Boxing in the United States
|Boxing in the United States|
|Governing body||USA Boxing|
|National team(s)||United States Olympics team|
The sport of boxing came to the United States from England in the late 1700s and took root in the 1800s mainly in large urban areas such as Boston, New York City, and New Orleans.
In 1920, the Walker Law legalized prizefighting in New York state by establishing the New York State Athletic Commission. In response, representatives from 13 states established the National Boxing Association and also began to sanction title fights. The NYSAC and NBA sometimes crowned different "world champions" in the same division, leading to confusion about who was the real champion.
After World War II, television took on an important role in professional boxing. It was popular because of its relatively low production costs compared with other sports, professional boxing was a major feature of television programming throughout much of the 1950s and early 1960s.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Muhammad Ali became an iconic figure, transformed the role and image of the African American athlete in America by his embrace of racial pride, and transcended the sport by refusing to serve in the Vietnam War. In the 1980s and 1990s, major boxers such as Mike Tyson and Riddick Bowe were marked by crime and self-destruction.
The Amateur Athletic Union of the United States was founded in 1888 and began its annual championships in boxing the same year. In 1926 the Chicago Tribune started a boxing competition called the Golden Gloves. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation (now USA Boxing), which governs American amateur boxing, was formed after Amateur Sports Act of 1978 enabled the governance of sports in the US by organizations other than the AAU. This act made each sport set up its own National governing body (NGB). Each of these governing bodies would be part of the United States Olympic Committee, but would not be run by the Committee.
An international organization for amateur boxing was begun in 1946, known as the International Amateur Boxing Association. The development amateur scene of boxing has seen the United States as a world beater. In the Olympics the US has won 106 Olympic medals to date: 47 gold, 23 silver and 36 bronzes. Most heavyweight champions of this century originate from the United States.
The first recorded women's boxing match in the United States occurred in New York in 1888, when Hattie Leslie beat Alice Leary in a brutal fight.
Women's boxing at a professional and amateur was rarely acknowledged until 1970's Cathy 'Cat' Davis , Marian “Tyger” Trimiar and Jackie Tonawanda were pioneers as they were the first women in the United States to get a license for boxing in the United States. Cathty Davis was the female boxer to appear on the cover of Ring Magazine.
In the 1990s, Women's boxing had a brief period of popularity due to likes of Christy Martin and Laila Ali. But early into 2000's, the sport fell back to relative obscurity due to lack of promotion, television exposure and poor matchmaking. Many female professional boxers in the United States struggle to make a viable living due to lack of finical opportunities and promotional opportunities. In 2012, interest in women's boxing was revived when women were allowed to compete in boxing at the Olympic games for the first time.
Television and media coverage
Boxing used to be a popular staple viewing on American television due to its low costs and production values and was broadcast on all the major networks. Since the 1970s, it is mostly broadcast on pay-per-view and pay television channels, like HBO and Showtime. However, this and a myriad of factors resulted the sport's decline in popularity beginning in the late 1990s. One noted factor was the sport's exclusivity to these premium outlets, while mixed martial arts events were eventually broadcast on major television networks and more accessible platforms, drawing in a younger demographic and more mainstream coverage.
It was hoped that the 2015 Floyd Mayweather Jr. vs. Manny Pacquiao PPV would re-invigorate interest in the sport in the United States, but the eponymous main event was considered disappointing and was perceived as doing further harm to the image of the sport. 2015 would also mark the launch of Al Haymon's Premier Boxing Champions, which would help reintroduce the sport to mainstream audiences by airing events on both broadcast and cable networks and incorporating thematic elements to court younger viewership. At its peak, the series saw 4.8 million viewers for the 2016 Errol Spence Jr. vs Leonard Bundu telecast on NBC.
The 2017 exhibition match between Floyd Mayweather Jr. vs. Conor McGregor garnered major mainstream attention, in-part due to the celebrity status of UFC fighter Conor McGregor. The event received 4.3 million domestic buys; the second-highest buy rate in pay-per-view history. In the same year, Top Rank began a multi-year broadcasting agreement with ESPN, in which the network would broadcast events airing across its linear and digital properties, and an option to carry events on pay-per-view. ESPN would extend the agreement through 2025 on August 2, 2018.
- Boxing Firms in the U.S
- Boxing on U.S Television
- Sugden, John (19 August 1996). Boxing and Society: An International Analysis. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719043215. Retrieved 19 August 2017 – via Google Books.
