|Bottlenose dolphin breaching in the wake of a boat|
|Size compared to an average human|
|Common bottlenose dolphin range (in blue)|
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common and well-known members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin. Recent molecular studies show the genus contains two species, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus), instead of one. Research in 2011 revealed a third species, the Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis). Bottlenose dolphins inhabit warm and temperate seas worldwide. They live in all oceans except for the Arctic and Antarctic Circle regions.
Bottlenose dolphins live in groups typically of 10–30 members, called pods, but group size varies from single individuals up to more than 1,000. Their diets consist mainly of forage fish. Dolphins often work as a team to harvest fish schools, but they also hunt individually. Dolphins search for prey primarily using echolocation, which is similar to sonar. They emit clicking sounds and listen for the return echos to determine the location and shape of nearby items, including potential prey. Bottlenose dolphins also use sound for communication, including squeaks and whistles, as well as sounds emitted through body movements, such as leaping from the water and slapping their tails on the water surface.
Numerous investigations of bottlenose dolphin intelligence have been conducted, examining mimicry, use of artificial language, object categorization, and self-recognition. They can use tools (sponging) and transmit cultural knowledge across generations, and their considerable intelligence has driven interaction with humans. Bottlenose dolphins gained popularity from aquarium shows and television programs such as Flipper. They have also been trained by militaries to locate sea mines or detect and mark enemy divers. In some areas, they cooperate with local fishermen by driving fish into their nets and eating the fish that escape. Some encounters with humans are harmful to the dolphins: people hunt them for food, and dolphins are killed inadvertently as a bycatch of tuna fishing and by getting caught in crab traps.
Bottlenose dolphins have the second largest encephalization levels of any mammal on Earth (humans have the largest), sharing close ratios with those of humans and other great apes, which more than likely contributes to their incredibly high intelligence and emotional intelligence.
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Description
- 3 Anatomy
- 4 Physiology and senses
- 5 Intelligence
- 6 Life history
- 7 Ecology
- 8 Relation to humans
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Scientists were long aware that Tursiops dolphins might consist of more than one species. Molecular genetics allowed much greater insight into this previously intractable problem. The IUCN acknowledges two species, although a third distinct species was described in 2011: the common bottlenose dolphin (T. truncatus) is found in most tropical to temperate oceans, and it has a grey color, with the shade of grey varying among populations, but it can be bluish-grey, brownish-grey, or even nearly black, and is often darker on the back from the rostrum to behind the dorsal fin; the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin (T. t. ponticus), a subspecies of T. truncatus lives in the Black Sea; The Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. gillii or T. t. gillii), another subspecies of T. truncatus, lives in the Pacific, and has a black line from the eye to the forehead; the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) lives in the waters around India, northern Australia, South China, the Red Sea, and the eastern coast of Africa, with the back being dark-grey and the belly being lighter grey or nearly white with grey spots; the Burrunan dolphin (T. australis), found in the Port Phillip and Gippsland Lakes areas of Victoria, Australia, was described in September 2011 after research showed it was distinct from T. truncatus and T. aduncus, but is not considered a separate species by the IUCN.
The two ecotypes of the common bottlenose dolphin within the western North Atlantic are represented by the shallower water or coastal ecotype and the more offshore ecotype. Their ranges overlap, but they have been shown to be genetically distinct. They are not currently described, however, as separate species or subspecies. In general, genetic variation between populations is significant, even among nearby populations. As a result of this genetic variation, other distinct species currently considered to be populations of common bottlenose dolphin are possible.
Old scientific data do not distinguish between the two species, making it useless for determining structural differences between them. The IUCN lists both species as data deficient on their Red List of endangered species because of this issue.
Some recent genetic evidence suggests the Indo-Pacific bottlenose belongs in the genus Stenella, since it is more like the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) than the common bottlenose.
Bottlenose dolphins have been known to hybridize with other dolphin species. Hybrids with Risso's dolphin occur both in the wild and in captivity. The best known is the wolphin, a false killer whale-bottlenose dolphin hybrid. The wolphin is fertile, and two currently live at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii. The first was born in 1985 to a female bottlenose. Wolphins also exist in the wild. In captivity, a bottlenose dolphin and a rough-toothed dolphin hybridized. A common dolphin-bottlenose dolphin hybrid born in captivity lives at SeaWorld California. Other hybrids live in captivity around the world and in the wild, such as a bottlenose dolphin-Atlantic spotted dolphin hybrid.
Bottlenose dolphins are grey, varying from dark grey at the top near the dorsal fin to very light grey and almost white at the underside. This countershading makes them hard to see, both from above and below, when swimming. Adults range from 2 to 4 metres (6.6 to 13.1 ft), and 150 to 650 kilograms (330 to 1,430 lb). Males are, on average, slightly longer and considerably heavier than females. In most parts of the world, the adults are about 2.5 m (8.2 ft), and 200 to 300 kilograms (440 to 660 lb). Their size varies considerably with habitat. Except in the eastern Pacific, dolphins in warmer, shallower waters tend to be smaller than those in cooler, pelagic waters.
Bottlenose dolphins can live for more than 40 years. Females typically live 5-10 years longer than males, with some females exceeding 60 years. This extreme age is rare and less than 2% of all Bottlenose dolphins will live longer than 60 years. Bottlenose Dolphin can jump at a height of 6 meters (20 feet) up in the air; they use this to communicate with one another.
Their elongated upper and lower jaws form what is called a rostrum, or snout, which gives the animal its common name. The real, functional nose is the blowhole on top of its head; the nasal septum is visible when the blowhole is open.
The flukes (lobes of the tail) and dorsal fin are formed of dense connective tissue and do not contain bone or muscle. The dorsal fin usually shows phenotypic variations that help discriminate among populations. The animal propels itself by moving the flukes up and down. The pectoral flippers (at the sides of the body) are for steering; they contain bones homologous to the forelimbs of land mammals. A bottlenose dolphin discovered in Japan has two additional pectoral fins, or "hind legs", at the tail, about the size of a human's pair of hands. Scientists believe a mutation caused the ancient trait to reassert itself as a form of atavism.
