The present-day relations between the two countries are described as friendly and long standing.
According to the minister of Foreign Affairs, Russia was one of the first countries to establish full diplomatic relations with Botswana.
Botswana and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations on 6 March 1970, and Soviet affairs were initially handled through the Soviet Embassy in Lusaka, Zambia. Despite its pro-Western orientation, Botswana participated in the 1980 Summer Olympics, making its first appearance in the Olympic Games in Moscow. Also on January 14, 1977, in the call of attacks on Botswana by Southern Rhodesia, the Soviet Union joined the United Nations Security Council Resolution 403 to condemn the attacks.
Trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Botswana are stipulated by the Trade Agreement of 1987 and the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation of 1988. The Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Botswana signed the Agreement on Cultural, Scientific and Educational Cooperation in September 1999. Russia and Botswana have had fruitful cooperation in a variety of fields, particularly in human resource development. And Russia is still offering more scholarship in key sectors such as health, which is currently experiencing a critical shortage of manpower. Botswana also is one of the countries where Russian citizens do not require a visa. Russia has an embassy in Gaborone, while Botswana covers Russia from its embassy in Stockholm (Sweden) and an honorary consulate in Moscow.