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Brahmic scripts

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Maa , and 9 are written in eighteen different Brahmic or Indicscripts by Dibyendu

The Brahmic scripts, also known as Indic scripts, are a family of abugida writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia. They are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India and are used by various languages in several language families in South, East and Southeast Asia: Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, and Tai. They were also the source of the dictionary order (gojūon) of Japanese kana.[1]

History

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Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is clearly attested from the 7th century BCE from the potsherds found all over Tamizhagam ( Tamil Nadu) . Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari, Siddham and Sharada.

There are many theories where Brahmi came from, But the most accepted theory is that it descends from Aramaic alphabet, with similarities with several of the glyphs.[2]

The Siddhaṃ script was especially important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan. The tabular presentation and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most likely through the spread of Buddhism.[1]

Southern Brahmi evolved into the Kadamba, Pallava and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Brahmic scripts spread in a peaceful manner, Indianization, or the spread of Indian learning. The scripts spread naturally to Southeast Asia, at ports on trading routes.[3] At these trading posts, ancient inscriptions have been found in Sanskrit, using scripts that originated in India. At first, inscriptions were made in Indian languages, but later the scripts were used to write the local Southeast Asian languages. Hereafter, local varieties of the scripts were developed. By the 8th century, the scripts had diverged and separated into regional scripts.[4]

Characteristics

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Some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are:

Comparison

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Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph. Accordingly:

  • The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they are later inventions not derived from any Brahmi character.
  • The pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) pronunciation is given for Sanskrit where possible, or another language if necessary.

The transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919.

