Bracha L. Ettinger

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Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger
Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger - 2007 - berlin.jpg
Born (1948-03-23) March 23, 1948 (age 67)
Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine (present-day Israel)
Era Art, Contemporary philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Psychoanalysis
Main interests
Psychoanalysis, art, feminist theory, aesthetics, human rights, ethics, the Maternal
Notable ideas
Matrixial gaze, matrixial trans-subjectivity

Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger (Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר‎) is an Israeli-born visual artist who has mainly produced paintings, drawings, notebooks and photography. She is also a philosopher, psychoanalyst and writer.

Ettinger's work consists mostly of oil painting. Ettinger is now considered to be a prominent figure among both the French painters' and the Israeli art's scenes. Ettinger's art was recently analysed at length in the book Women Artists at the Millennium,[1] in Griselda Pollock's Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum[2] and in Catherine de Zegher's anthology Women's Work is Never Done.[3] Her ideas in cultural theory, psychoanalysis, and French feminism (see Feminist theory and psychoanalysis) achieved recognition after the publication of Matrix and Metramorphosis (1992), fragments from her notebooks (Moma, Oxford, 1993) and The Matrixial Gaze (1995). Over the last two decades her work has been influential in art history,[4] film studies (including feminist film theory), aesthetics[5] and gender studies.[6]

Ettinger is a Professor at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland.[7]

Life and work[edit]

Bracha Ettinger was born in Tel Aviv on 23 March 1948.[8] She received her M.A. in Clinical Psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[7] She moved to London in 1975 and studied, trained and worked between 1975 and 1979 at the London Centre for Psychotherapy, the Tavistock Clinic and the Philadelphia Association with R. D. Laing. Her daughter the actress Lana Ettinger was born in London. She returned to Israel in 1979 and worked at Shalvata Hospital. Ettinger, who has painted and drawn since early childhood, is self-taught. In her early days she avoided the art scene. In 1981 she decided to become a professional artist and moved to Paris where she lived and worked from 1981 to 2003. Her son Itai was born in 1988. As well as painting, drawing and photography, she began writing, and received a D.E.A. in Psychoanalysis from the University Paris VII Diderot in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Aesthetics of Art from the University of Paris VIII in 1996.[7]

Ettinger had a solo project at the Pompidou Centre in 1987, and a solo exhibition at the Museum of Calais in 1988. In 1995 she had a solo exhibition at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and in 1996 she participated in the Contemporary art section of Face à l'Histoire. 1933-1996 exhibition in the Pompidou Centre.[9] In 2000 she had a mid-life retrospective at the Centre for Fine Arts (The Palais des Beaux Arts) in Brussels, and in 2001 a solo exhibition at the Drawing Center in New York.[10] As well as working as an artist, Ettinger continued to train as psychoanalyst with Françoise Dolto, Piera Auglanier, Pierre Fedida, and Jacques-Alain Miller, and has become an influential contemporary French feminist.[11][12][13][14] Around 1988 Ettinger began her Conversation and Photography project. Her personal art notebooks[15][16] have become source for theoretical articulations, and her art has inspired art historians (among them the distinguished art historian Griselda Pollock and international curator Catherine de Zegher) and philosophers (like Jean-François Lyotard, Christine Buci-Glucksmann and Brian Massumi) who dedicated a number of essays to her painting.

Even though she was still based mainly in Paris, Ettinger was visiting professor (1997–1998) and then research professor (1999–2004) in psychoanalysis and aesthetics at the School of Fine Art, History of Art and Cultural Studies at the University of Leeds.[7] Since 2001 she has also been visiting professor in Psychoanalysis and Aesthetics at the AHRC Centre for Cultural Analysis, Theory and History (now CentreCATH).[17] Ettinger had partly returned to Israel in 2003, and has kept studios in both Paris and Tel Aviv ever since. She was a lecturer at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem until 2006.[7] Some of her specific academic fields of endeavor are feminist psychoanalysis, art, aesthetics, ethics, the gaze, sexual difference and gender studies, Jacques Lacan, the feminine, early (including pre-birth) psychic impressions, pre-maternal and maternal subjectivity.

Artist[edit]

Bracha Ettinger, Painting: Matrix — Family Album series n.3, 2001.


