Marques, Martins & Sazima, 2002
- Common names: Alcatrazes lancehead.
Grows to a maximum size of 46.2/50.5 cm for males/females. Its small size and relatively large eyes are considered paedomorphic (juvenile) characteristics.
Found only on Ilha Alcatrazes, 35 km off the coast of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This island, which has a total area of only 1.35 km², is one of four islands than make up the Alcatrazes Archipelago. The type locality given is therefore the same: "Alcatrazes Island, (24°06'S, 45°42'W), São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil."
Described as "low Atlantic Forest vegetation." The highest point on island is 266 m.
Alcatrazes Island is currently used as a Naval target practice area. Such activities are threatening the habitat of the island, which in turn poses a threat to the species present on the island. Since this snake is known only from this area, habitat disturbance is a particular threat to the population.
This species is classified as critical (CRU) on the IUCN Red List for the following criteria: CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) (v3.1 (2001). This means that the geographic range is estimated to be less than 100 km², that this area is severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location, and that a continuing decline has been observed, inferred or projected for the area, extent and/or quality of the habitat. Furthermore, the area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km², that this area is severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location, and that a continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected in the area, extent and/or quality of habitat. Year assessed: 2004.
- Campbell JA, Lamar WW. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London. 870 pp. 1500 plates. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
- Bothrops alcatraz at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 2 September 2007.
- 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1) at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 2 September 2007.