Boys Over Flowers (TV series)

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Boys Over Flowers
Boys Over Flowers (TV series) poster.jpg
Promotional poster for Boys Over Flowers.
Also known asBoys before Flowers
Genre
Based onBoys Over Flowers
by Yoko Kamio
Written byYoon Ji-ryun
Directed byJeon Ki-sang
Starring
Opening theme"Paradise" by T-Max
Ending theme
  • "Because I'm Stupid" by SS501
  • "Making a Lover" by SS501
Country of originSouth Korea
Original language(s)Korean
No. of episodes25
Production
Executive producer(s)Kim Hyeong-il
Producer(s)Gwak Jeong-hwan
Production location(s)
Production company(s)Group 8
Release
Original networkKorean Broadcasting System
Original releaseJanuary 5 (2009-01-05) – March 31, 2009 (2009-03-31)
External links
Website
Korean name
Hangul꽃보다 남자
Hanja꽃보다 男|子
Revised RomanizationKkot Boda Namja
McCune–ReischauerKkot Poda Namja

Boys Over Flowers (Hangul꽃보다 남자; Hanja꽃보다 男子) is a 2009 South Korean television series that earned high viewership ratings in South Korea and popularity throughout Asia.[1][2] It stars Ku Hye-sun, Lee Min-ho, Kim Hyun-joong, Kim Bum, Kim Joon and Kim So-eun. It aired for 25 episodes on KBS2 from January 5 to March 31, 2009.[3]

The series is about an average girl who gets tangled up in the lives of an arrogant rich boy and his friends, and is based on the Japanese shōjo manga series Boys Over Flowers (花より男子, Hana Yori Dango) written by Yoko Kamio.[4] The series is the fifth television adaptation of the manga following the Taiwanese Meteor Garden and its sequel Meteor Garden II, and the Japanese Hana Yori Dango and its sequel Hana Yori Dango Returns.[5] The newest edition of this series is Meteor Garden, a Chinese adaptation.

Plot[edit]

Shinhwa Group is shown to be one of South Korea's largest conglomerates and is headed by the strictly arrogant Kang Hee-soo. Her son Gu Jun-pyo (Lee Min-ho) is the leader of F4, the most popular and powerful boy group at the prestigious Shinhwa High School. Yoon Ji-hoo (Kim Hyun-Joong), So Yi-jung, and Song Woo-bin - Gu Jun-pyo's friends and rich heirs in their own right - are all members of the group. When F4 bullies a boy to the verge of suicide, the poor but vivacious Geum Jan-di (Ku Hye-sun) saves his life and receives a swimming scholarship to attend the High School. Geum Jan-di's family runs a dry cleaning business and she lives in a small home with her parents, Geum Il-bong and Na Gong-joo, and her younger brother Geum Kang-san.

Immediately, Geum Jan-di dislikes her wealthy classmates and is disgusted by the obsession surrounding the F4 boys. Irked by her strong-headed nature, Gu Jun-pyo singles out Geum Jan-di to bully but she stands up to him and he begins to fall in love with her. Meanwhile, Geum Jan-di develops feelings for Yoon Ji-hoo. She soon discovers that Yoon Ji-hoo fosters a one-sided love for Min Seo-hyun, a successful model and his childhood friend. After Yoon Ji-hoo leaves the country to pursue a relationship with Min Seo-hyun, Geum Jan-di begins to grudgingly spend more time with Gu Jun-pyo. He declares to the school that she is his girlfriend. Shortly afterward, Geum Jan-di's friend Oh Min-ji drugs her at a party and takes pictures of her laying unconscious in bed with a guy. When the photos are leaked in the school, Gu Jun-pyo is outraged and believes that Geum Jan-di has been cheating on her. Subsequently, his fans and crowd of adoring classmates begin to bully and abuse Geum Jan-di. Oh Min-ji secretly discloses to Gu Jun-pyo of her involvement with the photos. It is revealed that they have been classmates since kindergarten, and that Oh Min-ji has long been trying to win his attention by undergoing cosmetic plastic surgery. Gu Jun-pyo shuns Oh Min-ji for betraying her friend and rushes to save Geum Jan-di, who is attacked by bullies. He apologizes for doubting her and their bond grows stronger.

