Boutros Boutros-Ghali

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Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ-Ⲅⲁⲗⲓ
بطرس بطرس غالي
Naelachohanboutrosghali-2.jpg
Boutros-Ghali at UNESCO in Paris, 2002
Secretary-General of the United Nations
In office
1 January 1992 – 31 December 1996
Preceded byJavier Pérez de Cuéllar
Succeeded byKofi Annan
Secretary-General of La Francophonie
In office
16 November 1997 – 31 December 2002
Preceded byJean-Louis Roy as Secretary General of the ACCT
Succeeded byAbdou Diouf
Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
17 September 1978 – 17 February 1979
Prime Minister
Preceded byMuhammad Ibrahim Kamel
Succeeded byMustafa Khalil
In office
17 November 1977 – 15 December 1977
Prime MinisterMamdouh Salem
Preceded byIsmail Fahmi
Succeeded byMuhammad Ibrahim Kamel
Personal details
Born(1922-11-14)14 November 1922
Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Died16 February 2016(2016-02-16) (aged 93)
Cairo, Egypt
Political party
Alma mater
Signature

Boutros Boutros-Ghali (/ˈbtrɒs ˈɡɑːli/; Coptic: Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ-Ⲅⲁⲗⲓ, Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Buṭrus Buṭrus Ghālī, Egyptian Arabic: [ˈbotɾos ˈɣæːli]; 14 November 1922 – 16 February 2016) was an Egyptian politician and diplomat who served as the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from 1992 to 1996. An academic who previously served as acting foreign minister and vice foreign minister of Egypt, Boutros-Ghali oversaw the UN over a period coinciding with several world crises, including the break-up of Yugoslavia and the Rwandan genocide.[1] He went on to serve as the first Secretary-General of La Francophonie from 1997 to 2002.

Early life and education[edit]

Boutros Boutros-Ghali was born in Cairo, Egypt, on 14 November 1922 into a Coptic Christian family.[2][unreliable source?] His father Yusuf Butros Ghali was the son of Boutros Ghali Bey then Pasha (also his namesake), who was Prime Minister of Egypt from 1908 until he was assassinated in 1910.[3][4] His mother Safela Mikhail Sharubim was daughter of Mikhail Sharubim (1861–1920), a prominent public servant and historian.[5]

Boutros-Ghali graduated from Cairo University in 1946.[6] He received a PhD in international law from the Faculty of Law of Paris (University of Paris) and diploma in international relations from the Sciences Po in 1949. During 1949–1979, he was appointed Professor of International Law and International Relations at Cairo University. He became President of the Centre of Political and Strategic Studies in 1975 and President of the African Society of Political Studies in 1980. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar at Columbia University from 1954 to 1955, Director of the Centre of Research at The Hague Academy of International Law from 1963 to 1964, and Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Law at the Faculty of Law of Paris from 1967 to 1968. In 1986 he received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Law at Uppsala University, Sweden.[7] He was also the Honorary Rector of the Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, a branch of Kyunghee University Seoul.[citation needed]

Political career[edit]

Boutros-Ghali (left) and Moshe Dayan at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, 1979

Boutros-Ghali's political career developed during the presidency of Anwar Sadat. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union from 1974 to 1977. He served as Egypt's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs from 1977 until early 1991. He then became Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs for several months before moving to the UN. As Minister of State, he played a part in the peace agreements between President Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin.[8]

According to investigative journalist Linda Melvern, Boutros-Ghali approved a secret $26 million arms sale to the government of Rwanda in 1990 when he was foreign minister, the weapons stockpiled by the Hutu regime as part of the fairly public, long-term preparations for the subsequent genocide. He was serving as UN secretary-general when the killings occurred four years later.[9][page needed][10]

United Nations Secretary-General[edit]

1991 selection[edit]

Boutros-Ghali ran for Secretary-General of the United Nations in the 1991 selection. The top post in the UN was opening up as Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru reached the end of his second term, and Africa was next in the rotation. Boutros-Ghali tied Bernard Chidzero of Zimbabwe in the first two rounds of polling, edged ahead by one vote in round 3, and fell behind by one vote in round 4. After several countries withdrew their support for Chidzero, fed by fears that the United States was trying to eliminate both of the leading candidates, Boutros-Ghali won a clear victory in round 5.[11]

Tenure (1992–1996)[edit]

Boutros-Ghali, Klaus Schwab and Flavio Cotti at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos, 1995