Physiology and senses
In colder waters, they have more body fat and blood, and are more suited to deeper diving. Typically, 18%–20% of their bodyweight is blubber. Most research in this area has been restricted to the North Atlantic Ocean. Bottlenose dolphins typically swim at 5 to 11 km/h (1.4 to 3.1 m/s), but are capable of bursts of up to 29 to 35 km/h (8.1 to 9.7 m/s). The higher speeds can only be sustained for a short time.
The dolphin's search for food is aided by a form of sonar known as echolocation: it locates objects by producing sounds and listening for the echos. A broadband burst pulse of clicking sounds is emitted in a focused beam in front of the dolphin. When the clicking sounds hit an object in the water, like a fish or rock, they bounce off and come back to the dolphin as echoes. Echolocation tells the dolphins the shape, size, speed, distance, and location of the object. To hear the returning echo, they have two small ear openings behind the eyes, but most sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear through the lower jaw. As the object of interest is approached, the echo becomes booming, and the dolphins adjust by decreasing the intensity of the emitted sounds. (This contrasts with bats and sonar, which reduce sensitivity of the sound receptor.) The interclick interval also decreases as the animal nears the target. Evidently, the dolphin waits for each click's echo before clicking again. Echolocation details, such as signal strength, spectral qualities, and discrimination, are well understood by researchers. Bottlenose dolphins are also able to extract shape information, suggesting they are able to form an "echoic image" or sound picture of their targets.
Dolphins have sharp eyesight. The eyes are located at the sides of the head and have a tapetum lucidum, or reflecting membrane, at the back of the retina, which aids vision in dim light. Their horseshoe-shaped, double-slit pupils enable dolphins to have good vision both in air and underwater, despite the different indices of refraction of these media. When under water, the eyeball's lens serves to focus light, whereas in the in-air environment, the typically bright light serves to contract the specialized pupil, resulting in sharpness from a smaller aperture (similar to a pinhole camera).
By contrast, a bottlenose's sense of smell is poor, because its blowhole, the analogue to the nose, is closed when underwater and it opens only for breathing. It has no olfactory nerves or olfactory lobe in the brain. Bottlenose dolphins are able to detect salty, sweet, bitter (quinine sulphate), and sour (citric acid) tastes, but this has not been well-studied. Anecdotally, some individuals in captivity have been noted to have preferences for food fish types, although it is not clear if taste mediates this preference.
Bottlenose dolphins communicate through burst pulsed sounds, whistles, and body language. Examples of body language include leaping out of the water, snapping jaws, slapping the tail on the surface and butting heads. Sounds and gestures help keep track of other dolphins in the group, and alert other dolphins to danger and nearby food. Lacking vocal cords, they produce sounds using six air sacs near their blow hole. Each animal has a uniquely identifying, frequency-modulated narrow-band signature vocalization (signature whistle).
Researchers from the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute (BDRI), based in Sardinia (Italy) have now shown whistles and burst pulsed sounds are vital to the animals' social life and mirror their behaviors.
The tonal whistle sounds (the most melodious ones) allow dolphins to stay in contact with each other (above all, mothers and offspring), and to coordinate hunting strategies. The burst-pulsed sounds (which are more complex and varied than the whistles) are used "to avoid physical aggression in situations of high excitement", such as when they are competing for the same piece of food, for example. The dolphins emit these strident sounds when in the presence of other individuals moving towards the same prey. The "least dominant" one soon moves away to avoid confrontation.
Other communication uses about 30 distinguishable sounds, and although famously proposed by John Lilly in the 1950s, no "dolphin language" has been found. However, Herman, Richards, and Wolz demonstrated comprehension of an artificial language by two bottlenose dolphins (named Akeakamai and Phoenix) in the period of skepticism toward animal language following Herbert Terrace's critique.
Cognitive abilities that have been investigated include concept formation, sensory skills, and mental representations. Such research has been ongoing since the 1970s. This includes: Acoustic and behavioral mimicry, Comprehension of novel sequences in an artificial language, Memory, Monitoring of self behavior, Discrimination and matching, Comprehension of symbols for various body parts, Comprehension of pointing gestures and gaze (as made by dolphins or humans), Mirror self-recognition, and Numerical values.
Tool use and culture
At least some wild bottlenose dolphins use tools. In Shark Bay, dolphins place a marine sponge on their rostrum, presumably to protect it when searching for food on the sandy sea bottom. This has only been observed in this bay (first in 1997), and is predominantly practiced by females. Sea otters are the only other known marine mammalian tool users. A 2005 study showed mothers most likely teach the behavior to their offspring, evincing culture (behavior learned from other species members).
Mud plume feeding is a feeding technique performed by a small community of bottlenose dolphins over shallow seagrass beds (less than 1 m) in the Florida Keys in the United States. The behavior involves creation of a U-shaped plume of mud in the water column and then rushing through the plume to capture fish.
Along the beaches and tidal marshes of South Carolina and Georgia in the United States, bottlenose dolphins cooperatively herd prey fish onto steep and sandy banks in a practice known as "strand feeding". Groups of between two and six dolphins are regularly observed creating a bow wave to force the fish out of the water. The dolphins follow the fish, stranding themselves briefly, to eat their prey before twisting their bodies back and forth in order to slide back into the water.
Some Mauritanian dolphins cooperate with human fishermen. The dolphins drive a school of fish towards the shore, where humans await with nets. In the confusion of casting nets, the dolphins catch a large number of fish as well. Intraspecies cooperative foraging has also been observed. These behaviors may also be transmitted via teaching. Controversially, Rendell and Whitehead have proposed a structure for the study of cetacean culture. Similar cases have been observed in Laguna, Santa Catarina in Brazil since during 19th century as well.
Near Adelaide, in South Australia, three bottlenose dolphins 'tail-walk', whereby they elevate the upper part of their bodies vertically out of the water, and propel themselves along the surface with powerful tail movements. Tail-walking mostly arises via human training in dolphinaria. In the 1980s, a female from the local population was kept at a local dolphinarium for three weeks, and the scientist suggests she copied the tail-walking behavior from other dolphins. Two other wild adult female dolphins have now copied it from her.
