Bourguibism

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Bourguibism (Arabic: البورقيبية‎‎ al-Būrqībiyah, French: bourguibisme) refers to the policies of Habib Bourguiba, first president of Tunisia, and his followers.

Bourguibism is defined by a strong commitment to national independence and a specifically Tunisian nationalism (as opposed to pan-Maghrebi or pan-Arabic ideas, given that Tunisia would only have played a minor role in a potential pan-Arabic project which would likely have been dominated by Egypt),[1][2] a state capitalist approach on economic development,[3][4] welfare state,[5] a statist and corporatist interpretation of populism,[6] strict secularism,[7] and cultural modernity, advocating Tunisia's place as a bridge between Arab-Islamic and Western civilisation.[8] Bourguibism is responsible for Tunisia's modern marriage laws with equal rights for women (unlike Islamic law), as well as women's relatively strong role in economy, society and labour.[9][10] While Bourguibists condemned Tunisians who had collaborated with the French colonial rulers,[11] they did not repress the strong European cultural influence on Tunisia and French continued to be the language of higher education and elite culture.[12] Bourguibism is sometimes described as a variety of Kemalism but with focus on the Tunisian identity.[13]

As a political style or strategy, Bourguibism is characterised by intransigence in pursuing certain goals and non-negotiable principles combined with flexibility in negotiations and readiness to compromise considering the means to effectuate them.[14] It is therefore described as pragmatic, non-ideologic, moderate, proceeding step-by-step rather than revolutionary, but determined and relentless at the same time.[15][16] For example, despite being decidedly secularist, Bourguiba made sure to curtail the public role of Islam only carefully and gradually, in order not to arouse opposition from conservative Muslims.[12]

Political parties with Bourguibist platforms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Brown, L. Carl (2001). "Bourguiba and Bourguibism Revisited: Reflections and Interpretation". Middle East Journal. 55 (1): 43–57. 

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alexander, Christopher (2010). Tunisia: Stability and Reform in the Modern Maghreb. Routledge. pp. 100–101. 
  2. ^ Hudson, Michael C. (1977). Arab Politics: The Search for Legitimacy. Yale University Press. p. 385. 
  3. ^ Alexander, Christopher (2010). Tunisia: Stability and Reform in the Modern Maghreb. Routledge. pp. 7, 112. 
  4. ^ Ayubi, Nazih N. (2009). Over-stating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East. I.B. Tauris. p. 212. 
  5. ^ Cassarino, Jean-Pierre (2004). Participatory Development and Liberal Reforms in Tunisia: The Gradual Incorporation of Some Economic Networks. Networks of Privilege in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 229. 
  6. ^ Podeh, Elie; Winckler, Onn. Introduction: Nasserism as a Form of Populism. Rethinking Nasserism: Revolution and Historical Memory in Modern Egypt. p. 27. 
  7. ^ Hudson, Michael C. (1977). Arab Politics: The Search for Legitimacy. Yale University Press. pp. 380–381. 
  8. ^ Voll, John Obert (1994). Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World (Second ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 331. 
  9. ^ Sorenson, David S. (2014). An Introduction to the Modern Middle East: History, Religion, Political Economy, Politics (Second ed.). Westview Press. p. 383. 
  10. ^ Browers, Michaelle L. (2006). Democracy and Civil Society in Arab Political Thought: Transcultural Possibilities. Syracuse University Press. p. 173. 
  11. ^ Angrist, Michele Penner (2006). Party Building in the Modern Middle East. University of Washington Press. p. 112. 
  12. ^ a b Esposito, John L.; Voll, John O. (2001). Makers of Contemporary Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 92. 
  13. ^ Steve A. Cook (12 November 2014). "Tunisia: First Impressions". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  14. ^ Moore, Clement Henry (1965). Tunisia Since Independence: The Dynamics of One-Party Government. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–45. 
  15. ^ Alexander, Christopher (2010). Tunisia: Stability and Reform in the Modern Maghreb. Routledge. p. 111. 
  16. ^ Steel, Ronals, ed. (1967). North Africa. The Reference Shelf. 38. H. W. Wilson Co. p. 104.  Missing or empty |title= (help)