Bourgeois liberalization

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Bourgeois liberalization (simplified Chinese: 义 zh; traditional Chinese: 資產階級自由主義; pinyin: zīchăn jiējí zìyóu zhŭyì) refers to either parliamentary democracy or Western popular culture. The late 1980s saw the first major usage of the term when a number of campaigns against bourgeois liberalism were initiated lasting till the early 1990s. The term is in active use in Chinese politics, with the Communist Party's Constitution[1] stating party objectives include "combat[ing] bourgeois liberalization" in line with the four cardinal principles. According to the Communist Party of China, the concept of bourgeois liberalization was first proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then paramount leader of China, in early 1980s.[2][3]

Due to the 1986 Chinese student demonstrations, Hu Yaobang, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and a leading reformist, was forced to resign from his post by Deng Xiaoping in early 1987.[4] Left-wing conservatives such as Deng Liqun and Hu Qiaomu, under the support of Chen Yun and Li Xiannian (and even Deng himself), continued to launch the "Anti-Bourgeois Liberalization Campaign" in 1987.[5][6][7] However, Zhao Ziyang, then Premier of China and a leading reformist, eventually convinced Deng that the left-wing conservatives took advantage of the campaign to oppose the Reform and Opening-up program.[7][8] After all, Deng agreed to end the campaign in mid-1987 and supported the on-going political forms.[7][8] In 2018 the Communist Party of China revised regulations on Party disciplinary action, expelling members from the Party if they openly adhere to bourgeois liberalization online.[citation needed]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ CPC Constitution, CPC English Website, http://english.cpc.people.com.cn/65732/6758063.html Archived 2013-05-24 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "邓小平反对资产阶级自由化的思想及当代启示--理论-人民网". theory.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  3. ^ "邓小平:"坚持四项基本原则,任何时候我都没有让过步!"--邓小平纪念网--人民网". cpc.people.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  4. ^ "Communist Party Says Anti-Liberalism Campaign Applies to Writers, Consumers". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  5. ^ "China's former Communist Party propaganda chief Deng Liqun dies aged 100". South China Morning Post. 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  6. ^ "China: The Conservative Challenge to Reform" (PDF). CIA.
  7. ^ a b c Wu, Wei (2014-03-31). "围绕"反自由化"进行的博弈". New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  8. ^ a b Wu, Wei (2014-04-08). "赵紫阳改变"大气候"的 "5.13讲话"". New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-05-04.