Ettinger's research concerns light and space, and in this it follows from Manet and Rothko.[18][19][20] Her subjects concern the human condition and the tragedy of war, and her work in this aspect follows on after artists such as Käthe Kollwitz and Francisco Goya.[21] The painting process engages a space of passage between figures and abstraction, and her attitude to abstraction resonates with the spiritual concerns of Agnes Martin and Hilma af Klint.[22] Another major subject in her work is the unconscious and in particular the feminine and the maternal.[23] Her notebooks accompany the painting process but are equally art works.

 Bracha L. Ettinger, Eurydice, The Graces, Medusa. Oil painting, 2006-2012
Bracha L. Ettinger, Eurydice, The Graces, Medusa. Oil painting, 2006-2012

From 1981 until 1992, Ettinger's principal artwork consisted of drawing and mixed media on paper as well as notebooks and artist's books, where alongside thoughts and conversations, she made ink and wash painting and drawing. Since 1992, apart from her notebooks, most of her artwork consists of mixed media and oil paintings, with few parallel series that spread over time like: "Matrix — Family Album", "Autistwork" and "Eurydice", with themes of generational transmission of memory, personal and historical trauma, the Shoah and the World Wars, the gaze, light and the space, womanhood and maternality, inspired by classical painting and creating an abstract space where the questions of beauty and sublime become relevant for our time. Images that she obtains first by collage and xerox processing are abstracted in a long process of oil painting that takes a few years.

According to Griselda Pollock,[24][25] Catherine de Zegher[26][27][28] and Chris Dercon, director of the Tate Modern who had chosen her work for the contemporary art section of the Pompidou Center's major exhibition of 20th Century art Face à l'Histoire,[29] Ettinger has become one of the major artists of the New European Painting. Along with painting she has worked on installations, theoretical research, lectures, video works, and "encounter events". Her paintings, photos, drawings, and notebooks have been exhibited at the Pompidou Centre (1987, 1996, 2010[30]–2011), and the Stedelijk Museum in 1997. In the last decade, Ettinger's oil on canvas paintings involve figures like Medusa, Demeter and Persephone, and Eurydice. Though from 2010 onward her work still consists mainly of oil paintings and drawings, she is also doing new media animated video-films where the images are multi-layered like her painting. In 2015, Ettinger participated in the 14th Istanbul Biennial drafted and curated by Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev.[31]

Group exhibitions[edit]

Among the venues Ettinger presented in:

Solo exhibitions[edit]

Other activities[edit]

Robert Doisneau photographed by Ettinger in his studio in Montrouge,[42] 1992.

Since 2005 Ettinger is an activist member in "Physicians for Human Rights-Israel" ("PHR-Israel"). Dr. Ettinger contributes to the organization as a clinical psychologist, attending Palestinian patients in needed areas in the Palestinian occupied territories.[43]

Ettinger is also famous for her portrait photography, taken in the context of conversation projects. Some of her portraits, like those of Jean-François Lyotard,[44] Joyce McDougall, Edmond Jabès,[45] Emmanuel Lévinas,[46] Robert Doisneau[47] and Yeshayahu Leibowitz appear in several official publications and collections.

Publications[edit]

Ettinger is author of several books and more than eighty psychoanalytical essays elaborating different aesthetical, ethical, psychoanalytical and artistic aspects of the matrixial. She is co-author of volumes of conversation with Emmanuel Levinas, Edmond Jabès, Craigie Horsfield, Félix Guattari and Christian Boltanski. Her book Regard et Espace-de-Bord Matrixiels (essays 1994-1999) appeared in French in 1999 (La lettre volée), and has been published in English as The Matrixial Borderspace (2006, University of Minnesota Press, edited by Brian Massumi and forwarded by Judith Butler and Griselda Pollock). [2] Ettinger is one of the leading intellectuals associated with contemporary French feminism and feminist psychoanalytical thought alongside Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray.[13][14][48][49] The journal Theory Culture & Society dedicated an issue to her work [TC&S, Vol.21, n.1] in 2004.

