romero P. (2012). "Support and surprises: molecular phylogeny of the land snail superfamily Orthalicoidea using a three-locus gene analysis with a divergence time analysis and ancestral area reconstruction (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora)". Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology 141(1): 1-20. doi:10.1127/arch.moll/1869-0963/141/001-020.
  4. ^ a b Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  5. ^ a b c Breure A. S. H., Groenenberg D. S. J. & Schilthuizen M. (2010). "New insights in the phylogenetic relations within the Orthalicoidea (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) based on 28S sequence data". Basteria 74(1-3): 25-31.
  6. ^ a b c d e Bruggen A. C. van, Herbert D. G. & Breure A. S. H. (2016). "Prestonellinae – validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea)". Zootaxa 4084: 590–592.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Breure A. S. H. & Ablett J. D. (2012) "Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London". ZooKeys 182: 1-70. doi:10.3897/zookeys.182.2720.

Further reading[edit]

  • (in German) Neubert E. & Janssen R. (2004). "Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 84: Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicoidea: Bulimulidae (2), Orthalicidae, Placostylidae". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 133: 193-297. abstract.
  • PD-icon.svg Pilsbry H. A. (1900). Manual of Conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 13. Australasian Bulimulidae: Bothriembryon, Placostylus. Helicidae: Amphidromus. 253 pp., 72 plates.

External links[edit]