Brčko

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Brčko
Брчко
Brčko
Brčko
Brčko is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brčko
Brčko
Location within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 44°52′N 18°49′E / 44.87°N 18.81°E / 44.87; 18.81
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
District Brčko District
Government
 • Mayor Siniša Milić (SNSD)
 • President of the District Assembly Esed Kadrić (SDA)
 • International Supervisor
(Suspended)
Bruce G. Berton
Area
 • City 402 km2 (155 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (302 ft)
Population (2013 census)[1]
 • City 43,007
 • Density 231,4/km2 (5,990/sq mi)
 • Urban 93,028
Postcode 76100
Area code(s) +387 049
Website Official website

Brčko (pronounced [ˈbr̩t͡ʃkoː]) is a town in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina, administrative seat of the Brčko District. It lies on the Sava river across from Croatia.

Name[edit]

Its name is very likely linked to the Breuci, an Illyrian tribe inhabiting the area in antiquity.

Geography[edit]

Brčko District and Brčko town

The city is located on the country's northern border, across the Sava River from Gunja in Croatia.

Brčko is the seat of the Brčko District, an independent unit of local self-government created on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina following an arbitration process. The local administration was formerly supervised by an international supervisory regime headed by Principal Deputy High Representative who is also ex officio the Brčko International Supervisor. This international supervision was frozen since 23 May 2012.[2]

History[edit]

Brčko at night
Fountain - the symbol of town

Brčko was a geographic point of contention in 1996 when the U.S.-led Implementation Forces (IFOR) built Camp McGovern on the outskirts of the city. Camp McGovern under the overwatch of 3-5 CAV 1/BDE/1AR Division (US) commanded by LTC Anthony Cucculo was constructed from a war torn farming cooperative structure in the Zone of Separation (ZOS) for the purpose of establishing peacekeeping operations. The mission was to separate the forming warring factions. The ZOS was one (1) kilometer wide of "no man's land", where special permission was required for Serbian or Bosnian forces to enter. Various checkpoints and observation points (OP's) were established to control the separation.

Although Brčko was a focal point for tension in the late 1990s, considerable progress in multi-ethnic integration in Brčko has since occurred including integration of secondary schooling. Reconstruction efforts and the Property Law Implementation Plan have improved the situation regarding property and return. Today, Brcko has returned to a strategic transshipment point along the Sava River. The population of Brcko has not returned to it pre-war ethnic mix of Bosniacs, Serb's or Croat's. It should be noted, Brcko sits at the apex (movement east to west/west to east) of the Serb Republic, the ethnic Serb portion of Bosnia & Herzegovina and as such is critical to the RS for its economic future.

Brcko was the strategic component of the Dayton Peace Accords which could not be negotiated. After several weeks on intensive negotiation, the issue of Brcko was to be decided by international arbitration. The decision in 5 May 1997 placed Brcko into a "special district" managed by an ambassadorial representative from the international community. The first Ambassador to Brcko was an American with support staff from the UK, Sweden, Denmark & France.

The only international civilian presence in Brcko at that time was a small office of the Organization For Security and Cooperation In Europe (OSCE) headed by Randolph Hampton.

Brčko today remains an important component of the Dayton Peace Accords, after the Brčko Arbitration ruled in May 1997 that Brčko would be a special district outside the jurisdiction of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, the two entities that comprise Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The first international organization to open offices in Brčko was the Organization for Security and Cooperation In Europe (OSCE).

Following PIC meeting on 23 May 2012, it was decided to suspend, not terminate, the mandate of Brčko International Supervisor. Brčko Arbitral Tribunal, together with the suspended Brčko Supervision, will still continue to exist.[2]

Demographics[edit]

Brčko panorama

According to 2013 census Brčko had 83.516 inhabitants, including:[3]

  • Bosniaks - 35.381 (42,4%)
  • Serbs - 28.884 (34,6%)
  • Croats - 17.252 (20,7%)
  • Others - 1.999 (2,4%)


Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

A railway station is near the city centre on the line from Vinkovci to Tuzla. However, no passenger trains operate to Brčko. The closest operating railway station is in Gunja, just on the other side of the border.

Sport[edit]

Brčko has three football clubs (FK Jedinstvo Brčko, FK Lokomotiva Brčko and the youngest club FK Ilićka 01). They all play in the Second League of Republika Srpska.

Features[edit]

Brčko has the largest port in Bosnia, on the Sava river. It is also home to an economics faculty and to a rather important theatre festival;

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Brčko is twinned with:

Famous residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°52′N 18°49′E / 44.87°N 18.81°E / 44.87; 18.81