Yoon Ji-hoo returns, causing Geum Jan-di to feel confused about her feelings. While Gu Jun-pyo relentlessly tries to shower her with affection, she is increasingly distracted by Yoon Ji-hoo. During a weekend trip on a private island, Gu Jun-pyo walks in on her sharing a kiss with Yoon Ji-hoo and he expresses his hurt in a rage. The next morning, he leaves the island and becomes reclusive, causing Geum Jan-di to feel guilty. She realizes that she is in love with him and declares this when Gu Jun-pyo feigns an accident. In the meantime her best friend, Chu Ga-eul, bonds with F4 member So Yi-jung. When Kang Hee-soo learns of Gu Jun-pyo and Geum Jan-di's relationship, she executes numerous attempts to humiliate Geum Jan-di and her family due to their social status. Geum Jan-di perseveres and finds a friend in an overly-helpful model, who helps her earn money by modeling for a magazine. This angers Gu Jun-pyo as he feels hurt by Geum Jan-di seeking help from someone else. When she is kidnapped by the model, it is revealed that he is the younger brother of the student whose suicide Geum Jan-di had prevented, and he seeks revenge. Gu Jun-pyo arrives alone and the model has him beat up in front of a tied up Geum Jan-di, but they are rescued by the F4 members in time. However, in this incident Geum Jan-di hurts her shoulder, that prevents her from swimming in future.

After Gu Jun-pyo's father falls ill, his mother forces him to begin training to lead Shinhwa. He leaves the city, turns cold toward his friends and Geum Jan-di, and begins to accompany his mother for formal arrangements. Geum Jan-di and F4 pursue him and try to convince him to break-free, however he turns them away. Kang Hee-soo plots to keep the distance between them and arranges Gu Jun-pyo's engagement with the heiress Ha Jae-kyung. Geum Jan-di approaches Gu Jun-hee, Gu Jun-pyo's loving older sister, to help her find work and she becomes Gu Jun-pyo's personal maid. It is evident that both Gu Jun-pyo and Geum Jan-di still love each other, however Ha Jae-kyung falls in love with Gu Jun-pyo and tries to win him over. She soon realizes that it is futile, and during the procession of their wedding, she refuses to marry Gu Jun-pyo and expresses that she will feel guilty that she was standing in the way for a meant to be relationship.

Geum Jan-di and Gu Jun-pyo reunite, however due to her friends being threatened by his mother, Geum Jan-di leaves the city after spending loving moments with him. Gu Jun-pyo is heartbroken and meets with a car accident while trying to save Yoon Ji-hoo life that causes him to lose his memory of Geum Jan-di. Encouraged by her mother to pursue her heart, Geum Jan-di returns but is saddened that Gu Jun-pyo cannot recall who she is. After asking him to try to remember her name, she jumps in a pool as he watches, causing him to be flooded by memories of them saving each other from drowning. He calls out her name and rescues her and they unite once again. Although he asks her to marry him, they decide it is best to pursue their individual dreams first. Gu Jun-pyo leaves for America, where he furthers the Shinhwa group and becomes a successful businessman.

Four years later, it is shown that Geum Jan-di and Yoon Ji-hoo have graduated medical school, while So Yi-jung is a successful architect and returns from Sweden for Chu Ga-eul, who has become a teacher. Gu Jun-pyo arrives in a helicopter and proposes to Geum Jan-di at the beach side; the rest of the F4 arrive at the same time and they all walk alongside the beach, smiling happily.

Cast[edit]

Ku Hye Sun portrayed the strong-minded Geum Jan-Di.
Lee Min Ho portrayed the arrogant Gu Jun-pyo.
SS501 member Kim Hyun Joong portrayed the quiet Yoon Ji-hoo.