A study conducted by the University of Chicago showed that bottlenose dolphins can remember whistles of other dolphins they'd lived with after 20 years of separation. Each dolphin has a unique whistle that functions like a name, allowing the marine mammals to keep close social bonds. The new research shows that dolphins have the longest memory yet known in any species other than humans.
Some researchers theorize mammalian intelligence correlates to the number of nerve cells (neurons) in the cortex of the brain. The neocortical neuron number of the bottlenose dolphin is unknown. However, the species with the highest number of neocortical neurons known to date is the long-finned pilot whale. 
Respiration and sleep
The bottlenose dolphin has a single blowhole located on the dorsal surface of the head consisting of a hole and a muscular flap. The flap is closed during muscle relaxation and opens during contraction. Dolphins are voluntary breathers, who must deliberately surface and open their blowholes to get air. They can store almost twice as much oxygen in proportion to their body weight as a human can: the dolphin can store 36 milliliters (ml) of oxygen per kg of body weight, compared with 20 ml per kg for humans. This is an adaptation to diving. The bottlenose dolphin typically rises to the surface to breathe through its blowhole two to three times per minute, although it can remain submerged for up to 20 minutes.
Dolphins can breathe while "half-asleep". During the sleeping cycle, one brain hemisphere remains active, while the other hemisphere shuts down. The active hemisphere handles surfacing and breathing behavior. The daily sleeping cycle lasts for about 8 hours, in increments of minutes to hours. During the sleeping cycle, they remain near the surface, swimming slowly or "logging", and occasionally closing one eye.
Both sexes have genital slits on the underside of their bodies. The male can retract and conceal his penis through his slit. The female's slit houses her vagina and anus. Females have two mammary slits, each housing one nipple, one on each side of the genital slit. The ability to stow their reproductive organs (especially in males) allows for maximum hydrodynamics. The breeding season produces significant physiological changes in males. At that time, the testes enlarge, enabling them to hold more sperm. Large amounts of sperm allow a male to wash away the previous suitor's sperm, while leaving some of his own for fertilization. Also, sperm concentration markedly increases. Having less sperm for out-of-season social mating means it wastes less. This suggests sperm production is energetically expensive. Males have large testes in relation to their body size.
During the breeding season, males compete for access to females. Such competition can take the form of fighting other males or of herding females to prevent access by other males. In Shark Bay, male bottlenose dolphins have been observed working in pairs or larger groups to follow and/or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive. These coalitions, also known as male reproductive alliances, will fight with other coalitions for control of females.
Mating occurs belly to belly. Dolphins have been observed engaging in intercourse when the females are not in their estrous cycles and cannot produce young, suggesting they may mate for pleasure. The gestation period averages 12 months. Births can occur at any time of year, although peaks occur in warmer months. The young are born in shallow water, sometimes assisted by a (possibly male) "midwife", and usually only a single calf is born. Twins are possible, but rare. Newborn bottlenose dolphins are 0.8 to 1.4 m (2.6 to 4.6 ft) long and weigh 9 to 30 kg (20 to 66 lb), with Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin infants being generally smaller than common bottlenose dolphin infants. To accelerate nursing, the mother can eject milk from her mammary glands. The calf suckles for 18 months to up to 8 years, and continues to closely associate with its mother for several years after weaning. Females sexually mature at ages 5–13, males at ages 9–14. Females reproduce every two to six years. Georgetown University professor Janet Mann argues the strong personal behavior among male calves is about bond formation and benefits the species in an evolutionary context. She cites studies showing these dolphins as adults are inseparable, and that early bonds aid protection, as well as in locating females.
Adult males live mostly alone or in groups of two to three, and join pods for short periods of time. Adult females and young dolphins normally live in groups of up to 15 animals. However, they live in fission-fusion societies of varying group size, within which individuals change associations, often on a daily or hourly basis. Group compositions are usually determined by sex, age, reproductive condition, familial relations and affiliation histories. In a dolphin community near Sarasota, Florida, the most common group types are adults females with their recent offspring, older subadults of both sexes and adult males either alone or in bonded pairs. Smaller groups can join to form larger groups of 100 or more, and occasionally exceed 1,000. The social strategies of marine mammals such as bottlenose dolphins "provide interesting parallels" with the social strategies of elephants and chimpanzees.:519
Bottlenose dolphins studied by Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute researchers off the island of Sardinia show random social behavior while feeding, and their social behavior does not depend on feeding activity. In Sardinia, the presence of a floating marine fin-fish farm has been linked to a change in bottlenose dolphin distribution as a result of high fish density around the floating cages in the farming area.
A dolphin's diet consists mainly of small fish, crustaceans, and squid. Although this varies by location, many populations share an appetite for fish from the mullet, the tuna and mackerel, and the drum and croaker families. Its cone-like teeth serve to grasp, but do not chew food. When they encounter a shoal of fish, they work as a team to herd them towards the shore to maximize the harvest. They also hunt alone, often targeting bottom-dwelling species. The bottlenose dolphin sometimes hits a fish with its fluke, sometimes knocking it out of the water, using a strategy called "fish whacking". "Strand feeding", is an inherited feeding technique used by bottlenose dolphins near and around coastal regions of Georgia and South Carolina. When a pod finds a school of fish, they will circle the school and trap the fish in a mini whirlpool. Then, the dolphins will charge at the school and push their bodies up onto a mud-flat, forcing the fish on the mud-flat, as well. The dolphins then crawl around on their sides, consuming the fish they washed up on shore.
One type of feeding behavior seen in bottlenose dolphins is mud ring feeding.
Bottlenose dolphins conflict with small-scale coastal commercial fisheries in some Mediterranean areas. Common bottlenose dolphins are probably attracted to fishing nets because they offer a concentrated food source.