Boutros-Ghali's term in office remains controversial. In 1992, he submitted An Agenda for Peace, a suggestion for how the UN could respond to violent conflict. He set three goals: for the UN to be more active in promoting democracy, for the UN to conduct preventative diplomacy to avert crises, and to expand the UN's role as peacekeeper.[12] Although the goals were consistent with those of US president George H. W. Bush, he nevertheless clashed repeatedly with the United States, especially with his efforts to involve the UN more deeply in the civil wars in Somalia (1992) and in Rwanda (1994). The United States refused to send peace enforcement units under UN leadership.[13]

Boutros-Ghali was criticised for the UN's failure to act during the 1994 Rwandan genocide, during which over a half million people were killed.[14][15] Boutros-Ghali also appeared unable to muster support in the UN for intervention in the continuing Angolan Civil War. One of the hardest tasks during his term was dealing with the crisis of the Yugoslav Wars after the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia. The UN peacekeeping force was ineffective in Bosnia, forcing the intervention by NATO in December 1995. His reputation became entangled in the larger controversies over the effectiveness of the UN and the role of the United States in the UN.

Some Somalis believed[weasel words] he was responsible for an escalation of the Somalia crisis by undertaking a personal vendetta against Mohamed Farrah Aidid and his Habar Gidir clan, favouring their rivals the Darod, the clan of the former dictator Siad Barre. It was believed[weasel words] that he demanded the 12 July 1993 US helicopter attack on a meeting of Habar Gidir clan leaders, who were meeting to discuss a peace initiative put forward by the leader of the UN Mission in Mogadishu, retired US Admiral Jonathan Howe. It is generally believed[weasel words] that the majority of the clan elders were eager to arrange a peace and to rein in the provocative activities of their clan leader Aidid, but, after this attack on a peaceful meeting, the clan was resolved on fighting the Americans and the UN, leading to the Battle of Mogadishu on 3–4 October 1993.[16]

Second term vetoed[edit]

Boutros-Ghali ran unopposed for the customary second term in 1996, despite efforts by the United States to unseat him. US ambassador Madeleine Albright asked Boutros-Ghali to resign and offered to establish a foundation for him to run, an offer that other Western diplomats called "ludicrous".[17] American diplomatic pressure also had no effect, as other members of the Security Council remained unwavering in their support for Boutros-Ghali. He won 14 of the 15 votes in the Security Council, but the sole negative vote was a US veto.[18][19] After four deadlocked meetings of the Security Council, France offered a compromise in which Boutros-Ghali would be appointed to a short term of two years, but the United States rejected the French offer. Finally, Boutros-Ghali suspended his candidacy, becoming the only Secretary-General ever to be denied a second term by a veto.

Later life[edit]

Boutros-Ghali with Naela Chohan at UNESCO in Paris, 2002

From 1997 to 2002, Boutros-Ghali was Secretary-General of La Francophonie, an organisation of French-speaking nations. From 2002 to 2005, he served as the chairman of the board of the South Centre,[20] an intergovernmental research organisation of developing countries. Boutros-Ghali played a "significant role"[21] in creating Egypt's National Council for Human Rights, and served as its president until 2012.[22][23]

Boutros-Ghali supported the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly and was one of the initial signatories of the Campaign's appeal in 2007. In a message to the Campaign, he stressed the necessity to establish democratic participation of citizens at the global level.[24] From 2009 to 2015 he also participated as jury member for the Conflict Prevention Prize, awarded every year by the Fondation Chirac.[25]

Personal life and death[edit]

Boutros-Ghali's wife, Leia Maria Nadler, was raised in an Egyptian Jewish family in Alexandria and converted to Catholicism as a young woman.[6][26]

Boutros-Ghali died aged 93 in a Cairo hospital, after having been admitted for a broken pelvis or leg, on 16 February 2016.[27][28][29] A military funeral was held for him with prayers led by Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria. He is buried at Petrine Church in Abbassia, Cairo.[30]

Honorary degrees[edit]

He received an honorary degree from Sciences Po, Russian Academy of Sciences, Catholic University of Leuven, Université Laval, Université de Moncton, Carleton University, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Charles III University of Madrid, University of Bucharest, Baku State University, Yerevan State University, University of Haifa, University of Vienna, University of Melbourne, Seoul National University, Waseda University, University of Bordeaux,[citation needed] and Uppsala University.[31]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Honours[edit]

Egyptian national honours[edit]

Ribbon Description Year
EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR.png Grand Collar of the Order of the Nile [year needed]
EGY Order of the Republic - Grand Cordon BAR.png Grand Cordon of the Order of the Arab Republic of Egypt [year needed]
EGY Order of Merit - Grand Cross BAR.png Grand Cross of the Order of Merit [year needed]