Main[edit]

A dry cleaner's daughter, who is offered a scholarship to attend the prestigious Shinhwa High School. Headstrong, optimistic, stubborn, and kind-hearted, Jan-di readily stands up for her friends when they are being bullied. She gets on Jun-pyo's bad side when she stands up to him, but he soon professes his feelings for her. (Known as Makino Tsukushi in the manga.)[6][7]
The leader of the F4 and heir to the Shinhwa Group, one of the biggest companies in South Korea. He is hot-tempered and believes that there is nothing that money can't buy. Though he's unable to express his feelings, deep down, he has a heart of gold. He torments Jan-di after she stands up to his bullying ways, but ends up falling in love with her and will do anything to protect her. (Known as Domyoji Tsukasa in the manga.)[6][7]
A member of the F4 and the grandson of a former president of Korea. He has a driving phobia after being involved in a car accident that killed his parents and left him the only survivor. He is initially in love with his childhood friend Seo-hyun, who helped him overcome his social anxiety. Calm and gentle, his musical talent catches Jan-di's attention and she begins to develop feelings for him. (Known as Hanazawa Rui in the manga.)[6][7]
A member of the F4 and a skilled potter. His family owns the country's biggest art museum. After losing his first love to his brother, he becomes a Casanova. He eventually changes his playboy ways when he realizes that he likes Ga-eul. (Known as Nishikado Sojiro in the manga.)[6][7]
A member of the F4, his family runs the country's largest construction company, which Woo-bin later admits has strong connections to organized crime. However, he has excellent business sense and is very charismatic. (Known as Mimasaka Akira in the manga.)[7]

Recurring[edit]

People around Jan-di[edit]

People around Jun-pyo[edit]

  • Kim Hyun-joo as Gu Jun-hee, Jun-pyo's older sister
  • Lee Hye-young as Kang Hee-soo, Jun-pyo's mother
  • Jung Ho-bin as Jeong Sang-rok, Jun-pyo's mother's secretary
  • Song Suk-ho as Butler Lee, Jun-pyo's family's butler
  • Kim Young-ok as Jun-pyo's family's head maid

People around Ji-hoo[edit]

  • Han Chae-young as Min Seo-hyun, Ji-hoo's first love
    • Lim Si-eun as young Min Seo-hyun

People around Yi-jung[edit]

Students at Shinhwa High School[edit]

  • Gook Ji-yeon as Choi Jin-hee (aka Ginger)

Source: HanCinema

Differences from the manga[edit]

  • The relationship between the two characters Sojiroh and Yuki (Yi-jeong and Ga-eul in the Korean version) is merely hinted. In the Korean version, their relationship gradually develops throughout the series, having their own significant plotline instead of acting as a subplot.
  • Yoon Ji-hoo has a more significant role in Geum Jan-di's life than the Taiwanese and Japanese versions, more strongly depicted as a romantic companion for most of the drama.
  • Woo-bin's family does not appear in this version, nor is he only interested in older women.
  • How Geum Jan-di came to attend the same school as F4 is changed completely. In the original manga version, Makino's parents sent her to Eitoku against her wishes to attend another high school with her middle school friends because they thought in order to increase chances for Makino to marry a rich guy, she will need to go to a school full of rich people. In the Japanese TV series, Makino decides to apply for Eitoku after seeing Shizuka Todou at the briefing session, wanting to become an amazing person like her. Yet in the Korean version, Jan-di saves a student from committing suicide while delivering laundry (her family owns a dry-cleaning business), and in order to subdue the negative press from the incident, Shinhwa Group offers her a scholarship to the school. Geum Jan-di is reluctant to attend and at first declines, but complied because of parental pressure and because the school has a state-of-the-art swimming pool (she is a competitive swimmer).

