|Fiji banded iguana (Brachylophus fasciatus) in captivity|
The genus Brachylophus consists of four extant iguanid species native to the islands of Fiji and a giant extinct species from Tonga in the South West Pacific. One of the extant species, B. fasciatus, is also present on Tonga, where it has apparently been introduced by humans.
Etymology and taxonomy
The name, Brachylophus, is derived from two Greek words: brachys (βραχύς) meaning "short" and lophos (λόφος) meaning "crest" or "plume", denoting the short spiny crests found along the backs of these species.
Brachylophus species are the most geographically isolated iguanas in the world. Their closest extant relatives (the genera Amblyrhynchus, Conolophus, Ctenosaura, Cyclura, Iguana and Sauromalus) are present in primarily tropical regions of the Americas and islands in the Galápagos and Lesser and Greater Antilles. Several of these genera are adapted to xeric biomes. The location of members of Brachylophus, so distant from all other known extant or extinct iguanids, has long presented a biogeographical enigma.
These iguanas have been hypothesized to have evolved from New World iguanas that rafted 10,000 km (6,200 mi) west across the Pacific Ocean with the aid of the South Equatorial Current. While a rafting voyage of four months or more might seem implausible, the ancestors of Brachylophus may have been preadapted for such a journey by having water requirements that can be satisfied by food alone, as well as comparatively long egg incubation periods.
An alternative hypothesis to account for this biogeographical puzzle, based in part on an estimated divergence date of 50 million years ago, is that these species are the descendants of a more widespread but now extinct lineage of Old World iguanids that migrated overland from the New World to Asia or Australia, and then dispersed by some combination of continental drift, rafting and/or land bridges to their present remote location. However, no other fossil or extant species of this putative lineage have been found to date in Southeast Asia, Australasia or the western Pacific outside of Fiji and Tonga.
- Brachylophus fasciatus — Fiji banded iguana
- Brachylophus vitiensis — Fiji crested iguana
- Brachylophus bulabula
- Brachylophus gau
Historically, only the first two were recognized, but B. bulabula ("bulabula" is the Fijian word for "healthy" or "flourishing") was described in the central regions of Fiji by a team led by a scientist from the Australian National University in 2008. Detailed genetic and morphological analyses were made to conclude that B. bulabula represents a third species. In 2017, B. gau was described as a new species from Gau Island.
A giant Tongan species, Brachylophus gibbonsi, similar in size and build to an iguana of the genus Cyclura once existed on Lifuka, islands in the Ha‘apai group and Tongatapu but became extinct in prehistoric times due to predation by humans and their domestic animals. An even larger extinct iguana of the separate genus Lapitiguana was formerly present on Fiji.
- Fisher, Robert N.; Jone Niukula; Dick Watling; and Peter S. Harlow (2017). "A New Species of Iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands". Zootaxa. 4273 (3): 407–422. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4273.3.5.
- Keogh, J. Scott; Edwards, Danielle L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S. (2008-10-27). "Molecular and morphological analysis of the critically endangered Fijian iguanas reveals cryptic diversity and a complex biogeographic history". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1508): 3413–3426. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0120. PMC . PMID 18782726.
- Cogger, Harold (1974). "Voyage of the Banded Iguana". Australia Natural History. 18 (4): 144–149.
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- Noonan, B. P.; Sites, J. W. Jr. (2009-11-24). "Tracing the origins of iguanid lizards and boine snakes of the Pacific". The American Naturalist. University of Chicago Press. 175 (1): 61–72. doi:10.1086/648607. PMID 19929634.
- Brachylophus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 23 March 2017.
- Cooper, Dani (2008-09-16). "Hello, it's a new species of Pacific iguana". ABC Science. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- "Scientists Discover New Species of Fijian Iguana". USGS. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Pregill, Gregory K.; Dye, Tom (1989). "Prehistoric extinction of giant iguanas in Tonga". Copeia. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 1989 (2): 505–508. doi:10.2307/1445455. JSTOR 1445455.
- Pregill, G. K.; Steadman, D. W. (March 2004). "South Pacific iguanas: Human impacts and a new species". Journal of Herpetology. The Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 38 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1670/73-03A. JSTOR 1566081.
- Pregill, G. K.; Worthy, T. H. (March 2003). "A new iguanid lizard (Squamata, Iguanidae) from the Late Quaternary of Fiji, Southwest Pacific". Herpetologica. 59 (1): 57–67. doi:10.1655/0018-0831(2003)059[0057:ANILSI]2.0.CO;2.
- Frost, D.E. & Etheridge, R.E. (1989) A Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomy of Iguanian Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publications 81: 1-65. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.16288 PDF fulltext
- Frost, D.R.; Etheridge, R.E.; Janies, D. & Titus, T.A. (2001): Total evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of Polychrotid lizards, and a reclassification of the Iguania (Squamata: Iguania). American Museum Novitates 3343: 1-38. PDF fulltext
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