Brachydactyly type D
|Brachydactyly type D|
|Other names||Clubbed thumb, club thumb, short thumb, potter's thumb, royal thumb, murderer's thumb, toe thumb, hammer thumb, stubbed thumb, stub thumb|
|Unilateral brachydactyly type D in a 15-year-old female|
Brachydactyly type D, also known as short thumb or stub thumb and commonly referred to as clubbed thumb, is a condition clinically recognised by a thumb being relatively short and round with an accompanying wide nail bed as the distal phalanx of affected thumbs is approximately two-thirds of full-length thumbs. It is a type of brachydactyly, or shortness of digits, and is associated with the HOXD13 gene.
Brachydactyly type D is a skeletal condition allegedly caused by a 'partial fusion or premature closing of the epiphysis with the distal phalanx of the thumb', according to Goodman et alia (1965). J.K. Breithenbecher (1923) found that distal phalanges of stub thumbs were one-half the length of full-length thumbs, while R.M. Stecher (1957) claimed that it be approximately two-thirds. The condition may either be unilateral (affecting one thumb) or bilateral (affecting both).
A genetic trait, brachydactyly type D exhibits autosomal dominance and is commonly developed or inherited independently of other hereditary traits. The condition is associated with the HOXD13 gene, which is central in digital formation and growth.
A 1965 scientific study in Israel found that 3.05% of Israeli Arabs had one or two stub thumbs, compared with 1.57% among Ashkenazi as well as non-Ashkenazi Jews. However, as the survey's Arab test persons were mainly recruited from a handful of large and closely related clans living in a particular village, said percentage should be 'considered with some reservation', according to Goodman et alia (1965). Stub thumbs are also relatively common in Japan.
The condition is known under numerous names. The most commonly used name is clubbed thumb, or club thumb. American researcher R.A. Hefner used the terms "short thumb" and "brachymegalodactylism" in 1924, and "short thumb" has continued to be used in a few other studies since then, including the study which defined Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome in 1963. "Stub thumb" is the common term preferred by the online database Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man and was first used in a 1965 study. Stub thumbs have also been called murderer's thumb (allegedly among fortune tellers), bohemian thumb, Tory's Thumb and potter's thumb.
The common term "clubbed thumb" should not be confused with nail clubbing, which is a clinical sign associated with a number of diseases.
- Rubinstein, Jack H. (1963-06-01). "Broad Thumbs and Toes and Facial Abnormalities: A Possible Mental Retardation Syndrome". American Journal of Diseases of Children. 105 (6): 588. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1963.02080040590010. ISSN 0002-922X. PMID 13983033.
- Macklin, Madge T. (December 1960). "Inheritance of Glioma: The Genetic Aspects of Cerebral Glioma and Its Relation to Status Dysraphicus". American Journal of Human Genetics. 12 (4 Pt 1): 448–449. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1932168.
- Hefner, R. A. (1924-10-01). "INHERITED ABNORMALITIES OF THE FINGERSII. Short Thumbs (Brachymegalodactylism)". Journal of Heredity. 15 (10): 433–439. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a102395. ISSN 0022-1503.
- Shannon-Karasik, Caroline (2018-12-05). "Apparently Megan Fox Has 'Toe Thumbs'—Do You?". Women's Health. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
- Learman, Yaffa; Katznelson, Mariassa Bat-Miriam; Bonné‐Tamir, BatSheva; Engel, Joel; Hertz, Marjorie; Goodman, Richard M.; Opitz, John M. (1981). "Symphalangism with multiple anomalies of the hands and feet: A new genetic trait". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 10 (3): 245–55. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320100308. ISSN 1096-8628. PMID 6272576.
- "OMIM Entry - # 113200 - BRACHYDACTYLY, TYPE D; BDD". omim.org. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
- GOODMAN RM; ADAM A; SHEBA C (1965). "A Genetic Study of Stub Thumbs Among Various Ethnic Groups in Israel". Journal of Medical Genetics. 2 (2): 116–21. doi:10.1136/jmg.2.2.116. PMC 1012845. PMID 14295653.
- "Google Ngram Viewer". books.google.com. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
- "Google Trends". Google Trends. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
- Robinson, Syd. "19 Things You'll Only Understand If You Have Clubbed Thumbs". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
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