|Alternative names||Botarga, botargo, butàriga, and many others|
|Course||Hors d'oeuvre, pasta dishes|
|Main ingredients||Fish roe|
Bottarga is the Italian name for a delicacy of salted, cured fish roe, typically of the grey mullet or the bluefin tuna (bottarga di tonno), frequently found near coastlines throughout the world. The delicacy is often featured in Mediterranean cuisine and consumed in many other regions of the world. The food bears many different names and is prepared in several different ways.
The product is similar to karasumi, the softer cured mullet roe from Japan, and to guneoran, the cured mullet or freshwater drum from Korea. It is known as batarekh in Egypt, where the word is known to originate from the Coptic language.
Names and etymology
The English name, bottarga, was borrowed from Italian. The Italian form is thought to have been introduced from the Arabic buṭarḫah بطارخة (plural buṭariḫ بطارخ), also derives from Byzantine Greek ᾠοτάριχον (oiotárikhon) < ᾠόν 'egg' + τάριχον 'pickled'.
The Italian form can be dated to ca. 1500, since the Greek form transliterated into Latin as ova tarycha occurs in Bartolomeo Platina's De Honesta Voluptate (ca. 1474), the earliest printed cookbook, and an Italian manuscript dating shortly afterward that "closely parallels" this cookbook attests to botarghe in the corresponding passage. The first mention of the Greek form (oiotárikhon) occurs in the eleventh century in the writings of Simeon Seth, who denounced the food as something to be "avoided totally", although a similar phrase may have been in use since antiquity in the same denotation.
It has been suggested that the Coptic outarakhon might be the intermediate form between Greek and Arabic, whereas examination of dialectical variants of Greek ᾠόν 'egg' include Pontic Greek ὠβόν (traditionally where the mullets are caught) and ὀβό or βό in parts of Asia Minor. The modern Greek name comes from the Byzantine Greek, substituting the modern word αυγό for the ancient word ᾠóν.
Bottarga is made chiefly from the roe pouch of grey mullet. Sometimes it is prepared from Atlantic bluefin tuna (bottarga di tonno rosso) or yellowfin tuna. It is massaged by hand to eliminate air pockets, then dried and cured in sea salt for a few weeks. The result is a hard, dry slab that sometimes is coated in beeswax for preservation purposes. Not all bottarga is coated in beeswax as some producers simply keep intact the natural casing of the roe, which contains the eggs securely once dried and salted. The curing time may vary depending on the producer and the desired texture as well as the preference of the consumers, which varies by country.
Sometimes called the caviar of the south, bottarga usually is sliced thinly or grated when it is served. The delicacy currently is served in many regions, including the following.
In Croatia, the delicacy is known as butarga or butarda. It is usually fried before serving.
In Greece, avgotaraho is produced primarily from the flathead mullet caught in Greek lagoons. The whole mature ovaries are removed from the fish, washed with water, salted with natural sea salt, dried under the sun, and sealed in melted beeswax.
In Italy, it is best known in Sicilian cuisine as bottarga. In Sardinia, it is known as butàriga in Sardinian language; its culinary properties may be compared to those of dry anchovies, although it is much more expensive. Often, it is served with olive oil or lemon juice as an appetizer accompanied by bread or crostini. It is also used in pasta dishes.
Bottarga is categorized as a Traditional food product (prodotto agroalimentare tradizionale). It varies by region, in particular, is produced in Sardinia from flathead mullet and in Sicily from Bluefin tuna.
In Turkey, bottarga is made from grey mullet roe. It is listed in the Ark of Taste. It is produced in Dalyan, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, from the mature fish migrating from Lake Köyceğiz.
Bottarga in Spain is produced and consumed mainly in the country's southeastern region, in the Autonomous Community of Murcia and the province of Alicante. It is usually made from a variety of roes including, among others, grey mullet, tuna, bonito, or even black drum or common ling (the latter two somewhat cheaper and less valued). Much of its production is centered around the town of San Pedro del Pinatar, to the shores of the Mar Menor, where there are also salt ponds.
The Anna Maria Fish Company in the Cortez Fishing Village located in Manatee County, Florida alongside a recently established and growing company named, "Gulf Coast Caviar" also located in Sarasota, Florida processes grey mullet roe into its bottarga that they sell locally, ship internationally, and make available to a few restaurants in the Gulf of Mexico region near Sarasota Bay. The county tourist bureau states that the process of making bottarga was depicted in Ancient Egyptian murals and that documentation from the 1500s exists that the Native Americans along the western coast of Florida were consuming dried mullet roe when encountered by European explorers.
Hrogn AS from the Arctic Norwegian town of Tromsø is an innovative artisanal producer of bottarga made from north-Atlantic cod (Gadus Morhua). The production is done by hand and the bottarga is left to dry outside during the cold winter months on the Norwegian dry-racks traditionally used for stockfish. The bottarga is usually dried for 10-15 weeks.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bottarga.|
- "botargo". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.); 1st edition
- Hughes, John P.; Wasson, R. Gordon (1947), "The Etymology of Botargo", The American Journal of Philology, 68 (4): 414–418, doi:10.2307/291531, JSTOR 291531
- Dalby, Andrew (2013) . Siren Feasts. Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 0-415-11620-1.
- Hughes & Wasson 1947, p. 415, n4. Italian MS in the Bitting Collection in the Rare Book Room of the United States Library of Congress. In Platina, the word is the Latin transliteration of "ὠβά τάριχα"
- Andrew Dalby, Siren Feasts, 1996, ISBN 0-415-11620-1, p.189
- ᾠά τάριχα 'eggs [of fish] preserved by salting', citing Diphilus of Siphnos quoted in Athenaeus III, 121 C. Hughes & Wasson 1947, p. 415
- Coroneo, V. (2009). Brandas, V., Sanna, A., Sanna, C., Carraro, V., Dessi, S., Meloni, M. "Microbiological characterization of botargo. Classical and molecular microbiological methods". Industrie Alimentari. 48 (487): 29–36.
- Riley, Gillian (2007). The Oxford Companion to Italian Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 63–4, 209, 500. ISBN 0198606176.
- Gall, Ken; Reddy, Kolli P.; Regenstein, Joe M. (2000), "Specialty Seafood Products", in Martin, Roy E., Marine and Freshwater Products Handbook (2000): 403, CRC Press, p. 416, ISBN 1566768896
- Jenkins, Nancy Harmon (2003). The Essential Mediterranean: How Regional Cooks Transform Key Ingredients. HarperCollins. pp. 41–43. ISBN 0060196513.
- fr:Poutargue de Martigues
- Katselis G., et al. (2005). Fisheries research 75:138-148
- Agriculture - Quality Policy - (PDO/PGI) Fresh fish, molluscs and crustaceans and products derived therefrom Archived 2008-09-16 at the Wayback Machine
- "Imraguen Women's Mullet Botargo", Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity, full text Archived April 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "La Bottarga tra Sardegna e Senegal", Affrica, 1 June 2010, full text
- Petrini, Carlo (2004). Slow Food: The Case for Taste. Columbia University Press. p. 129.; "Haviar". Ark of Taste. Retrieved April 2014. Check date values in:
- The Taste of Bottarga, Bradenton Area Convention and Visitor's Bureau in Bradenton, Florida
- Chris Sherman, "Roe, Roe, Roe at Mote", Florida Trend, 10/4/2012 full text
- John T. Edge, Bottarga, an Export That Stays at Home, The New York Times July 22, 2013 full text