Queen Boudica in John Opie's painting "Boadicea Haranguing the Britons"
|Died||circa AD 60 or 61, Britannia|
|Other names||Boudicca, Boadicea, Buddug|
|Occupation||Queen of the Iceni|
Boudica (//; alternative spelling: Boudicca, also known as Boadicea // and in Welsh as Buddug [ˈbɨ̞ðɨ̞ɡ]) (d. AD 60 or 61) was a queen of the British Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boudica's husband Prasutagus ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored and the kingdom was annexed. Boudica was flogged, her daughters raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.
In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, the Trinovantes and others in revolt. They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), earlier the capital of the Trinovantes but at that time a colonia, a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers, and site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target.
The Romans, having concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed Londinium, and Verulamium (modern-day St Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street.
The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius's eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died. The extant sources, Tacitus and Cassius Dio, differ.
Interest in these events revived in the English Renaissance and led to Boudica's fame in the Victorian era. Boudica has remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. However, the absence of native British literature during the early part of the first millennium means that knowledge of Boudica's rebellion comes solely from the writings of the Romans.
- 1 History
- 2 Cultural depictions
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
Boudica has been known by several versions of her name. Raphael Holinshed calls her Voadicia, while Edmund Spenser calls her Bunduca, a version of the name that was used in the popular Jacobean play Bonduca, in 1612. William Cowper's poem, Boadicea, an ode (1782) popularised an alternate version of the name. From the 19th century and much of the late 20th century, Boadicea was the most common version of the name, which is probably derived from a mistranscription when a manuscript of Tacitus was copied in the Middle Ages.
Her name was clearly spelled Boudicca in the best manuscripts of Tacitus, but also Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, and Βοδουικα in the (later and probably secondary) epitome of Cassius Dio. The name is attested in inscriptions as "Boudica" in Lusitania, Boudiga in Bordeaux, and Bodicca in Algeria.
Kenneth Jackson concludes, based on later development of Welsh and Irish, that the name derives from the Proto-Celtic feminine adjective *boudīka, "victorious", that in turn is derived from the Celtic word *bouda, "victory" (cf. Irish bua (Classical Irish buadh), Buaidheach, Welsh buddugoliaeth), and that the correct spelling of the name in the British language is Boudica, pronounced [bɒʊˈdiːkaː].
The closest English equivalent to the vowel in the first syllable is the ow in "bow-and-arrow". The modern English pronunciation is //, and it has been suggested that the most comparable English name, in meaning only, would be "Victoria".
Tacitus and Dio agree that Boudica was of royal descent. Dio describes her as "possessed of greater intelligence than often belongs to women." He also describes her as tall, with tawny hair hanging down to below her waist, a harsh voice and a piercing glare. He notes that she habitually wore a large golden necklace (perhaps a torc), a colourful tunic, and a thick cloak fastened by a brooch.
Her husband Prasutagus was the king of the Iceni, the people who inhabited roughly what is now Norfolk. They initially were not part of the territory under direct Roman control, having voluntarily allied themselves to Rome following Claudius' conquest of AD 43. They were proud of their independence, and had revolted in AD 47 when the then-governor Publius Ostorius Scapula threatened to disarm them. Prasutagus had lived a long life of conspicuous wealth and, hoping to preserve his line, made the Roman emperor co-heir to his kingdom, along with his wife and two daughters.
It was normal Roman practice to allow allied kingdoms their independence only for the lifetime of their client king, who would then agree to leave his kingdom to Rome in his will. For example, the provinces of Bithynia and Galatia were incorporated into the Empire in just this way. Roman law also allowed inheritance only through the male line, so when Prasutagus died, his attempts to preserve his line were ignored and his kingdom was annexed as if it had been conquered. His lands and property were confiscated and nobles treated like slaves. According to Tacitus, Boudica was flogged and her daughters were raped. Cassius Dio says that Roman financiers, including Seneca the Younger, chose this time to call in their loans. Tacitus does not mention this, but does single out the Roman procurator Catus Decianus for criticism for his "avarice". Prasutagus, it seems, had lived well on borrowed Roman money, and on his death his subjects had become liable for the debt.