Recent selected publications[edit]

  • "The Sublime and Beauty beyond Uncanny Anxiety". In: Intellectual Birdhouse. Artistic Practice as Research. Edited by F. Dombois, U. M. Bauer, C. Marais and M. Schwab. London: Koening Books, 2011.ISBN 978-3-86335-118-2
  • "Antigone With(out) Jocaste". In: Interrogating Antigone. Edited by S. E. Wilmer and A. Zukauskaite. Oxford University Press, 2010 (189-214).ISBN 978-0-19-955921-3
  • "Communicaring: Reflexion around Hiroshima mon amour". In: PostGender: Sexuality and Performativeivity in Japanese Culture. Edited by Ayelet Zohar. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.ISBN 965-7067-61-8
  • "Diotima and the Matrixial Transference: Psychoanalytical Encounter-Event as Pregnancy in Beauty". In: Across the Threshold (Explorations of Liminality in Literature). Edited by C. N. van der Merwe and H. Viljoen. New York: Peter Lang. 2007. ISBN 978-1-4331-0002-4
  • "Fragilization and Resistance". In: Bracha L. Ettinger: Fragilization and Resistance. Edited by Tero Nauha and Akseli Virtanen. Finnish Academy of Fine Arts with Aivojen yhteistyo, Helsinki, 2009. Printed In: Maternal Studies [3]
  • "From Proto-ethical Compassion to Responsibility: Besidedness, and the three Primal Mother-Phantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment". Athena: Philosophical Studies. Nr. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). 2006. ISSN 1822-5047 [4]
  • "Com-passionate Co-response-ability, Initiation in Jointness, and the link x of Matrixial Virtuality". In: Gorge(l). Oppression and Relief in Art. Edited by Sofie Van Loo. Royal Museum of Fine Art. Antwerpen, 2006. ISBN 90-76979-35-9
  • "Gaze-and-touching the Not Enough Mother" In: Eva Hesse Drawing. Edited by Catherine de Zegher, NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11618-7
  • "Matrixial Trans-subjectivity". Theory Culture & Society – TCS, 23:2-3. 2006. ISSN 0263-2764
  • "Art and Healing Matrixial Transference Between the Aesthetical and the Ethical." In Catalogue: ARS 06 Biennale. 68-75; 76-81. Helsinki: Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art. 2006.
  • "Fascinance. The Woman-to-woman (Girl-to-m/Other) Matrixial Feminine Difference". In: Psychoanalysis and the Image. Edited by Griselda Pollock. Oxford: Blackwell. 2006. ISBN 1-4051-3461-5
  • "Art-and-Healing Oeuvre." 3 X Abstraction. Edited by Catherine de Zegher and Hendel Teicher, 199-231. NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-300-10826-5

Selected publications[edit]

  • The Matrixial Borderspace. (Essays from 1994–1999). University of Minnesota Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8166-3587-0
  • Regard et Espace-de-bord matrixiels. Brussels: La lettre volee, 1999. ISBN 2-87317-102-2
  • "Trenzado y escena primitiva del ser-de-a-tres" (7 June 2000). In: Jacques-Alain Miller, Los usos del lapso, Los cursos psicoanaliticos de Jacques-Alain Miller. Buenos Aires: Paidos. 2004. 466-481. ISBN 950-12-8855-2
  • "Copoiesis." In: Ephemera. 2005
  • "Re - In - De - Fuse." In: Othervoices. 1999
  • "Weaving a Woman Artist With-in the Matrixial Encounter-Event." In: Theory, Culture and Society Journal. No. 21. 2004
  • "Trans-subjective transferential borderspace." (1996) Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. (Expression after Deleuze and Guattari). London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. 215-239. ISBN 0-415-23804-8
  • "The Red Cow Effect." (First printed in 1996 in: Act 2, ISSN 1360-4287). Reprinted in: Mica Howe & Sarah A. Aguiar (eds.), He Said, She Says. Fairleigh Dickinson University press & London: Associated University Press, 2001. 57-88. ISBN 0-8386-3915-1
  • "Matrixial Gaze and Screen: Other than Phallic and Beyond the Late Lacan." In: Laura Doyle (ed.) Bodies of Resistance. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2001. 103-143. ISBN 0-8101-1847-5
  • "Art as the Transport-Station of Trauma." In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985-1999, Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion & Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. 91-115. (ISBN 90-5544-283-6) Extract in [5]
  • "Transgressing with-in-to the feminine." (1997) Reprinted in: Penny Florence & Nicola Foster (eds.), Differential Aesthetics, London: Ashgate, 2000. 183-210. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X
  • "Trauma and Beauty." In: Kjell R. Soleim [ed.], Fatal Women. Journal of the Center for Women's and Gender Research, Bergen Univ., Vol. 11: 115-128, 1999.
  • "The Feminine/Prenatal Weaving in the Matrixial Subjectivity-as-Encounter." Psychoanalytic Dialogues, VII:3, The Analytic Press, New York, 1997. 363-405. ISSN 1048-1885
  • "Metramorphic Borderlinks and Matrixial Borderspace." In: John Welchman (ed.), Rethinking Borders, Minnesota University Press, 1996. 125-159. ISBN 0-333-56580-0.
  • The Matrixial Gaze. (1994), Feminist Arts & Histories Network, Dept. of Fine Art, Leeds University, 1995. ISBN 978-0-9524899-0-0. Reprinted as Ch. I in The Matrixial Borderspace.
  • "The Becoming Threshold of Matrixial Borderlines.". In: Robertson et als. (eds.) Travelers' Tales. Routledge, London, 1994. 38-62. ISBN 0-415-07016-3
  • Matrix . Halal(a) — Lapsus. Notes on Painting, 1985-1992. Translated by Joseph Simas. Museum Of Modern Art, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-81-2. (Reprinted in Artworking 1985-1999. Ghent: Ludion, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6)
  • "Matrix and Metramorphosis." In: Trouble in the Archives, Special issue of Differences, Vol. 4, n. 3: 176-208, 1992. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Matrix. Carnets 1985-1989 (fragments). In: Chimères, n. 16, 1992.