Relations with other species
Dolphins can exhibit altruistic behaviour toward other sea creatures. On Mahia Beach, New Zealand, on March 10, 2008, two pygmy sperm whales, a female and calf, stranded on the beach. Rescuers, including Department of Conservation officer Malcolm Smith, attempted to refloat them four times. Shortly, a playful bottlenose dolphin known to local residents as Moko arrived and, after apparently vocalizing at the whales, led them 200 m (660 ft) along a sandbar to the open sea, saving them from imminent euthanasia.
The bottlenose dolphin can behave aggressively. Males fight for rank and access to females. During mating season, males compete vigorously with each other through displays of toughness and size, with a series of acts, such as head-butting. They display aggression towards sharks and smaller dolphin species. At least one population, off Scotland, has practiced infanticide, and also has attacked and killed harbour porpoises. University of Aberdeen researchers say the dolphins do not eat their victims, but are simply competing for food. However, Dr. Read of Duke University, a porpoise expert researching similar cases of porpoise killings that had occurred in Virginia in 1996 and 1997, holds a different view. He states dolphins and porpoises feed on different types of fish, thus food competition is an unlikely cause of the killings. Similar behaviour has been observed in Ireland. In the first half of July, 2014, four attacks with three Porpoise fatalities were observed and caught on video by the Cardigan Bay Marine Wildlife Centre in the Cardigan Bay.
The bottlenose dolphin sometimes forms mixed species groups with other species from the dolphin family, particularly larger species, such as the short-finned pilot whale, the false killer whale and Risso's dolphin. They also interact with smaller species, such as the Atlantic spotted dolphin and the rough-toothed dolphin. While interactions with smaller species are sometimes affiliative, they can also be hostile.
Some large shark species, such as the tiger shark, the dusky shark, the great white shark and the bull shark, prey on the bottlenose dolphin, especially calves. The bottlenose dolphin is capable of defending itself by charging the predator; dolphin 'mobbing' behavior of sharks can occasionally prove fatal for the shark. Targeting a single adult dolphin can be dangerous for a shark of similar size. Killer whale populations in New Zealand and Peru have been observed preying on bottlenose dolphins, but this seems rare, and other orcas may swim with dolphins. Swimming in pods allows dolphins to better defend themselves against predators. Bottlenose dolphins either use complex evasive strategies to outswim their predators, or mobbing techniques to batter the predator to death or force it to flee.
Relation to humans
The species sometimes shows curiosity towards humans in or near water. Occasionally, they rescue injured divers by raising them to the surface. They also do this to help injured members of their own species. In November 2004, a dramatic report of dolphin intervention came from New Zealand. Four lifeguards, swimming 100 m (330 ft) off the coast near Whangarei, were approached by a shark (reportedly a great white shark). Bottlenose dolphins herded the swimmers together and surrounded them for 40 minutes, preventing the shark from attacking, as they slowly swam to shore.
In coastal regions, dolphins run the risk of colliding with boats. Researchers of the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute first quantified data about solitary bottlenose dolphin diving behavior in the presence and absence of boats. Dolphins responded more to tourist than fishing vessels. Driving behavior, speed, engine type and separation distance all affect dolphin safety.
However, dolphins in these areas can also coexist with humans. For example, in the town of Laguna in south Brazil, a pod of bottlenose dolphins resides in the estuary, and some of its members cooperate with humans. These cooperating dolphins are individually recognized by the local fishermen, who name them. The fishermen typically stand up to their knees in the shallow waters or sit in canoes, waiting for the dolphins. Now and then, one or more dolphins appear, driving the fish towards the line of fishermen. One dolphin then displays a unique body movement outside the water, which serves as a signal to the fishermen to cast their nets (the entire sequence is shown here, and a detailed description of the signal's characteristics is available here). In this unique form of cooperation, the dolphins gain because the fish are disoriented and because the fish cannot escape to shallow water where the larger dolphins cannot swim. Likewise, studies show that fishermen casting their nets following the unique signal catch more fish than when fishing alone, without the help of the dolphins. The dolphins were not trained for this behavior; the collaboration began before 1847. Similar cooperative fisheries also exist in Mauritania, Africa.
Commercial 'dolphin encounter' enterprises and tours operate in many countries. The documentary film The Cove documents how dolphins are captured and sold to some of these enterprises (particularly in Asia) while the remaining pod is slaughtered. In addition to such endeavors, the individuals swim with and surface near surfers at the beach. Bottlenose dolphins perform in many aquaria, generating controversy. Animal welfare activists and certain scientists have claimed that the dolphins do not have adequate space or receive adequate care or stimulation. However, others, notably SeaWorld (backed by different scientists), counter that the dolphins are properly cared for, have lots of environmental stimulation and enjoy interacting with humans.
Eight bottlenose dolphins that lived at the Marine Life Aquarium in Gulfport, Mississippi were swept away from their aquarium pool during Hurricane Katrina. They were later found and returned to captivity from the Gulf of Mexico.
The military of the United States and Russia train bottlenose dolphins as military dolphins for wartime tasks, such as locating sea mines and detecting enemy divers. The U.S.'s program is the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, located in San Diego.
Tião was a well-known solitary female Bottlenose Dolphin that was first spotted in the town of São Sebastião in Brazil around 1994 and frequently allowed humans to interact with her. The dolphin became infamous for killing a swimmer and injuring many others, which later earned her the nickname killer dolphin.
The popular television show Flipper, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a bottlenose dolphin in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud. A seagoing Lassie, Flipper understood English and was a hero: "Go tell Dad we're in trouble, Flipper! Hurry!" The show's theme song contains the lyric "no one you see / is smarter than he". The television show was based on a 1963 film, and was remade as a feature film in 1996, starring Elijah Wood and Paul Hogan, as well as a second TV series running from 1995 to 2000, starring Jessica Alba.
Other television appearances by bottlenose dolphins include Wonder Woman, Highway to Heaven, Dolphin Cove, seaQuest DSV, and The Penguins of Madagascar, in which a dolphin, Doctor Blowhole, is a villain. In the HBO movie Zeus and Roxanne, a female bottlenose dolphin befriends a male dog, and in Bermuda Triangle, a girl named Annie (played by Lisa Jakub) swims with dolphins. Human and dolphin interaction segments shot on location in the Florida Keys with Dolphin Research Center as seen on a Halloween episode of The Simpsons, Treehouse of Horror XI.
