Bougainville may refer to:
- Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729–1811), French navigator, explorer and military commander
- Hyacinthe de Bougainville (1781-1846), French naval officer and son of Louis Antoine de Bougainville
- Autonomous Region of Bougainville, also known as North Solomons, an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea
- Bougainville Island, a part of Papua New Guinea and the largest island of the Solomon Islands group
- Bougainville, Somme, a commune in Somme département, France
- Bougainville Strait, a strait which separates Choiseul Island (Solomon Islands) from Bougainville Island (Papua New Guinea)
- Isla Bougainville, the Spanish name for Lively Island in the Falkland Islands
- French ship Bougainville, various French ships named in honour of Louis Antoine de Bougainville
- Bougainville-class aviso, a group of colonial avisos, or sloops, built for the French Navy during the 1930s.
- USS Bougainville (CVE-100), later CVU-100, a United States Navy Casablanca-class escort aircraft carrier in commission from 1944 to 1946
- CMA CGM Bougainville
Literature and film
- Bougainville – Our Island Our Fight, a documentary film directed by Wayne Coles-Janess
- Bougainville (novel), a 1981 novel by Dutch author F. Springer
- Bougainvillea, a genus of flowering plants native to South America
- Bougainville Campaign, a World War II military campaign fought from 1943 to 1945 between the Allies and Japan on and around Bougainville Island
- Bougainville Civil War, 1988-1998
- Bougainville People's Congress, a pro-independence organisation and later political party
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