Bibliography - selected publications on Ettinger's work[edit]

  • Catherine de Zegher and Griselda Pollock (eds.), Art as Compassion. Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger. [Monography]. Ghent: MER. Paper Kunsthalle & Brussels: ASA Publishers, 2011. ISBN 978-94-6117-008-8
  • Patrick le Nouene (ed.), Le Cabinet de Bracha. [English and French]. [Monography]. Musee d'Angers, 2011. ISBN 2-35293-030-8
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Le devenir-monde d'Eurydice", published to coincide with the project "Capturing the Moving Mind", Paris: BLE Atelier, 2005. Trans. Eurydice's Becoming-World and reprinted as brochure for "The Aerials of Sublime Transscapes", Breda: Lokaal 01, 2008.
  • Dorota Glowacka, "Lyotard and Eurydice: The Anamnesis of the Feminine." In: Gender After Lyotard. Ed. Margaret Grebowicz. NY: Suny Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7914-6956-9.
  • Griselda Pollock, Ch. 6: "The Graces of Catastrophe". in: Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-41374-5.
  • Sofie Van Loo, "Eros and Erotiek" in ThRu1. Text / catalogue for virtual solo exhibition at Lokaal01, Antwerp, 2007. [6].
  • Brigid Doherty, "Dwelling on Spaces". In: Women Artists as the Millennium. Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Rethinking the Artist in the Woman, The Woman in the Artist, and that Old Chestnut, the Gaze." In: Women Artists as the Millennium. Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. 35–83. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Beyond Oedipus. Feminist Thought, Psychoanalysis, and Mythical Figurations of the Feminine." In: Laughing with Medusa. Edited by Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard. Oxford University Press, 2006. 87–117. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  • Sofie Van Loo, Gorge(l): Oppression and relief in Art. Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp & Gynaika, 2006.
  • Sofie Van Loo, "Titian and Bracha L. Ettinger: an artistic dialogue between the 16th and the 20th/21st centuries". In: Antwerp Royal Museum Annual, 2006.
  • Jean-François Lyotard (1995), "Anamnesis: Of the Visible." Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004. ISSN 0263-2764
  • Jean-François Lyotard (1993), "Scriptures: Diffracted Traces."(First version of "Anima Minima"). Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004.
  • Judith Butler, "Bracha's Eurydice. Theory, Culture and Society'", Vol. 21, 2004. ISSN 0263-2764.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Does Art Think?." In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22715-6.
  • Heinz-Peter Schwerfel, "Matrix und Morpheus" in: Kino und Kunst. DuMont Literatur und Kunst Verlag, Koln. 2003. ISBN 3-8321-7214-9* Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.), "Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series". Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Brian Massumi, "Painting: The Voice of the Grain", In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series. [Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.)]. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Adrian Rifkin, "... respicit Orpheus", In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series. [Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.)]. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Eurydice and her doubles. Painting after Auschwitz." In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985–1999. Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion & Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6
  • Griselda Pollock and Penny Florence, Looking Back to the Future: Essays by Griselda Pollock from the 1990s. G&B Arts Press, 2000. ISBN 90-5701-132-8.
  • Paul Vandenbroeck, Azetta — L'art de femmes Berberes. Paris: Flammarion, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-282-8
  • Adrien Harris, "Beyond/Outside Gender Dichotomies: New Forms of Constituting Subjectivity and Difference." Psychoanalytic Dialogues, VII:3, 1997. ISSN 1048-1885.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Images of Absence in the Inner Space of Painting." In: Catherine de Zegher (ed.), Inside the Visible. MIT Press, Boston, 1996.
  • Griselda Pollock, 'Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14128-1.
  • Rosi Huhn, "Die Passage zum Anderen: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettingers äesthetisches Konzept der Matrix und Metramorphose", In: Silvia Baumgart (Hrsg), Denkräum. Zwischen Kunst und Wissenschaft. Reimer, Berlin, 1993. ISBN 3-496-01097-5.
  • Rosi Huhn, Bracha L. Ettinger: La folie de la raison / Wahnsinn der Vernunft. Goethe Institut, Paris, 1990.
  • Bracha L. Ettinger, "From transference to the aesthetic paradigm: a conversation with Felix Guattari." Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. Expression after Deleuze and Guattari. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8.
  • Fintan Walsh, "From Enthusiasm to Encounter-Event: Bracha L. Ettinger, Samuel Beckett, and the Theatre of Affect. Parallax, 17:2 (2011), pp. 110-123.