Foreign honours[edit]

Ribbon Country Honour Year
ARG Order of the Liberator San Martin - Grand Cross BAR.png Argentina Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín [year needed]
Grand Crest Ordre de Leopold.png Belgium Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold [year needed]
BRA Order of the Southern Cross - Grand Cross BAR.png Brazil Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross [year needed]
CAN Order of Canada Companion ribbon.svg Canada Companion of the Order of Canada[32] 2003
CAR Ordre de la Reconnaissance Centrafricaine GC ribbon Central African Republic Grand Cross of the Order of Central African recognition [year needed]
CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR.svg Chile Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit [year needed]
Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar.png Colombia Grand Cross of the Order of Boyaca [year needed]
Order of the Elephant Ribbon bar.svg Denmark Knight of the Order of the Elephant [year needed]
Ribbon bar of Orden Nacional de San Lorenzo.png Ecuador Grand Cross of the National Order of San Lorenzo [year needed]
National Order of José Matias Delgado (El Salvador) - ribbon bar.gif El Salvador Grand Cross with Silver Star of the Order of José Matías Delgado [year needed]
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg France Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour[33] 1994
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 9 Sond des Grosskreuzes Germany Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany [year needed]
GRE Order Redeemer 1Class.png Greece Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer [year needed]
Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR.svg Italy Knight Grand Cross with Collar Order of Merit of the Italian Republic[34] 1982
Cote d'Ivoire Ordre du merite ivoirien GC ribbon.svg Ivory Coast Grand Cross of the Order of Ivory Merit [year needed]
JPN Daikun'i kikkasho BAR.svg Japan Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum [year needed]
LUX Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Grand Cross BAR.png Luxembourg Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg [year needed]
Mali Ordre national du Mali GC ribbon.svg Mali Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali [year needed]
MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 1Class BAR Mexico Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle [year needed]
Most Refulgent Order of the Star of Nepal.PNG Nepal Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of Nepal [year needed]
PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Cross BAR.png Peru Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru [year needed]
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR.png Portugal Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry[35] 1996
Ordre de la Pléiade (Francophonie).gif Quebec Grand Cross of the Order of La Pléiade [year needed]
Star of Romania Ribbon.PNG Romania Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania [year needed]
SEN Order of the Lion – Grand Cross BAR Senegal Grand Cross of the National Order of the Lion [year needed]
Grand Order of Mugunghwa (South Korea) - ribbon bar.gif South Korea Grand Cross of the Grand Order of Mugunghwa [year needed]
MaltaBali Sovereign Military Order of Malta Grand Cross of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [year needed]
Order of the Polar Star (after 1975) - Commander Grand Cross.svg Sweden Grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star [year needed]

Published works[edit]

As Secretary-General, Boutros-Ghali wrote An Agenda for Peace. He also published other memoirs:

In English[edit]

  • The Arab League, 1945–1955: Ten Years of Struggle, ed. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York, 1954
  • New Dimensions of Arms Regulations and Disarmament in the Post Cold War, ed. United Nations, New York, 1992
  • An Agenda for Development, ed. United Nations, New York, 1995
  • Confronting New Challenges, ed. United Nations, New York, 1995
  • Fifty Years of the United Nations, ed. William Morrow, New York, 1995
  • The 50th Anniversary: Annual Report on the Work of the Organization, ed. United Nations, New York, 1996
  • An Agenda for Democratization, ed. United Nations, New York, 1997
  • Egypt's Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat's Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East, ed. Random House, New York, 1998
  • Essays on Leadership (with George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Desmond Tutu), ed. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Washington, 1998
  • Unvanquished: A US-UN Saga, ed. I. B. Tauris, New York, 1999
  • The Papers of United Nations Secretary (with Charles Hill), ed. Yale University Press, New York, 2003
  • The Arab League, 1945–1955: International Conciliation,, ed. Literary Licensing Publisher, London, 2013

In French[edit]