In AD 60 or 61, while the current governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign against the island of Mona (modern Anglesey) in the north of Wales, which was a refuge for British rebels and a stronghold of the druids, the Iceni conspired with their neighbours the Trinovantes, amongst others, to revolt. Boudica was chosen as their leader. According to Tacitus, they drew inspiration from the example of Arminius, the prince of the Cherusci who had driven the Romans out of Germany in AD 9, and their own ancestors who had driven Julius Caesar from Britain. Dio says that at the outset Boudica employed a form of divination, releasing a hare from the folds of her dress and interpreting the direction in which it ran, and invoked Andraste, a British goddess of victory.
The rebels' first target was Camulodunum (Colchester), the former Trinovantian capital and, at that time, a Roman colonia. The Roman veterans who had been settled there mistreated the locals and a temple to the former emperor Claudius had been erected there at local expense, making the city a focus for resentment. The Roman inhabitants sought reinforcements from the procurator, Catus Decianus, but he sent only two hundred auxiliary troops. Boudica's army fell on the poorly defended city and destroyed it, besieging the last defenders in the temple for two days before it fell. Archaeologists have shown that the city was methodically demolished. The future governor Quintus Petillius Cerialis, then commanding the Legio IX Hispana, attempted to relieve the city, but suffered an overwhelming defeat. His infantry was wiped out—only the commander and some of his cavalry escaped. The location of this famous destruction of the Legio IX is now claimed by some to be the village of Great Wratting, in Suffolk, which lies in the Stour Valley on the Icknield Way West of Colchester, and by a village in Essex. After this defeat, Catus Decianus fled to Gaul.
When news of the rebellion reached him, Suetonius hurried along Watling Street through hostile territory to Londinium. Londinium was a relatively new settlement, founded after the conquest of AD 43, but it had grown to be a thriving commercial centre with a population of travellers, traders, and, probably, Roman officials. Suetonius considered giving battle there, but considering his lack of numbers and chastened by Petillius's defeat, decided to sacrifice the city to save the province.
...Alarmed by this disaster and by the fury of the province which he had goaded into war by his rapacity, the procurator Catus crossed over into Gaul. Suetonius, however, with wonderful resolution, marched amidst a hostile population to Londinium, which, though undistinguished by the name of a colony, was much frequented by a number of merchants and trading vessels. Uncertain whether he should choose it as a seat of war, as he looked round on his scanty force of soldiers, and remembered with what a serious warning the rashness of Petilius had been punished, he resolved to save the province at the cost of a single town. Nor did the tears and weeping of the people, as they implored his aid, deter him from giving the signal of departure and receiving into his army all who would go with him. Those who were chained to the spot by the weakness of their sex, or the infirmity of age, or the attractions of the place, were cut off by the enemy. - Tacitus
Londinium was abandoned to the rebels who burnt it down, slaughtering anyone who had not evacuated with Suetonius. Archaeology shows a thick red layer of burnt debris covering coins and pottery dating before AD 60 within the bounds of Roman Londinium., whilst Roman-era skulls found in the Walbrook in 2013 were potentially linked to victims of the rebels. Verulamium (St Albans) was next to be destroyed.
In the three settlements destroyed, between seventy and eighty thousand people are said to have been killed. Tacitus says that the Britons had no interest in taking or selling prisoners, only in slaughter by gibbet, fire, or cross. Dio's account gives more detail; that the noblest women were impaled on spikes and had their breasts cut off and sewn to their mouths, "to the accompaniment of sacrifices, banquets, and wanton behaviour" in sacred places, particularly the groves of Andraste.
While Boudica's army continued their assault in Verulamium (St. Albans), Suetonius regrouped his forces. According to Tacitus, he amassed a force including his own Legio XIV Gemina, some vexillationes (detachments) of the XX Valeria Victrix, and any available auxiliaries. The prefect of Legio II Augusta, Poenius Postumus, stationed near Exeter, ignored the call, and a fourth legion, IX Hispana, had been routed trying to relieve Camulodunum, but nonetheless the governor was able to call on almost ten thousand men.
Suetonius took a stand at an unidentified location, probably in the West Midlands somewhere along the Roman road now known as Watling Street, in a defile with a wood behind him — but his men were heavily outnumbered. Dio says that, even if they were lined up one deep, they would not have extended the length of Boudica's line. By now the rebel forces were said to have numbered 230,000, however, this number should be treated with scepticism — Dio's account is known only from a late epitome, and ancient sources commonly exaggerate enemy numbers.
