Bouea macrophylla

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Bouea macrophylla
Bouea macrophylla young fruit.JPG
Immature Bouea macrophylla in a basket
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Bouea
Meisner, 1837
Species: B. macrophylla
Binomial name
Bouea macrophylla

Bouea macrophylla (Bouea macrophylla Griff) is a tropical fruit tree native to Southeast Asia. The tree belongs to the family Anacardiaceae, and is related to the mango.


A young gandaria fruit in Java. Ripened ones are yellow-orange.
Gandaria leaf in Java

The evergreen tree grows to height of 25 meters. Its leaves are lanceolate to elliptic in shape (see: Leaf shape), and range from 13 to 45 cm (5 to 17 inches) long and from 5 to 7 cm (2 to 3 inches) wide.

The fruit (resembling a mango) are green in colour and mature to an orange/yellow. They grow to roughly 2 to 5 cm (0.7 to 1.9 inches) in diameter. The entire fruit, including its skin is edible. The fruit range from sweet to sour in flavour, and have a light smell of turpentine.

Flowering and fruiting times differ for Thailand and Indonesia.

  • Thailand : flowers in November to December, and fruit appears from April to May.
  • Indonesia : flowers in June to November, and fruit appears from March to June.


The tree is native to Malaysia, West Java, Burma and North Sumatra. It is also found in Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, and Malaysia, where it is commercially grown.

It is not usually found above an altitude of 305 meters (1000 ft), but has been cultivated at altitudes of about 850 meters (2789 ft).[citation needed]

Ripe Bouea macrophylla or Buah Remia/Setar/Kundang sold in Malaysia



Both the leaves and fruit from the tree can be eaten. The leaves can be eaten raw when they are still young, and can be used in salads. While the seed is edible, the endosperm is generally bitter. Fruit can be eaten raw, or made into dishes such as pickle, compote, or sambal. Unripened fruit can be used to make rojak and asinan.[1]


The entire tree can be used as an ornamental fruit bearing shade tree due to its dense foliage.[2]

Other names[edit]

Bouea macrophylla is commonly known in English as the "marian plum", "gandaria", and "plum mango". It is also known in Thai as ma bpraang (มะปราง) and ma-yong; in Indonesian as ramania and gandaria; in Burmese as mayun-thee; and in Vietnamese as thanh trà

In Malay, the tree is known as kundang, rembunia, and setar, and is the origin of the toponym Alor Setar (with alor meaning "small stream").


  1. ^ "West Australian Nut and Tree Crops Association". WANATCA Yearbook (ISSN 0312-8997), Vol. 20, p. 42 (1996).
  2. ^ TopTropicals plant catalog


Bouea macrophylla taxonomy
Montoso gardens
Species with potential for commercial development
Mansfeld database
AgroForestryTree Database