- Fields, Sarah K. (1 October 2010). Female Gladiators: Gender, Law, and Contact Sport in America. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252091209. Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via Google Books.
- Cummins, Walter M.; Gordon, George G. (1 January 2006). Programming Our Lives: Television and American Identity. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275990206. Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via Google Books.
- Heiskanen, Benita (31 May 2012). The Urban Geography of Boxing: Race, Class, and Gender in the Ring. Routledge. ISBN 9781136314131 – via Google Books.
- Grasso, John (14 November 2013). Historical Dictionary of Boxing. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810878679 – via Google Books.
- Smith, Kevin (1 October 2002). Boston's Boxing Heritage: Prizefighting from 1882 to 1955. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738511368. Retrieved 19 August 2017 – via Google Books.
- "The Business Of Boxing - AMERICAN HERITAGE". www.americanheritage.com. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Floyd, Manny and the death of boxing". Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Floyd, Manny and the death of boxing". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Corbett, James J. (2008-04-01). Scientific Boxing: The Deluxe Edition. Promethean Press. ISBN 9780973769890.
- "Boxing the Color Line - American Experience - PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Mullan, Harry (1996). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Boxing. London: Carlton Books. p. 121. ISBN 0-7858-0641-5.
- Socolow, Michael (October 29, 2019). "Why boxing disappeared after the Rumble in the Jungle — and why football could, too". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
- Barra, Allen. "Why Can't America Love a Ukrainian Heavyweight Boxing Champ?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
- "To fix a broken U.S. boxing Olympic program, why not a Dream Team?". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2015-10-01.
- "Olympics 2016: Five reasons why U.S. men's boxing has been so bad". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
- "Down but Not Out". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
- "Striking a Blow for Equality : Dallas Malloy has won her fight to be America's first sanctioned female amateur boxer. The scrappy 16-year-old knows the rewards of blood, sweat and a killer instinct". Articles.latimes.com. 1993-10-18. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
- "Wilbon: U.S. boxing simply a mess". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Kates, Brian (2003-06-24). "PRETTIER THAN MEN Cat Davis vs. Floyd Patterson Chapter 104". The New York Daily News. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- "Women Try Boxing on the Coast". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- "Women Have Been Boxing in the Shadows for Too Long". The New York Times. 15 August 2016.
- Smith, Malissa (2014). A History of Women's Boxing. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 263. ISBN 9781442229952. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "ESPN.com: BOXING - Women's boxing becoming a real joke". A.espncdn.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Brown, Sarah (2014-05-13). "Against the Ropes". Bitchmedia.org. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
- "The Real Knockouts of Women's Boxing". The Atlantic. 2015-01-16. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
- Raskin, Alex (6 July 2016). "Women's Boxing Fights for Exposure". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Nolan, Hamilton (3 August 2012). "Is There a Future for Women's Boxing?" – via Slate.
- "HBO to end live boxing programming this year". Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- "Will McGregor v Mayweather save American boxing – or bury it?". 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017 – via The Guardian.
- "Boxing takes a hit from MMA's growing popularity". Toronto Star.
- "Boxing Is a Brutal, Fading Sport. Could Football Be Next?". The New York Times. 9 November 2015.
- "Boxing and horse racing aren't coming back (but they won't go away)". 6 May 2015.
- Connor, Patrick (12 May 2015). "Mayweather-Pacquiao is over and boxing is dead, again" – via The Guardian.
- Maese, Rick. "Before Mayweather-McGregor, poll shows MMA isn't stealing boxing's popularity". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
- "With boxing's return to prime-time network TV, Al Haymon makes his move". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- "Is HBO vs. Al Haymon Boxing's Next Big Fight?". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- PBC Posts Third-Best Audience, Tops NBA, in Return to CBS - Paulsen, Sports Media Watch, 8 March 2017
- Polacek, Scott. "Floyd Mayweather vs. Conor McGregor Final Showtime PPV Buys Rank 2nd All Time". Bleacher Report. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- "Top Rank signs exclusive 4-year deal with ESPN". ESPN. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
- Ramos, Dino-Ray (August 26, 2017). "ESPN And Top Rank Announce Multi-Year Agreement For New Fight Series". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
- Hayes, Dade (2018-08-02). "ESPN Sets Landmark Boxing Deal With Top Rank Through 2025". Deadline. Retrieved 2018-08-02.