  • Contribution à l'étude des ententes régionales, ed. Pedone, Paris, 1949
  • Cours de Diplomatie et de Droit Diplomatique et consulaire, ed. Librairie Anglo-égyptienne, Cairo, 1951
  • Le problème du canal de Suez, ed. Société égyptienne du droit international, Cairo, 1957
  • Le principe d'égalité des États et des organisations internationales, ed. Académie de droit international, Leiden, 1961
  • Contribution à une théorie générale des alliances, ed. Pedone, Paris, 1963
  • Le Mouvement afro-asiatique, ed. Presses universitaires de France, Paris, 1969
  • L'organisation de l'Unité africaine, ed. Armand Colin, Paris, 1969
  • Les difficultés institutionnelles du panafricanisme, ed. Institut Universitaire des Hautes études Internationales, Geneva, 1971
  • Les conflits des frontières en Afrique, ed. Techniques et Économiques, Paris, 1972
  • Contribution à une théorie générale des alliances, ed. Pedone, Paris, 1991
  • L'interaction démocratie et développement [eds.], ed. Unesco, Paris, 2002
  • Démocratiser la mondialisation, ed. Rocher, Paris, 2002
  • Émanciper la Francophonie, ed. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2003
  • 60 Ans de conflit israélo-arabe : Témoignages pour l'Histoire (with Shimon Peres), ed. Complexes, Paris, 2006

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Goshko, John M. (16 February 2016). "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, U.N. secretary general who clashed with U.S., dies". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  2. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali Biography – life, family, history, young, infor…". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2022 – via archive.today.
  3. ^ Reid, Donald M. (1982). "Political Assassination in Egypt, 1910–1954". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 15 (4): 625–651. doi:10.2307/217848. JSTOR 217848.
  4. ^ Goldschmidt 1993, pp. 183, 188.
  5. ^ Goldschmidt 1993, p. 183.
  6. ^ a b Goshko, John M. (16 February 2016). "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, U.N. secretary general who clashed with U.S., dies at 93". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  7. ^ Naylor, David. "Honorary doctorates". Uppsala University, Sweden. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  8. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali: The world is his oyster". Weekly Ahram. 18 January 2006. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  9. ^ Melvern 2000.
  10. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (December 2000). "A PEOPLE BETRAYED: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. - Review – book review". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2022 – via Find Articles.
  11. ^ Lewis, Paul (23 November 1991). "How U.N. Nominee Won: 4 Switched". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ Jentleson & Paterson 1997, p. 167.
  14. ^ Meierhenrich, Jens (2 January 2020). "How Many Victims Were There in the Rwandan Genocide? A Statistical Debate". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 72–82. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1709611. ISSN 1462-3528. S2CID 213046710.
  15. ^ Reydams, Luc (3 April 2021). "'More than a million': the politics of accounting for the dead of the Rwandan genocide". Review of African Political Economy. 48 (168): 235–256. doi:10.1080/03056244.2020.1796320. ISSN 0305-6244. S2CID 225356374.
  16. ^ Bowden 1999, pp. 83–84.
  17. ^ Crossette, Barbara (5 December 1996). "U.N. Leader Halts Bid for New Term but Does Not Quit". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  18. ^ Goshko, John M. (19 November 1996). "U.S. Sides Against Second Term for U.N. Chief in Informal Vote". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  19. ^ Crossette, Barbara (20 November 1996). "Round One in the U.N. Fight: A U.S. Veto of Boutros-Ghali". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  20. ^ "The South Centre | Press release, 22 February 2016". Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  21. ^ "Egypt: NCHR Mourns Death of Boutros Ghali". AllAfrica. 21 February 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  22. ^ Diab, Khaled (17 February 2016). "Make diplomacy, not war". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  23. ^ "Who's who in Egypt's reshuffled Human Rights Council – Politics – Egypt". Ahram Online. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  24. ^ "Message from Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali" (PDF). Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  25. ^ "The Jury | Fondation Chirac". Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  26. ^ "At Home With: Boutros Boutros-Ghali". The New York Times. 20 July 1997. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  27. ^ "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, former UN head, dies at 93". BBC News. 16 February 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  28. ^ Botelho, Greg (16 February 2016). "Former U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali dies". CNN. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  29. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (16 February 2016). "Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Former U.N. Secretary General, Dies at 93". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  30. ^ "Boutros-Ghali to be buried at family's Italian-style church". Egypt Independent. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  31. ^ Nevéus 2000, p. 51.
  32. ^ "Order of Canada". archive.gg.ca. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  33. ^ "Mitterrand décore Boutros-Ghali". L'Humanité (in French). 27 October 1994. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  34. ^ "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana". quirinale.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  35. ^ "CUELLAR Javier Perez de". ordens.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 16 May 2022.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Foreign Affairs
Acting

1977
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Foreign Affairs
Acting

1978–1979
Succeeded by
Positions in intergovernmental organisations
Preceded by Secretary-General of the United Nations
1992–1996
Succeeded by
Preceded byas Secretary General of the Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Secretary General of La Francophonie
1997–2002
Succeeded by