Boudica exhorted her troops from her chariot, her daughters beside her. Tacitus gives her a short speech in which she presents herself not as an aristocrat avenging her lost wealth, but as an ordinary person, avenging her lost freedom, her battered body, and the abused chastity of her daughters. She said their cause was just, and the deities were on their side; the one legion that had dared to face them had been destroyed. She, a woman, was resolved to win or die; if the men wanted to live in slavery, that was their choice.
However, the lack of manoeuvrability of the British forces, combined with lack of open-field tactics to command these numbers, put them at a disadvantage to the Romans, who were skilled at open combat due to their superior equipment and discipline. Also, the narrowness of the field meant that Boudica could put forth only as many troops as the Romans could at a given time.
First, the Romans stood their ground and used volleys of pila (heavy javelins) to kill thousands of Britons who were rushing toward the Roman lines. The Roman soldiers, who had now used up their pila, were then able to engage Boudica's second wave in the open. As the Romans advanced in a wedge formation, the Britons attempted to flee, but were impeded by the presence of their own families, whom they had stationed in a ring of wagons at the edge of the battlefield, and were slaughtered. This is not the first instance of this tactic—the women of the Cimbri, in the Battle of Vercellae against Gaius Marius, were stationed in a line of wagons and acted as a last line of defence. Ariovistus of the Suebi is reported to have done the same thing in his battle against Julius Caesar. Tacitus reports that "according to one report almost eighty thousand Britons fell" compared with only four hundred Romans.
According to Tacitus in his Annals, Boudica poisoned herself, though in the Agricola which was written almost twenty years prior he mentions nothing of suicide and attributes the end of the revolt to socordia ("indolence"); Dio says she fell sick and died and then was given a lavish burial; though this may be a convenient way to remove her from the story. Considering Dio must have read Tacitus, it is worth noting he mentions nothing about suicide (which was also how Postumus and Nero ended their lives).
Postumus, on hearing of the Roman victory, fell on his sword. Catus Decianus, who had fled to Gaul, was replaced by Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus. Suetonius conducted punitive operations, but criticism by Classicianus led to an investigation headed by Nero's freedman Polyclitus. Fearing Suetonius' actions would provoke further rebellion, Nero replaced the governor with the more conciliatory Publius Petronius Turpilianus. The historian Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus tells us the crisis had almost persuaded Nero to abandon Britain.
Location of her defeat
The location of Boudica's defeat is unknown. Most historians favour a site in the West Midlands, somewhere along the Roman road now known as Watling Street. Kevin K. Carroll suggests a site close to High Cross in Leicestershire, on the junction of Watling Street and the Fosse Way, which would have allowed the Legio II Augusta, based at Exeter, to rendezvous with the rest of Suetonius's forces, had they not failed to do so. Manduessedum (Mancetter), near the modern town of Atherstone in Warwickshire, has also been suggested, as has "The Rampart" near Messing in Essex, according to legend. More recently, a discovery of Roman artefacts in Kings Norton close to Metchley Camp has suggested another possibility, and a thorough examination of a stretch of Watling Street between St. Albans, Boudica's last known location, and the Fosse Way junction has suggested the Cuttle Mill area of Paulerspury in Northamptonshire, which has topography very closely matching that described by Tacitus of the scene of the battle.
In 2009 it was suggested that the Iceni were returning to East Anglia along the Icknield Way when they encountered the Roman army in the vicinity of Arbury Bank, Hertfordshire. In March 2010, evidence was published suggesting the site may be located at Church Stowe, Northamptonshire.
Tacitus, the most important Roman historian of this period, took a particular interest in Britain as his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola served there three times (and was the subject of his first book). Agricola was a military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus, which almost certainly gave Tacitus an eyewitness source for Boudica's revolt. Cassius Dio's account is only known from an epitome, and his sources are uncertain. He is generally agreed to have based his account on that of Tacitus, but he simplifies the sequence of events and adds details, such as the calling in of loans, that Tacitus does not mention.
Gildas, in his 6th century De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, may have been alluding to Boudica when he wrote "A treacherous lioness butchered the governors who had been left to give fuller voice and strength to the endeavours of Roman rule".
History and literature
By the Middle Ages Boudica was forgotten. She makes no appearance in Bede's work, the Historia Brittonum, the Mabinogion or Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain. But the rediscovery of the works of Tacitus during the Renaissance allowed Polydore Vergil to reintroduce her into British history as "Voadicea" in 1534. Raphael Holinshed also included her story in his Chronicles (1577), based on Tacitus and Dio, and inspired Shakespeare's younger contemporaries Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher to write a play, Bonduca, in 1610. William Cowper wrote a popular poem, "Boadicea, an ode", in 1782.