Dolphin Tale, directed by Charles Martin Smith, starring Nathan Gamble, Ashley Judd, Harry Connick Jr., Morgan Freeman, Cozi Zuehlsdorff and Kris Kristofferson, is based on the real-life story of the dolphin Winter, who was rescued from a crab trap in December 2005 and lost her tail, but has learned to swim with a prosthetic one. Dolphin Tale 2, a sequel to the 2011 film, featured another dolphin named Hope and an appearance by Bethany Hamilton. The sequel was released on September 12, 2014.
Bottlenose dolphins have appeared in novels. In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and one of its sequels, So Long, and Thanks For All the Fish, the dolphins try to warn humans of Earth's impending destruction, but their behavior was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. Bottlenose dolphins are central to David Brin's series of Uplift Universe novels, particularly Startide Rising, where they are one of the four Earth species (along with chimpanzees, gorillas, and dogs) to have been 'uplifted' to sentience. Bottlenose dolphins are primary characters in Anne McCaffrey's Dragonriders of Pern series, especially The Dolphins of Pern. Bottlenose dolphins are incorporated into the science fiction video game series Ecco the Dolphin. Delphineus, a dolphin, is featured in the video game EcoQuest: The Search for Cetus, helping the boy, Adam, to find the sea king Cetus (a sperm whale), as well as assisting in cleaning up the underwater environment where he lives. Bottlenose dolphins were mentioned in various Star Trek novels and other materials as serving as navigation specialists on board various Federation starships.
Bottlenose dolphins are still captured or killed in dolphin drive hunts for their meat, to eliminate competition for fish and for capture for marine parks. Bottlenose dolphins (and several other dolphin species) often travel with tuna, and can get caught in tuna nets, which can kill the dolphins. Boycotts of tuna products led to the concept of "dolphin-safe" labeling for fishing methods that avoid endangering dolphins.
The man-made chemical perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) may be compromising the immune system of bottlenose dolphins. PFOS affects the immune system of male mice at a concentration of 91.5 ppb, while PFOS has been reported in bottlenose dolphins in excess of 1 ppm. High levels of metal contaminants have been measured in tissues in many areas of the globe. A recent study found high levels of cadmium and mercury in bottlenose dolphins from South Australia, levels which were later found to be associated with kidney malformations, indicating possible health effects of high heavy metal concentrations in dolphins.
Bottlenose dolphins are not endangered. Their future is stable because of their abundance and adaptability. However, specific populations are threatened due to various environmental changes. The population in the Moray Firth in Scotland is estimated to consist of around 190 individuals, and are under threat from harassment, traumatic injury, water pollution and reduction in food availability. Likewise, an isolated population in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, is in decline due to calf loss coincident to an increase in warm freshwater discharge into the fjord. Less local climate change, such as increasing water temperature may also play a role but has never been shown to be the case. One of the largest coastal populations of bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Western Australia was forecast to be stable with little variation in mortality over time (Manlik et al. 2016).
- Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep
- Audiograms in mammals
- Cetacean intelligence
- Common bottlenose dolphin
- Wells, R.; Scott, M. (2002). "Bottlenose Dolphins". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B.; Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 122–127. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- "Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) - Dolphin Facts and Information". www.dolphins-world.com. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
- Marino, Lori (2004). "Cetacean Brain Evolution: Multiplication Generates Complexity" (PDF). International Society for Comparative Psychology. The International Society for Comparative Psychology (17): 1–16.
- Rice, Dale W (1998). Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution (Special Publication). Society of Marine Mammalogy. ISBN 1-891276-03-4.
- Shirihai, H.; Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. pp. 155–161. ISBN 0-691-12757-3.
- Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- "Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna" (PDF). April 2000. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
- Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R. L. Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- U.S. National Museum. "Catalog of Living Whales". ubio.org. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
- Shirihai, H.; Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-691-12757-3.
- Charlton-Robb, K; Gershwin L; Thompson R; Austin J; Owen K; et al. (2011). "A New Dolphin Species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., Endemic to Southern Australian Coastal Waters". PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 6 (9): e24047. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...624047C. PMC . PMID 21935372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024047.
- "Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Western North Atlantic Offshore Stock" (PDF). Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- "Tursiops truncatus: Species Information". IUCN. Retrieved November 3, 2006.
- LeDuc R.G.; Perrin W.F.; Dizon A.E. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships among the delphinids cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences". Marine Mammal Science. 15 (3): 619–648. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00833.x.
- Leduc, R., Perrin, W. & Dizon, E. (August 18, 1998). "Phylogenetic Relationships among the Delphinid Cetaceans Based on Full Cytochrome B Sequences". Marine Mammal Science. 15 (3): 619–648. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00833.x.
- Reeves, R.; Stewart, B.; Clapham, P.; Powell, J. (2002). Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: A.A. Knopf. p. 422. ISBN 0-375-41141-0.
- "Risso's Dolphin". American Cetacean Society. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Lee, Jaennette (April 15, 2005). "Whale-Dolphin Hybrid Has Baby 'Wholphin'". Associated Press. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "The Mammals of Texas – Rough-toothed Dolphin". Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "Robin's Island Database about captive Dolphins and Whales". Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- Zornetzer H.R.; Duffield D.A. (2003). "Captive-born bottlenose dolphin × common dolphin (Tursiops truncatus × Delphinus capensis) intergeneric hybrids". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 81 (10): 1755–1762. doi:10.1139/z03-150.
- Herzing, D.; Moewe, K. & Brunnick, B. (2003). "Interspecies interactions between Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, on Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. 29 (3): 335–341. doi:10.1578/01675420360736505. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- American Cetacean Society Fact Sheet – Bottlenose Dolphin
- Reeves, R.; Stewart, B.; Clapham, P.; Powell, J. (2002). National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: A. A. Knopf. pp. 362–365. ISBN 0-375-41141-0.