Soundtrack[edit]

Boys Over Flowers
Original Sound Track Part 1
Soundtrack album by Various Artists
ReleasedJanuary 8, 2009
GenreK-pop
Part 1[8]
No.TitleArtistLength
1."Paradise"T-Max4:23
2."Because I'm Stupid"SS5014:20
3."Do You Know?"Someday4:12
4."Stand By Me"Shinee4:05
5."Lucky"Ashily4:00
6."Starlight Tear"Kim Yoo-kyung4:04
7."Some"Seo Jin-young4:42
8."One More Time"Tree Bicycle4:23
9."I Know (Saxophone Inst.)"Oh Jun-seong and Lee Jung-sik2:04
10."Dance With Me (Inst.)"Oh Jun-seong1:47
11."Blue Flower (Inst.)"Oh Jun-seong1:46
12."So Sad (Inst.)"Oh Jun-seong2:05
13."Main Title (Paradise Intro)"Oh Jun-seong and T-Max0:51
Boys Over Flowers
Original Sound Track Part 2
Soundtrack album by Various Artists
ReleasedMarch 6, 2009
GenreK-pop
Part 2[9]
No.TitleArtistLength
1."Say Yes"T-Max3:28
2."Wish Ur My Love"T-Max feat. J4:48
3."Yearning Heart"A'ST13:06
4."Making A Lover"SS5013:13
5."What Do I Do"Jisun4:02
6."Love Is Fire"Kara3:20
7."Love U"Howl3:41
8."Something Like Love"Brand New Day4:30
9."Tears Are Falling"Lee Sang-gon4:10
10."Cellogic"Kim Young-min2:04
11."Approach"Dong Yo1:40
12."Strange Sun"Various artists3:40
13."For The Sake Of Love"Park Hye-ri2:02

Reception[edit]

Boys Over Flowers attracted high viewership ratings and buzz throughout South Korea during its broadcast in 2009,[10] and created another Korean Wave throughout Asia. The cast members became household names and shot to stardom overnight, and after the series ended, several of them became the faces of various endorsements and advertisements. The show is credited with launching the career of its lead actor, Lee Min-ho, who had previously appeared in a small number of low-budget high school dramas.[11]

During its broadcast, the series influenced South Korean men to take their appearances more seriously to copy the metrosexual or "pretty boy" image (kkotminam, lit. "men as beautiful as flowers") of the F4 characters in the drama. This led to an increase in South Korean males wearing cosmetics, preppy and cruise outfits, and clothing in traditionally more feminine looks like the color pink and floral prints.[12]

The drama's local filming locations became tourist attractions, such as Damyang Dynasty Country Club in South Jeolla Province; Ragung hanok hotel in Silla Millennium Park in Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang Province; Hilton Namhae Gold & Spa Resort in South Gyeongsang Province; Grand Hyatt Seoul ice rink; Lotte Hotel World's Emerald Room; Farmer's Table in Heyri; and Yangpyeong English Village. The overseas locations featured such as New Caledonia and Macau also became sought-after holiday destinations.[13][14]

The series' international popularity extended to Japan,[15] Thailand,[16] Vietnam, Singapore, India, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines,[17] Taiwan,[18] Sri Lanka,[19] Zambia and among others. The cast members held various sold-out events across Asia, such as concerts and fan meetings.[20]

The Seoul chapter of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) criticized the series for being the epitome of materialism and the Cinderella complex, saying it sets a bad example for Korean dramas by depicting school violence, and teenagers indulging in pleasure and prejudice toward others based on their appearance and social class. The YWCA report also singled out the leading female character (Geum Jan-di) for being passive and dependent.[21]

Ratings[edit]

South Korea[edit]