It was in the Victorian era that Boudica's fame took on legendary proportions as Queen Victoria came to be seen as Boudica's "namesake", their names being identical in meaning. Victoria's Poet Laureate, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, wrote a poem, "Boadicea", and several ships were named after her.
A statue of Boudica with her daughters in her war chariot (ahistorically furnished with scythes after the Persian fashion) was executed by Thomas Thornycroft over the 1850s and 1860s with the encouragement of Prince Albert, who lent his horses for the model. Thornycroft exhibited the head separately in 1864. It was cast in bronze in 1902, 17 years after Thornycroft's death, by his son Sir John, who presented it to the London County Council. They erected it on a plinth on the Victoria Embankment next to Westminster Bridge and the Houses of Parliament, inscribed with the following lines from Cowper's poem:
Regions Caesar never knew
Thy posterity shall sway.
Boudica and King's Cross
The name "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica. The tradition is not supported by any historical evidence and is rejected by modern historians. However, Lewis Spence's 1937 book Boadicea - warrior queen of the Britons went so far as to include a map showing the positions of the opposing armies. There is a belief that she was buried between platforms 9 and 10 in King's Cross station in London, England. There is no evidence for this and it is probably a post-World War II invention.
Fiction, music, tv and film
- Henry Purcell's last major work, composed in 1695, was music for play entitled Bonduca, or the British Heroine (Z. 574). Selections include "To Arms", "Britons, Strike Home", and "O lead me to some peaceful gloom". Boudica has also been the primary subject of songs by Irish singer/songwriter Enya, Dutch soprano Petra Berger, Scottish singer/songwriter Steve McDonald, English metal band Bal-Sagoth, Faith and the Muse, and Dreams in the Witching House.
- Boudica has been the subject of two feature films, the 1927 film Boadicea, where she was portrayed by Phyllis Neilson-Terry, and 2003's Boudica (Warrior Queen in the US), a UK TV film written by Andrew Davies and starring Alex Kingston as Boudica. She has also been the subject of a 1978 British TV series, Warrior Queen, starring Siân Phillips as Boudica. Jennifer Ward-Lealand portrayed Boudica in an episode of Xena: Warrior Princess titled "The Deliverer" in 1997.
- The Viking Queen is a 1967 Hammer Films adventure film set in ancient Britain, in which the role of Queen Salina is based upon the historical figure of Boudica.
- In the fictional world of Ghosts of Albion, Queen Bodicea is one of three Ghosts who once were mystical protectors of Albion and assists the current protectors with advice and knowledge.
- In The Mauritius Command by Patrick O'Brian, the 4th novel of the Aubrey-Maturin series, Jack Aubrey is given command of the HMS Boadicea.
- Boudica's story is the subject of several novels, including books by Rosemary Sutcliff, Roxanne Gregory, Pauline Gedge, Manda Scott, Alan Gold, Diana L. Paxson, David Wishart, George Shipway, Simon Scarrow, Mary Mackie and J. F. Broxholme (a pseudonym of Duncan Kyle). She plays a central role in the first part of G. A. Henty's novel Beric the Briton, and The Queen's Brooch, a children's novel by Henry Treece, is set during her rebellion. One of the viewpoint characters of Ian Watson's novel Oracle is an eyewitness to her defeat. She has also appeared in several comic book series, including the Sláine, which featured two runs, titled "Demon Killer" and "Queen of Witches" giving a free interpretation of Boudica's story. Other comic appearances include Witchblade and From Hell. The DC Comics character Boodikka, a member of the Green Lantern Corps, was named after Boudica. Additionally, in the alternate history novel Ruled Britannia by Harry Turtledove, Boudicca is the subject of a play written by William Shakespeare to incite the people of Britain to revolt against Spanish conquerors.
- Boudicca is a character in the animated series Gargoyles.
- The 2012 Big Finish Productions Doctor Who audio play The Wrath of the Iceni starring Tom Baker takes place during Boudica's uprising against the Romans. Boudica is portrayed by British actress Ella Kenion.
- In Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword and Civilization V: Gods & Kings, Boudicca is leader of the Celtic tribe.