Consonants

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ISO[a] ka kha ga gha ṅa cha chha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na ṉa pa pha/fa ba bha ma ya ẏa ra ṟa la ḷa ḻa va śa ṣa sa ha kṣa ṯa
Brahmi 𑀓 𑀔 𑀕 𑀖 𑀗 𑀘 𑀙 𑀚 𑀛 𑀜 𑀝 𑀞 𑀟 𑀠 𑀡 𑀢 𑀣 𑀤 𑀥 𑀦 𑀷 𑀧 𑀨 𑀩 𑀪 𑀫 𑀬 𑀭 𑀶 𑀮 𑀴 𑀵 𑀯 𑀰 𑀱 𑀲 𑀳  
Devanagari क्ष  
Bengali-
Assamese
য় র,ৰ ক্ষ  
Sharada 𑆑 𑆒 𑆓 𑆔 𑆕 𑆖 𑆗 𑆘 𑆙 𑆚 𑆛 𑆜 𑆝 𑆞 𑆟 𑆠 𑆡 𑆢 𑆣 𑆤 𑆥 𑆦 𑆧 𑆨 𑆩 𑆪 𑆫 𑆬 𑆭 𑆮 𑆯 𑆰 𑆱 𑆲  
Gurmukhi ਲ਼ ਸ਼  
Gujarati ક્ષ  
Odia କ୍ଷ  
Grantham 𑌕 𑌖 𑌗 𑌘 𑌙 𑌚 𑌛 𑌜 𑌝 𑌞 𑌟 𑌠 𑌡 𑌢 𑌣 𑌤 𑌥 𑌦 𑌧 𑌨 𑌪 𑌫 𑌬 𑌭 𑌮 𑌯 𑌰 𑌲 𑌳 𑌵 𑌶 𑌷 𑌸 𑌹 𑌕𑍍𑌷  
Tamil க்ஷ  
Telugu క్ష  
Kannada ಕ್ಷ  
Malayalam ക്ഷ
Sinhala ක්‍ෂ  
Tibetan གྷ ཛྷ ཌྷ དྷ བྷ [b]  
ʼPhags-pa ꡂꡜ ꡆꡜ ꡫꡜ ꡊꡜ ꡎꡜ  
Manipuri[c]  
Lepcha ᰡ᰷  
Limbu  
Zanabazar 𑨋 𑨌 𑨍 𑨎 𑨏 𑨣 𑨤 𑨥 𑨦 𑨓 𑨔 𑨕 𑨖 𑨗 𑨘 𑨙 𑨚 𑨛 𑨜 𑨝 𑨞 𑨟 𑨠 𑨡 𑨢 𑨪 𑨫 [b] 𑨬 𑨭 𑨮 𑨯 𑨰 𑨱  
Tirhuta 𑒏 𑒐 𑒑 𑒒 𑒓 𑒔 𑒕 𑒖 𑒗 𑒘 𑒙 𑒚 𑒛 𑒜 𑒝 𑒞 𑒟 𑒠 𑒡 𑒢 𑒣 𑒤 𑒥 𑒦 𑒧 𑒨 𑒩 𑒪 𑒬 𑒭 𑒮 𑒯  
Kaithi 𑂍 𑂎 𑂏 𑂐 𑂑 𑂒 𑂓 𑂔 𑂕 𑂖 𑂗 𑂘 𑂙 𑂛 𑂝 𑂞 𑂟 𑂠 𑂡 𑂢 𑂣 𑂤 𑂥 𑂦 𑂧 𑂨 𑂩 𑂪 𑂫 𑂬 𑂭 𑂮 𑂯  
Sylheti Nagari  
Chakma[d] 𑄇 𑄈 𑄉 𑄊 𑄋 𑄌 𑄍 𑄎 𑄏 𑄐 𑄑 𑄒 𑄓 𑄔 𑄕 𑄖 𑄗 𑄘 𑄙 𑄚 𑄛 𑄜 𑄝 𑄞 𑄟 𑄠 𑄡 𑄢 𑄣 𑅄 𑄤 𑄥 𑄦  
Burmese က ဉ / ည  
Tai Tham ᨡ,ᨢ[e] ᨣ,ᨤ[e] ᨩ,ᨪ[e] ᨷ,ᨸ[e] ᨹ,ᨺ[e] ᨻ,ᨼ[e] ᨿ,ᩀ[e] ᩉ,ᩌ[e]  
New Tai Lue ᦅ,ᦆ[e] ᦋ,ᦌ[e] ᦡ,ᦤ[e] ᦢ,ᦥ,[e][e] ᦕ,ᦚ[e] ᦗ,ᦝ[e] ᦍ,ᦊ[e]  
Khmer  
Thai ข,ฃ[f] ค,ฅ[f] ช,ซ[f] ฎ,[f] ด,[f] บ,[f] ผ,ฝ[f] พ,ฟ[f] ห,ฮ[f]  
Lao [g] [g] [g] [g] [g] [g] [g] [g] [g] ດ,ຕ [g] ບ,ປ ຜ,ຝ ພ,ຟ [g] [g] [g] [g]  
Cham  
Kawi 𑼒 𑼓 𑼔 𑼕 𑼖 𑼗 𑼘 𑼙 𑼚 𑼛 𑼜 𑼝 𑼞 𑼟 𑼠 𑼡 𑼢 𑼣 𑼤 𑼥 𑼳 𑼦 𑼧 𑼨 𑼩 𑼪 𑼫 𑼬 𑼭 𑼮 𑼯 𑼰 𑼱 𑼲  
Aksara Bali  
Aksara Java[h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h] [h]  
Aksara Sunda [i] [j] [k]  
Lontara  
Makasar 𑻠 𑻡 𑻢 𑻩 𑻪 𑻫 𑻦 𑻧 𑻨 𑻣 𑻤 𑻥 𑻬 𑻭 𑻮 𑻯 𑻰 𑻱  
Rejang ꤿ  
Batak (Toba) /  
Tagalog                                   /            
Buhid                                              
Hanunuo                                              
Tagbanwa                                                    
ISO ka kha ga gha ṅa ca cha ja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa ta tha da dha na ṉa pa pha ba bha ma ya ẏa ra ṟa la ḷa ḻa va śa ṣa sa ha kṣa ṯa
Notes
  1. ^ This list tries to include characters of same origins, not same sounds. In Bengali র is pronounced as but it is originally va which is still used for wa sound in Mithilakshar and modern Assamese ৱ (wabbô) was derived from middle Assamese র (wô). Compare with জ (ja) য (ya) and য় (ẏ) which are pronounced as , and e̯ô in Bengali and , and in Assamese respectively. য is related to Devanagari य (ya) and it is still pronounced as "ya" in Mithilakshar. Since their sounds shifted, the dots were added to keep the original sounds.
  2. ^ a b Letter used in Balti.
  3. ^ includes supplementary consonants not in contemporary use
  4. ^ inherent vowel is ā
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Modified forms of these letters are or were used for distinctions made in local language; these distinctions are not made for Sanskrit and Pali.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Modified forms of these letters are or were used for distinctions made in Thai; these distinctions are not made for Sanskrit and Pali in the Thai script.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n These letters are obsolete, but were used mainly for Sanskrit and Pali in the Lao script.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Letters used in Old Javanese. They are now obsolete, but are used for honorifics in contemporary Javanese.
  9. ^ Invented new character to represent the Arabic letter خ.
  10. ^ Letter used in Old Sundanese. It is now obsolete.
  11. ^ Invented new character. Actually to represent the Arabic letter ش, which has similar pronunciation with śa.