Conversations[edit]

  • "From transference to the aesthetic paradigm: a conversation with Felix Guattari" (1989). Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8.
  • Matrix et le voyage à Jérusalem de C.B. (1989). Artist book, limited edition, with 60 photos of Christian Boltanski by Ettinger, and Conversation between Ettinger and Boltanski. 1991.
  • Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha Ettinger (1990, selection). "This is the Desert, Nothing Strikes Root Here." In: Routes Of Wandering. Edited by Sarit Shapira. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1991. 246–256. ISBN 965-278-116-9.
  • Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1990, selection). A Threshold Where We are Afraid. Translated by Annemarie Hamad and Scott Lerner. MOMA, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-86-3.
  • Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–93, selection). Time is the Breath of the Spirit. Translated by C. Ducker and J. Simas. MOMA (Museum of Modern Art), Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-85-5.
  • Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–93, selection). "What would Eurydice Say?"/ "Que dirait Eurydice?" Reprint of Le féminin est cette différence inouïe (livre d'artiste, 1994 that includes the text of Time is the Breath of the Spirit). Trans. C. Ducker and J. Simas. Reprinted to coincide with the Kabinet exhibition, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Paris: BLE Atelier, 1997. ISBN 2-910845-08-7. Reprinted in: Athena: Philosophical Studies. Vol. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). ISSN 1822-5047.
  • "Working-Through." A conversation between Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger and Craigie Horsfield. In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Eurydice Series. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center. 2001. 37–62.
  • "Conversation: Craigie Horsfield and Bracha L. Ettinger". September 2004. In: Craigie Horsfield, Relation. Edited by Catherine de Zegher. Paris: Jeu de Paume, 2006.
  • Conversation between Bracha L. Ettinger and Akseli Virtanen, "Art, Memory, Resistance." In Framework: The Finnish Art Review 4: Permanent Transience and in Web Journal Ephemera, vol.5, no.X.