- Enya recorded a song entitled "Boadicea" for her 1987 LP Enya.
- The lyrics of the song "The Good Old Days", written by Pete Doherty and Carl Barat for British rock band The Libertines, refer to her under the alternate spelling ("If Queen Boadicea is long dead and gone, Still then the spirit in her children's children's children, it lives on").
- Martha Howe-Douglas and Lorna Watson played Boudica in Horrible Histories.
- She appears as a character in the heavily fictionalized 2013 video game Ryse: Son of Rome.
- Mason and Róisín Murphy collaborated on the track Boadicea released in 2011, featuring lyrics about the rise and fall of a female warrior.
- The 2012 vampire novel Hide Me Among the Graves by Tim Powers depicts Boadicea as one of the two head vampires menacing Victorian Europe.
- A 2006 History Channel documentary production is entitled Warrior Queen Boudica.
Other cultural references
In 2003 an LTR retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke "Schistosoma mansoni" was named "Boudicca". The Boudicca retrotransposon, a high-copy retroviral-like element, was the first mobile genetic element of this type to be discovered in S. mansoni.
In July 2008, the British television series Bonekickers, dedicated an hour to Boudica in the episode named "The Eternal Fire". Various female politicians, including former Prime Minister of New Zealand Helen Clark, have been called Boadicea.
- Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 28. ISBN 0-14-014581-8.
- Hingley, Richard; Unwin, Christina, Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen, Hambledon Continuum; New Ed edition (15 June 2006), ISBN 978-1-85285-516-1, p.44 and 61
- N. Davies, The Isles: A History, 2008, p. 93.
- S. Dando-Collins, Legions of Rome: The definitive history of every Roman legion, 2012
- Tacitus, Annals 14.33
- Tacitus, Agricola 14-16; Annals 14:29-39
- Cassius Dio, Roman History 62:1-12
- The Gentleman's Magazine. W. Pickering. 1854. pp. 541–.
- Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Bonduca
- William Cowper, Boadicea, an ode
- Graham Webster, Boudica: The British Revolt against Rome AD 60, 1978; Guy de la Bédoyère, The Roman Army in Britain. Retrieved 5 July 2005
- Kenneth Jackson, "Queen Boudica?", Britannia 10, 1979
- Boudicca. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. (Retrieved 20 December 2007).
- Rhys, Sir John (1908). Early Britain, Celtic Britain. General Literature Committee: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain). p. 284.
- Peter Keegan. "Boudica, Cartimandua, Messalina and Agrippina the Younger. Independent Women of Power and the Gendered Rhetoric of Roman History". academia.edu.
- The term xanthotrichos translated in this passage as red-brown or tawny can also mean auburn, or a shade short of brown, but most translators now agree a colour in between light and browny red - tawny -Boudica and her stories: narrative transformations of a warrior queen, Carolyn D. Williams, University of Delaware Press, 2009, p. 62.
- Tacitus, Annals 12:31-32
- H. H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero, 1982, p. 90
- John Morris, Londinium: London in the Roman Empire, 1982, pp. 107-108
- Tacitus, Agricola 15
- Jason Burke, "Dig uncovers Boudicca's brutal streak", The Observer, 3 December 2000
- "Haverhill From the Iron Age to 1899". St. Edmundsbury Borough Council.
- George Patrick Welch, Britannia: The Roman Conquest & Occupation of Britain, 1963, p. 107.
- Maev Kennedy. "Roman skulls found during Crossrail dig in London may be Boudicca victims". the Guardian.
- Tacitus, Annals 14.34
- Tacitus, Annals 14.37
- Tacitus, Annals 14.32
- Florus, Epitome of Roman History 1.38
- Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.51
- Tacitus, Annals 14.39
- Suetonius, Nero 18, 39-40
- Kevin K. Carroll, "The Date of Boudicca's Revolt", Britannia 10, 1979
- Sheppard Frere, Britannia: A History of Roman Britain, 1987, p. 73
- Messing-cum-Inworth Community Website: Messing Village
- Is Boudicca buried in Birmingham?, BBC, 25 May 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2006
- "ﾓﾊﾞｲﾙ版". paulerspury.org.
- Appleby, G. 2009. The Boudican Revolt: Countdown to Defeat. In Hertfordshire Archaeology and History, Volume 16, 2009, pp. 57-65.