- "Office of Protected Resources – Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". noaa.gov.
- "Bottlenose Dolphin". Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- "Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus at MarineBio.org". marinebio.org.
- Tabuchi, Hiroko (2006). "Dolphin reveals an extra set of 'legs'". Associated Press.
- "Adaptations for an aquatic environment". Busch Gardens. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
- Hersh, Sandra L.; Deborah A. Duffield (1990). "Distinction Between Northwest Atlantic Offshore and Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins Based on Hemoglobin Profile and Morphometry". In Stephen Leatherwood; Randall R. Reeves. The Bottlenose Dolphin. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 129–139. ISBN 0-12-440280-1.
- Goforth, Harold W. Jr. (1990) "Ergometry (Exercise Testing) of the Bottlenose Dolphin." In The Bottlenose Dolphin, edited by Stephen Leatherwood and Randall R. Reeves, pp. 559–574. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., ISBN 0-12-440280-1.
- Fish, F. E.; Hui, C. A. (1991). "Dolphin swimming – a review". Mammal Review. 21 (4): 181–195. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1991.tb00292.x.
- "Bottlenose Dolphin". Retrieved 2016-09-29.
- Au, Whitlow (1993). The Sonar of Dolphins. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-97835-6.
- Pack AA, Herman LM (1995). "Sensory integration in the bottlenosed dolphin: immediate recognition of complex shapes across the senses of echolocation and vision". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 98 (2 Pt 1): 722–33. Bibcode:1995ASAJ...98..722P. PMID 7642811. doi:10.1121/1.413566.
- Herman, L. M.; Peacock, M. F.; Yunker, M. P.; Madsen, C. (1975). "Bottlenosed dolphin: Double-slit pupil yields equivalent aerial and underwater diurnal acuity". Science. 189 (4203): 650–652. Bibcode:1975Sci...189..650H. PMID 1162351. doi:10.1126/science.1162351.
- M. Mass, Alla; Y. Supin, Alexander (2007). "Adaptive features of aquatic mammals' eyes". The Anatomical Record. 290 (6): 701–715. PMID 17516421. doi:10.1002/ar.20529.
- "Dolphin Characteristics". Western Illinois University. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- "Bottlenose Dolphins: Animal information, pictures, map". National Geographic. Archived from the original on October 23, 2006. Retrieved November 3, 2006.
- Janik VM, Slater PJ (1998). "Context-specific use suggests that bottlenose dolphin signature whistles are cohesion calls". Animal Behaviour. 56 (4): 829–838. PMID 9790693. doi:10.1006/anbe.1998.0881.
- Díaz López, B.; Shirai, J.A.B. (2009). Mediterranean common bottlenose dolphin's repertoire and communication use. Dolphins: Anatomy, Behavior and Threats. pp. 129–148. ISBN 978-1-60876-849-3.
- Díaz López (2010). "Whistle characteristics in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mediterranean Sea: Influence of behaviour". Mammalian Biology. 76 (2): 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2010.06.006.
- Herman LM, Richards DG, Wolz JP (1984). "Comprehension of sentences by bottlenosed dolphins". Cognition. 16 (2): 129–219. PMID 6540652. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(84)90003-9.
- Reiss D, McCowan B (1993). "Spontaneous vocal mimicry and production by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evidence for vocal learning". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 107 (3): 301–12. PMID 8375147. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.107.3.301.
- "The Dolphin Institute – Behavioral Mimicry". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Herman, L. (2002). "Language Learning". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B.; Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 685–689. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- The Dolphin Institute. "The Dolphin Institute – Understanding Language". dolphin-institute.org. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008.
- Herman, L., Pack, A. & Wood, A. (August 26, 2006). "Bottlenose Dolphins Can Generalize Rules and Develop Abstract Concepts". Marine Mammal Science. 10 (1): 70–80. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1994.tb00390.x.
- "The Dolphin Institute – Awareness of One's Own Recent Behaviors". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Herman LM, Gordon JA (1974). "Auditory delayed matching in the bottlenose dolphin". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 21 (1): 19–26. PMC . PMID 4204143. doi:10.1901/jeab.1974.21-19.
- "The Dolphin Institute – Awareness of One's Own Body Parts". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Foer, Joshua (2015). "It's Time for Conservation: Breaking the communication barrier between dolphins and humans". National Geographic. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- "The Dolphin Institute – Pointing Gestures". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- "Intelligence and Humans". Retrieved August 11, 2008.
- Marten, K.; Psarakos, S. (1995). "Evidence of self-awareness in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". In Parker, S. T.; Mitchell, R.; Boccia, M. Self-awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 361–379. ISBN 978-0-521-44108-7. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2008.
- Kilian, Annette; Yaman, Sevgi; von Fersen, Lorenzo; Güntürkün, Onur (2003). "A bottlenose dolphin discriminates visual stimuli differing in numerosity" (PDF). Learning and Behavior. 31 (2): 133–142. PMID 12882372. doi:10.3758/BF03195976.
- Smolker, R.A.; et al. (1997). "Sponge Carrying by Dolphins (Delphinidae, Tursiops sp.): A Foraging Specialization Involving Tool Use?". Ethology. 103 (6): 454–465. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1997.tb00160.x.
- Krutzen M, Mann J, Heithaus MR, Connor RC, Bejder L, Sherwin WB (2005). "Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (25): 8939–8943. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.8939K. PMC . PMID 15947077. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500232102.
- Krutzen, M.; Mann, J.; Heithaus, M. R.; Connor, R. C.; Bejder, L.; Sherwin, W. B. (2005). "Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (25): 8939–43. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.8939K. PMC . PMID 15947077. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500232102.
- Lewis, J.S.; Schroeder, W. (2003). "Mud plume feeding, a unique foraging behavior of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Florida Keys" (PDF). Gulf of Mexico Science. 21 (1): 92.
- Feldman, Paula. "Dinner Is Served!". South Carolina Wildlife Magazine.
- Rendell, L.; Whitehead, H. (2001). "Culture in whales and dolphins". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 24 (2): 309–382. PMID 11530544. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0100396X.