Episode # Original broadcast date Average audience share
TNmS Ratings[22] AGB Nielsen[23]
Nationwide Seoul National Capital Area Nationwide Seoul National Capital Area
1 January 5, 2009 14.3% 14.4% 13.7% 13.8%
2 January 6, 2009 17.6% 17.4% 16.1% 15.9%
3 January 12, 2009 20.8% 21.1% 18.2% 17.2%
4 January 13, 2009 21.4% 21.6% 17.7% 17.8%
5 January 19, 2009 24.8% 24.3% 22.2% 21.4%
6 January 20, 2009 24.8% 24.6% 23.2% 23.0%
7 January 26, 2009 19.5% 19.1% 18.1% 17.4%
8 January 27, 2009 25.9% 25.3% 22.6% 22.1%
9 February 2, 2009 29.7% 29.4% 25.8% 24.9%
10 February 3, 2009 30.5% 30.2% 26.7% 25.6%
11 February 9, 2009 31.5% 31.8% 26.2% 25.6%
12 February 10, 2009 31.4% 31.2% 27.6% 27.0%
13 February 16, 2009 31.5% 31.5% 27.6% 27.7%
14 February 17, 2009 31.9% 32.0% 27.7% 26.8%
15 February 23, 2009 32.4% 32.3% 29.2% 28.5%
16 February 24, 2009 33.2% 32.9% 30.1% 30.0%
17 March 3, 2009 29.9% 30.6% 26.6% 27.3%
18 March 9, 2009 35.5% 35.7% 32.9% 33.3%
19 March 10, 2009 31.2% 31.3% 26.6% 26.3%
20 March 16, 2009 32.6% 31.6% 30.6% 31.2%
21 March 17, 2009 33.6% 33.8% 30.8% 31.1%
22 March 23, 2009 31.8% 32.4% 29.9% 30.8%
23 March 24, 2009 31.8% 31.6% 30.3% 31.7%
24 March 30, 2009 30.2% 29.2% 29.0% 30.1%
25 March 31, 2009 34.8% 34.9% 32.7% 33.5%
Average 28.5% 28.4% 25.7% 25.6%

Philippines[edit]

Episode Broadcast date TNS National TV Ratings[24][25][26]
Pilot May 11, 2009 24.6%
Peak June 24, 2009 34.1%
Finale August 21, 2009 28.8%

Awards and nominations[edit]

Year Award Category Recipient Result
2009
45th Baeksang Arts Awards[27]
Best New Actor Lee Min-ho Won
Popularity Award Kim Hyun-joong Won
Lee Min-ho Nominated
14th Asian Television Awards
Best Drama Actor Lee Min-ho Nominated
Best Drama Actress Ku Hye-sun Nominated
3rd Mnet 20's Choice Awards
Hot Male Drama Star Lee Min-ho Nominated
Kim Bum Nominated
Hot Female Drama Star Ku Hye-sun Nominated
Hot Character ("Gu Jun-pyo") Lee Min-ho Nominated
4th Seoul International Drama Awards[28]
Popular Drama Boys Over Flowers Won
Popular Actor Lee Min-ho Nominated
Kim Hyun-joong Won
Cyworld Digital Music Awards[29]
Song of the Month (February) "Because I'm Stupid" - SS501 Won
Best OST Won
11th Mnet Asian Music Awards
Best OST Won
Bugs Music Awards
Best TV Drama Song of the Year Won
2nd Korea Junior Star Awards
Best New Actor in a TV Drama Kim Hyun-joong Won
KBS Drama Awards[30]
Top Excellence Award, Actress Ku Hye-sun Nominated
Excellence Award, Actor in a Mid-length Drama Lee Min-ho Nominated
Excellence Award, Actress in a Mid-length Drama Ku Hye-sun Won
Best New Actor Lee Min-ho Won
Kim Hyun-joong Nominated
Kim Bum Nominated
Best New Actress Kim So-eun Won
Best Young Actor Park Ji-bin Nominated
Netizen Award, Actress Ku Hye-sun Won
Popularity Award, Actor Lee Min-ho Nominated
Kim Hyun-joong Nominated
Best Couple Award Lee Min-ho and Ku Hye-sun Won
Kim Hyun-joong and Ku Hye-sun Nominated

International broadcast[edit]

DVD licensing[edit]