- "Landscape Analysis and Appraisal Church Stowe, Northamptonshire, as a Candidate Site for the Battle of Watling Street" (PDF). craftpegg.com.
- Polydore Vergil's English History Book 2 (pp. 69-72).
- Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles: History of England 4.9-13
- Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Boadicea
- Macdonald, Sharon (1987). "Boadicea: Warrior, Mother, and Myth". Images of Women in Peace & War: Cross-Cultural & Historical Perspectives. London: Macmillan Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-299-11764-2.
- Corinne Field (30 April 2006). "Battlefield Britain—Boudicca's revolt against the Romans". Culture24. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Graham Webster, Boudica: The British Revolt against Rome AD 60, 1978
- Walter Thornbury (1878). "Highbury, Upper Holloway and King's Cross". Old and New London: Volume 2. British History Online. pp. 273–279. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "THE "WARRIOR QUEEN" UNDER PLATFORM 9". Museum of London. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Boadicea (1927)". IMDb. 5 September 1927.
- Fenris Fil (12 October 2003). "Warrior Queen (2003)". IMDb.
- Boudicca at The Gargoyles Encyclopedia.
- The Wrath of the Iceni at bigfinish.com.
- Copeland CS, Brindley PJ, Heyers O, Michael SF, Johnston DA, Williams DL, Ivens AC, Kalinna BH, "Boudica, a retrovirus-like long terminal repeat retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni". Journal of Virology 2003 Jun;77(11):6153-66; Copeland CS, Heyers O, Kalinna BH, Bachmair A, Stadler PF, Hofacker IL, Brindley PJ, "Structural and evolutionary analysis of the transcribed sequence of Boudicca, a Schistosoma mansoni retrotransposon". Gene 2004;329:103-114.
- ""Bonekickers" The Eternal Fire (TV Episode 2008)". IMDb.
- O'Sullivan, Fran (30 October 2008). "Gladiator v Boadicea: No contest?". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Aldhouse-Green, M., Boudica Britannia: Rebel, War-Leader and Queen (Harlow, Pearson Longman, 2006).
- Böckl, Manfred (2005). Die letzte Königin der Kelten [The last Queen of the Celts] (in German). Berlin: Aufbau Verlag.
- Cassius Dio Cocceianus (1914–1927). Dio's Roman History 8. Earnest Cary trans. Cambridge, MA: Halvard University Press.
- Collingridge, Vanessa (2004). Boudica. London: Ebury.
- de la Bédoyère, Guy (2003). "Bleeding from the Roman Rods: Boudica". Defying Rome: The Rebels of Roman Britain. Tempus: Stroud.
- Dudley, Donald R; Webster, Graham (1962). The Rebellion of Boudicca. London: Routledge.
- Fraser, Antonia (1988). The Warrior Queens. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
- Godsell, Andrew (2008). "Boadicea: A Woman's Resolve". Legends of British History. Wessex Publishing.
- Hingley, Richard; Unwin, Christina (2004). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Hambledon and London.
- Roesch, Joseph E. (2006). Boudica, Queen of The Iceni. London: Robert Hale Ltd.
- Tacitus, Cornelius (1948). Tacitus on Britain and Germany. H. Mattingly trans. London: Penguin.
- Tacitus, Cornelius (1989). The Annals of Imperial Rome. M. Grant trans. London: Penguin.
- Taylor, John (1998). Tacitus and the Boudican Revolt. Dublin: Camvlos.
- Webster, Graham (1978). Boudica. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.
- Cottrell, Leonard (1958). The Great Invasion. Evans Brothers Limited.
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (May 2015)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boudica.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Boadicea.|
- Boudica on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
- Potter, T. W. "Boudicca (d. AD 60/61)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 October 2010. (Subscription required). The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource: "Boadicea (DNB00)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
- The Iceni Hoard at the British Museum
- James Grout: Boudica, part of the Encyclopædia Romana
- Trying to Rule Britannia; BBC; 6 August 2004
- Iceni at Roman-Britain.org
- Iceni at Romans in Britain
- Boadicea may have had her chips on site of McDonald's by Nick Britten
- PBS Boudica / Warrior Queen website
- Warrior queens and blind critics - article on the 2004 film King Arthur which discusses Boudica
- Channel 4 History - In Boudica's Footsteps
- "Boadicea". Encyclopaedia Britannica 3 (9th ed.). 1878.