- Premack, D.; Hauser, M. (2001). "A whale of a tale: Calling it culture doesn't help" (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 24 (2): 350–351. doi:10.1017/S0140525X01513965. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2009.
- The Daily Telegraph (2006), "Brazil's sexiest secret", article retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Dr. Moti Nissani (2007) Bottlenose Dolphins in Laguna Requesting a Throw Net (video). Supporting material for Dr. Nissani's presentation at the 2007 International Ethological Conference. Video retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Black, Richard (2008). "Wild dolphins tail-walk on water". BBC News. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Dicke, U.; Roth G. (August–September 2008). "Intelligence Evolved". Scientific American Mind. pp. 75–77.
- S. Mortensen, Heidi; Pakkenberg, Bente; Dam, Maria; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Eriksen, Nina (2014). "Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex". Neuroanatomy. 8: 132. PMC . PMID 25505387. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00132.
- Mortensen, H. S.; Pakkenberg, B; Dam, M; Dietz, R; Sonne, C; Mikkelsen, B; Eriksen, N (2014). "Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex". Front Neuroanat. 8: 132. PMC . PMID 25505387. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00132.
- "Bottlenose dolphins". Seaworld. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
- Kooyman, G. (2002). "Diving Physiology". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B.; Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 339–341. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- "Dolphin Q&A". Mia Research Foundation. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
- "Do whales and dolphins sleep". howstuffworks. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
- Robeck, Todd R., et al. "Reproductive biology of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the potential application of advanced reproductive technologies." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (1994): 321-336.
- Atkinson, S. (2002). "Male Reproductive Systems". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B.; Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. p. 700. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- Stewart, R. (2002). "Female reproductive systems". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B.; Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 422–428. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- Connor Richard C., Peterson, Dawn M. (1994). The Lives of Whales and Dolphins. New York.: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-1950-6.
- Connor, R.; Wells, R.; Mann, J.; Read, A. (2000). "The Bottlenose Dolphin". In Mann, J.; Connor, R.; Tyack, P.; Whitehead, H. Cetacean Societies. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-226-50341-0.
- "Bottlenose Dolphins of Sarasota Bay". Smithsonian National Zoo. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009.
- Connor R. C. (1990) Alliances among male bottlenose dolphins and comparative analyses of mutualism. PhD Dissertation. The University of Michigan, Michigan.
- Volker Sommer; Paul L. Vasey (2006). "Chapter 4". Homosexual Behaviour in Animals – an Evolutionary perspective.
- Bruce Bagemihl (1999). Biological Exuberance – Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.
- Connor, R.; Wells, R.; Mann, J.; Read, A. (2000). "The Bottlenose Dolphin". In Mann, J.; Connor, R.; Tyack, P.; Whitehead, H. Cetacean Societies. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-226-50341-0.
- Mann, J., Connor, R. C., Barre, L. M. & Heithaus, M. R. (2000). "Female reproductive success in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): Life history, habitat, provisioning, and group size effects". Behavioral Ecology. 11 (2): 210–219. doi:10.1093/beheco/11.2.210.
- Mann, J. (2006). "Establishing Trust: Sociosexual behaviour and the development of male-male bonds among Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin calves". In Vasey, P.; Sommer, V. Homosexual Behaviour in Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86446-6.
- Connor, Richards (2000). Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50341-7.
- Díaz López, Bruno; Shirai J.A. (2007). "Marine aquaculture and bottlenose dolphins' (Tursiops truncatus) social structure". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 62 (6): 887–894. doi:10.1007/s00265-007-0512-1.
- Wells, R.S., M.D. Scott and A.B. Irvine. (19870 "The social structure of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins", pp. 247–305 in: Genoways, H. (ed.), Current Mammalogy, Vol. 1. New York: Plenum Press.
- Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; William F. Perrin; Bernd G. Würsig; J. G. M. Thewissen (2008). "Group behavior". Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2 ed.). United States: Academic Press. pp. 511–520. ISBN 0-12-373553-X.
- Díaz López, Bruno; Shirai J.B. (2008). "Marine aquaculture off Sardinia Island (Italy):ecosystem effects evaluated through a trophic mass-balance model". Ecological Modelling. 212 (3–4): 292–303. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.10.028.
- Díaz López, Bruno; Shirai J.B. (2006). "Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presence and incidental capture in a marine fish farm on the north-eastern coast of Sardinia (Italy)". Journal of Marine Biological Ass. UK. 87 (1): 113–117. doi:10.1017/S0025315407054215.
- "Dolphins – Skeletal Structure". Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- "Bottlenose Dolphins – Physical Characteristics". Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- "Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections – Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Duffy-Echevarria, Erin E.; Connor, Richard C.; Aubin, David J. St. (2008-01-01). "Observations of strand-feeding behavior by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Bull Creek, South Carolina". Marine Mammal Science. 24 (1): 202–206. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00151.x.(subscription required)
- Díaz López, Bruno (2006). "Interaction between bottlenose dolphins and fisheries off Sardinia". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 63 (5): 946–951. doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.06.012.
- "Dolphin rescues stranded whales". CNN. March 12, 2008. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008.
- Brooks, David (March 12, 2008). "Dolphin rescues beached whales". Herald Sun. Australia. Archived from the original on April 29, 2008.
- Read, Andrew (1999). Porpoises. Stillwater, MN, USA: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-420-8.
- "Evidence Puts Dolphins in New Light, as Killers". Luna.pos.to. July 6, 1999. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Ryan, Conor (2008). "Attack on Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena (L. 1758) by Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821)". Irish Naturalists' Journal. 29 (2): 130.
- Dolphin attacks on porpoises baffle experts BBC News, July 15, 2014
- Reeves, R.; Stewart, B.; Clapham, P.; Powell, J. (2002). Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. New York: A.A. Knopf. p. 434. ISBN 0-375-41141-0.
- NOAA (2003). "Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): California/Oregon/Washington Offshore Stock" (PDF). nmfs.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
- Shirihai, H.; Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-691-12757-3.