In North America, YA Entertainment released the series in two DVD box sets; volume one was released in November 2009 and volume two in December 2009.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jin, Dal Young, ed. (2010). "Hybrid Regionalism in East Asian Popular Culture, Korean Television Drama: Boys Over Flowers". Global Media Convergence and Cultural Transformation. IGI Global. pp. 84–85. ISBN 1609600398.
  2. ^ Kang, Hye-ran; Lee, Young-hee (July 9, 2009). "The next 'Korean wave' washes ashore". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  3. ^ "꽃보다 남자 프로그램 정보" [Boys Over Flowers Program Information]. KBS (in Korean). Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  4. ^ Han Sang-hee (February 10, 2009). "Boys Over Flowers Continues to Bloom in Korea". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  5. ^ "The Many Incarnations of F4 from 'Meteor Garden'". CNN Philippines. November 9, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d "Boys over Flowers". KBS World. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Boys Over Flowers". Korean Tourism Organization. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  8. ^ "꽃보다 남자 OST - Various Artists" [Boys Over Flowers OST - Various Artists]. Mnet (in Korean). Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  9. ^ "꽃보다 남자 Part 2 - Various Artists" [Boys Over Flowers Part 2 - Various Artists]. Mnet (in Korean). Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  10. ^ Yoo Bo-lam (March 11, 2009). "Boys Over Flowers explodes in popularity". The Korea Herald. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  11. ^ "Korea's Flower Boy". My Sinchew. March 29, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  12. ^ Lee Hyo-won (February 12, 2009). "Men, Be Beautiful for Spring, Summer". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  13. ^ Bae Ji-sook; Kwon Mee-yoo (February 26, 2009). "TV Drama Getting People Travelling". The Korea Times. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  14. ^ "Gyeonggi Bus Tour Targets Tourists". The Chosun Ilbo. June 30, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  15. ^ Han Sang-hee (February 24, 2009). "Stars Look to Revive Hallyu in Japan". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  16. ^ "Boys Over Flowers star visits Bangkok". The Korea Herald. April 13, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  17. ^ Jonathan M. Hicap (September 6, 2009). "Korean Dramas Continue to Captivate the Philippines". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  18. ^ "Koo Enjoying High Popularity in Taiwan". The Korea Times. July 10, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  19. ^ "Boys Over Flowers | TV Derana". www.derana.lk. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
  20. ^ Han Sang-hee (November 4, 2009). "Lee Min-ho to Meet Japanese Fans". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  21. ^ "YWCA calls Boys over Flowers failure". The Korea Herald. April 15, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  22. ^ "TNMS Daily Ratings: this links to current day-select the date from drop down menu". TNMS Ratings (in Korean). Archived from the original on November 28, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  23. ^ "AGB Daily Ratings: this links to current day-select the date from drop down menu". AGB Nielsen Media Research (in Korean). Archived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  24. ^ Santiago, Erwin (May 11, 2009). "TNS National TV Ratings (May 8-11): Boys Over Flowers smells sweet on its debut". Philippine Entertainment Portal. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  25. ^ "TNS National TV Ratings (June 23-25): "Kambal Sa Uma" scares away "Wowowee" | I Am Athan". I Am Athan. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  26. ^ Santiago, Erwin (August 24, 2009). "TNS National TV Ratings (Aug. 18-24): 'Dahil May Isang Ikaw' and 'Katorse' enter the primetime race with a good start". Philippine Entertainment Portal. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  27. ^ "Boys at Baeksang". The Korea Times. March 1, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  28. ^ "Popular Prize winners - 4th SDA 2009". SeoulDrama.org. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  29. ^ Jonathan M. Hicap (March 2, 2010). "2NE1 wins big at Cyworld Digital Music Awards". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  30. ^ Han Sang-hee (January 3, 2010). "2009 Drama Awards Wrap Up With No Surprises". The Korea Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  31. ^ "Boys over Flowers to Air in Japan from April 12". KBS Global. February 10, 2009. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
  32. ^ "Boys Over Flowers". Tokyo Broadcasting System (in Japanese). Retrieved January 23, 2016.
  33. ^ "花より男子~Boys Over Flowers". BS-TBS (in Japanese). Retrieved January 23, 2016.
  34. ^ "Korean Series Boys Over Flowers Mega Hit in Puthuyugam Tamil TV Channel". Tamil Funda. June 2014. Archived from the original on June 23, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  35. ^ "Zindagi channel moves to OZEE, to telecast uncensored shows". India.com. June 30, 2017.
  36. ^ "Bringing the Korean Wave to North America". YA Entertainment. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.

External links[edit]