Lectures and seminars[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Women Artists at the Millennium, 2006, Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. ISBN 0-262-01226-X, ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3. The MIT press book page.
  2. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0-415-41374-5.
  3. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, Women's Work is Never Done. MER Edition, 2015. ISBN 9-789490-693473.
  4. ^ Griselda Pollock, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Routledge, 2007
  5. ^ see also Jean-François Lyotard, the sublime
  6. ^ "Diotima and the Matrixial Transference." In: Van der Merwe, C. N., and Viljoen, H., eds. Across the Threshold. New York: Peter Lang, 2007. ISBN 9781433100024
  7. ^ a b c d e "Bracha Ettinger Biography". egs.edu. The European Graduate School. Retrieved 2 September 2015. 
  8. ^ Library of Congress Name Authority File
  9. ^ Face à l'Histoire. 1933-1996. Paris: Flammarion and Centre Georges Pompidou, 1996. ISBN 2-85850-898-4
  10. ^ Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Eurydice Series. Edited by Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001. With texts by Judith Butler, Bracha Ettinger, Adrien Rifkin and the editors, and including a conversation between the Bracha Ettinger and Creigie Horsfield.
  11. ^ Couze Venn, in: Theory, Culture and Society. Vol. 21 (1), 2004.
  12. ^ Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard (ed.s), Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  13. ^ a b Humm, Maggie, Modernist Women and Visual Cultures. Rutgers University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8135-3266-3
  14. ^ a b Humm, Maggie, Feminism and Film. Indiana University press, 1997. ISBN 0-253-33334-2
  15. ^ Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Matrix. Halal(a) — Lapsus. Notes on Painting. Oxford: MOMA, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-81-2
  16. ^ Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985-1999, with a reprint of Notes on Painting. Ludion: Ghent-Amsterdam, and Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6
  17. ^ AHRC Centre for Cultural Analysis, Theory and History AHRC B.Ettinger page.
  18. ^ Manning, Erin, Manning, Erin. "Vertiginious Before the Light." in Art as Compassion. MER Paper Kunsthalle, 2011.
  19. ^ Benjamin, Andrew, "Lighting, Colouring, Workin" in Bracha L. Ettinger. A. And My Heart Wound-Space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press, 2015. ISBN 9-781900687-553.
  20. ^ Buci-Glucksmann, Christine. "Images of Absence in the Inner Space of Painting." In: Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996.
  21. ^ Kinsella, Tina, "Sundering the Spell of Visibility", and Pollock Griselda, "Between Painting and the Digital" in Bracha L. Ettinger. A. And My Heart Wound-Space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press, 2015. ISBN 9-781900687-553.
  22. ^ Pollock, Griselda, "Agnes Dreaming: Dreaming Agnes", and Bracha L. Ettinger "The Art-and-Healing Oeuvre" in 3 x Abstraction. Yale University Press, 2005.
  23. ^ Pollock, Griselda,Art in the Time-Space of Memory and Migration: Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud and Bracha L. Ettinger in the Freud Museum. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press and London: Freud Museum, 2013
  24. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Taylor and Francis, 2010.
  25. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Art in the Time-Space of Memory and Migration: Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud and Bracha L. Ettinger in the Freud Museum. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press, 2013.
  26. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, Women's Work is Never Done. MER Edition, 2015.
  27. ^ Catherine de Zegher and Griselda Pollock (eds.), Art as Compassion. Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger. Ghent: MER. Paper Kunsthalle & Brussels: ASA Publishers, 2011
  28. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996
  29. ^ Face à l'Histoire, 1933-1996. Paris: Flammarion and Centre Georges Pompidou, 1996. https://www.centrepompidou.fr/cpv/resource/ccdkLM/rrbeEeq
  30. ^ "Ettinger". Pompidou Centre. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  31. ^ "Pavilion Istanbul in/+Leeds Part 3". pavilion.org.uk. Pavilion. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  32. ^ Eventually we'll die. Edited by Doron Rabina. Herzliya Museum of Contemporary Art, 2008.
  33. ^ Gorge(l). Oppression and relief in Art. Edited by Sofie Van Loo. Royal Museum of Fine Art. Antwerpen, 2006.
  34. ^ http://www.ephemerajournal.org/issue/web-capturing-moving-mind
  35. ^ La Mémoire. Edited by Laurence Bosse, Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev, Hans-Ulrich Obrist. Villa Medici, Rome, 1999.
  36. ^ Face à l'Histoire. (1980-1996: curator Chris Dercon). Paris: Flammarion and Centre G. Pompidou, 1996.
  37. ^ Body. Edited by Tony Bond. Sydney: The Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1997.
  38. ^ Inside the Visible. Edited by Catherine de Zegher. Boston: MIT Press, 1996.
  39. ^ Routes Of Wandering. Edited by Sarit Shapira. Jerusalem: The Israel Museum, 1991.
  40. ^ Feminine Presence. Edited by Ellen Ginton. Tel Aviv Museum of Art, 1990.
  41. ^ fr:Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle de Calais
  42. ^ Rosi Huhn (Interview), Bracha L. Ettinger (Portraits of R. Doineau) and the Parisian Photographs of Robert Doisneau, "Promenades dans les passage de Paris avec Robert Doisneau." In: Passages d'après Walter Benjamin / Passagen Nach Walter benjamin. [Ed. V. Malsey, U. Rasch, P. Rautmann, N. Schalz]. Verlag Herman Schmidt, Mainz, 1992. ISBN 3-87439-250-3.
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