Boxer (Animal Farm)
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|First appearance||Animal Farm|
|Last appearance||Animal Farm (Only Appearance)|
|Created by||George Orwell|
|Voiced by||Maurice Denham (1954 film) |
Paul Scofield (1999 film)
|Occupation||Labourer at Animal Farm|
Boxer is described as a hardworking, but naive and ignorant cart horse in George Orwell's Animal Farm. He is shown as the farm's most dedicated and loyal laborer. Boxer serves as an allegory for the Russian working-class who helped to oust Tsar Nicholas and establish the Soviet Union, but were eventually betrayed by the Stalinists.
Boxer can only remember four letters of the alphabet at a time, but sees the importance of education and aspires to learn the rest of the alphabet during his retirement (which never happens). Boxer is a loyal supporter of Napoleon, and he listens to everything the self-appointed ruler of the farm says and assumes, sometimes with doubt, that everything Napoleon tells the farm animals is true, hence "Napoleon is always right."
Boxer's strength plays a huge part in keeping Animal Farm together prior to his death: the rest of the animals trusted in it to keep their spirits high during the long and hard laborious winters. Boxer was the only close friend of Benjamin, the cynical donkey.
Boxer fights in the Battle of the Cowshed and the Battle of the Windmill, but is upset when he thinks he has killed a stable boy when, in fact, he had only stunned him. When Boxer defends Snowball's reputation from Squealer's revisionism, the pigs designate him as a target for the Great Purge, but he easily out muscles the dog executioners, sparing them at Napoleon's request. When he collapses from overwork, the pigs say they have sent him to a veterinarian, when they actually have sent him to the knacker's yard to be slaughtered, in exchange for money to buy a case of whiskey for the pigs to drink. Benjamin, who is described as "devoted to Boxer," recognizes that the dogcart that Boxer is taken away in is the knacker's; however, Squealer deceives the other animals by saying that the dogcart was possessed by a veterinarian who failed to repaint the dogcart. Squealer concocts a sentimental tale of the death of Boxer, saying that he was given the best medical care possible, paid for by the "compassionate" Napoleon.
During Old Major's speech, which inspired the principles of Animalism, a specific reference is made to how Boxer would be turned into glue under Farmer Jones' rule, thus implying that it would not happen to him under Animalism. "You, Boxer, the very day that those great muscles of yours lose their power, Jones will send you to the knacker, he will cut your throat and boil you down for the fox-hounds." 
Real life model
Boxer is based on a coal miner named Alexey Stakhanov who was famous for working over his quota. The Joseph Stalin Regime built a cult of personality around him that rewarded workers who showed a similar heroic dedication to production and efficiency. He supported Joseph Stalin.