- "Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)". Animal Corner. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
- Heithaus, M.; Dill, L. (2002). "Food Availability and Tiger Shark Predation Risk Influence Bottlenose Dolphin Habitat Use". Ecology. 83 (2): 480–491. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[0480:FAATSP]2.0.CO;2.
- Gannon, D., Barros, N., Nowacek, D., Read, A., Waples, D. & Wells, R. (2004). "Prey detection by bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: an experimental test of the passive listening hypothesis". Animal Behaviour. 69 (3): 709–720. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.06.020.
- Eisfeld, S (October 2003). "The social affiliation and group composition of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the outer southern Moray Firth, NE Scotland" (PDF). MSc Thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor. p. 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2008.
- The Dolphin Institute. "Bottlenose Dolphin: Natural History and Ecology". dolphin-institute.org. Archived from the original on 5 April 2002. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Thomson, Ainsley (November 25, 2004). "Dolphins saved us from shark, lifeguards say". The New Zealand Herald.
- Diaz Lopez, B.; Shirai, J.A.; Prieto, A.; Fernández, P. (2008). "Diving activity of a solitary wild free ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)" (PDF). Journal of Marine Biological Association U.K. 88 (6): 1153–1157. doi:10.1017/S0025315408000921. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 31, 2009.
- Dr. Moti Nissani (2008). "Cooperative Dolphins of Laguna: Data on Nature of Signal (video and detailed description)".
- Simões-Lopes, Paulo C. (1998). "Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 15: 709–726. doi:10.1590/s0101-81751998000300016.
- "Bottlenose Dolphin". Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
- Australian Government. "Dolphins and porspoises". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- Waples and Gales 2002. Evaluating and minimising social stress in the care of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zoo.10004/abstract
- Alave, Kristine L. (September 12, 2007). "Animal rights groups rap Pasig dolphin show". Archived from the original on January 17, 2008.
- "Katrina dolphin rescue launched". BBC. September 15, 2005. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
- "Dolphins Deployed as Undersea Agents in Iraq". National Geographic. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
- Rehn, KW; Riggs, PK (2002). "Non-Lethal Swimmer Neutralization Study". U.S. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Technical Report. Document Number 3138. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- "U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program Web Site". U.S. Navy. U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Archived from the original on January 15, 2009.
- "American Cetacean Society – Bottlenose Dolphin". Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- "Flipper (1995)". IMDb. Retrieved November 3, 2006.
- Scully, Mike (2009). The Simpsons The Complete Twelfth Season DVD commentary for the episode "Treehouse of Horror IX" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- "Dolphin Tale". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- "Dolphin Tale 2". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- Sports Ecyclopedia. "Miami dolphins (1996-Present)". sportsecyclopedia.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Constantine, R. (2002). "Folklore and Legends". In Perrin, W.; Würsig, B.; Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. p. 448. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- Kenyon, P. (November 8, 2004). "Dining with the Dolphin Hunters". BBC News. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- "The Dolphin Institute – Threats to the Bottlenose Dolphin and Other Marine Mammals". Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Betts KS (May 2007). "Perfluoroalkyl Acids: What Is the Evidence Telling Us?". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (5): A250–A256. PMC . PMID 17520044. doi:10.1289/ehp.115-a250. Archived from the original on June 27, 2007.
- Betts KS (2008). "Not immune to PFOS effects?". Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (7): A290. PMC . PMID 18629339. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a290a.
- Houde M; Martin JW; Letcher RJ; Solomon KR; Muir DC (2006). "Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review". Environmental Science & Technology. 40 (11): 3463–73. Bibcode:2006EnST...40.3463H. PMID 16786681. doi:10.1021/es052580b.
- Lavery TJ, Butterfield N, Kemper CM, Reid RJ, Sanderson K (2008). "Metals and selenium in the liver and bone of three dolphin species from South Australia, 1988–2004". The Science of the Total Environment. 390 (1): 77–85. PMID 18006044. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.016.
- Lavery TJ, Kemper CM, Sanderson K, et al. (2009). "Heavy metal toxicity of kidney and bone tissues in South Australian adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)". Marine Environmental Research. 67 (1): 1–7. PMID 19012959. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.09.005.
- Curran S, Wilson B, Thompson P (1996). "Recommendations for the sustainable management of the bottlenose dolphin population in the Moray Firth". Scottish Natural Heritage Review. 56.
- Currey RJ, Dawson SM, Slooten E, Schneider K, Lusseau D, Boisseau OJ, Haase P, Williams JA (November 25, 2008). "Survival rates for a declining population of bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand: an information theoretic approach to assessing the role of human impacts". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 19 (6): 658–670. doi:10.1002/aqc.1015.
- Currey, Rohan; M. Dawson, Stephen; Slooten, Elisabeth; Schneider, Karsten; Lusseau, David; J. Boisseau, Oliver (2009). "Survival rates for a declining population of bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand: An information theoretic approach to assessing the role of human impacts". Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 19 (6): 658–670. doi:10.1002/aqc.1015.
- Manlik O.; McDonald J.A.; Mann J.; Raudino H.C.; Bejder L.; Kruetzen M.; Connor R.C.; Heithaus M.R.; Lacy R.C.; Sherwin W.B. (2016). "The relative importance of reproduction and survival for the conservation of two dolphin populations". Ecology and Evolution. 6 (11): 3496. doi:10.1002/ece3.2130.
- Marine Mammal Center. "The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, Amended 1994". marinemammalcenter.org. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Tursiops|
- Berrow, S.D. (2009). "Winter distribution of Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus (Montagu)) in the inner Shannon Estuary" (PDF). Irish Naturalists' Journal. 30 (1): 35–39. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011.
- Hale, P.T., Barreto, A.S. and Ross, G.J.B (2000). "Comparative morphology and distribution of the aduncus and truncatus forms of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. 26 (2): 101–110. — Discusses distinguishing features between Bottlenose Dolphin species
- Reiss D, Marino L (2001). "Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: a case of cognitive convergence". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (10): 5937–5942. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.5937R. PMC . PMID 11331768. doi:10.1073/pnas.101086398.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bottlenose dolphin.|