Vowels

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Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent.

ISO a ā ê ô i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au ə r̥̄ [a] [a] l̥̄ [a]  
a ka ā ê ô i ki ī u ku ū e ke ē ai kai o ko ō au kau ə kr̥ r̥̄ kr̥̄ kl̥ l̥̄ kl̥̄ aṁ kaṁ aḥ kaḥ k
Ashoka Brahmi 𑀅 𑀓 𑀆 𑀓𑀸         𑀇 𑀓𑀺 𑀈 𑀓𑀻 𑀉 𑀓𑀼 𑀊 𑀓𑀽     𑀏 𑀓𑁂 𑀐 𑀓𑁃     𑀑 𑀓𑁄 𑀒 𑀓𑁅     𑀋 𑀓𑀾 𑀌 𑀓𑀿 𑀍 𑀓𑁀 𑀎 𑀓𑁁 𑀅𑀁 𑀓𑀁 𑀅𑀂 𑀓𑀂 𑀓𑁆
Devanagari का कॅ कॉ कि की कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ     कृ कॄ कॢ कॣ अं कं अः कः क्
Bengali-
Assamese
কা অ্যা ক্যা     কি কী কু কূ     কে কৈ     কো কৌ     কৃ কৄ কৢ কৣ অং কং অঃ কঃ ক্
Sharada 𑆃 𑆑 𑆄 𑆑𑆳 𑆃𑆾𑇋 𑆑𑆾𑇋 𑆃𑆾𑇋𑆳 𑆑𑆾𑇋𑆳 𑆅 𑆑𑆴 𑆆 𑆑𑆵 𑆇 𑆑𑆶 𑆈 𑆑𑆷     𑆍 𑆑𑆼 𑆎 𑆑𑆽     𑆏 𑆑𑆾 𑆐 𑆑𑆿     𑆉 𑆑𑆸 𑆊 𑆑𑆹 𑆋 𑆑𑆺 𑆌 𑆑𑆻 𑆃𑆁 𑆑𑆁 𑆃𑆂 𑆑𑆂 𑆑𑇀
Gurmukhi ਕਾ         ਕਿ ਕੀ ਕੁ ਕੂ     ਕੇ ਕੈ     ਕੋ ਕੌ                     ਅਂ ਕਂ ਅਃ ਕਃ ਕ੍
Gujarati કા કૅ કૉ કિ કી કુ કૂ કે કૈ કૉ કો કૌ     કૃ કૄ કૢ કૣ અં કં અઃ કઃ ક્,ક્‍
Odia କା         କି କୀ କୁ କୂ     କେ କୈ     କୋ କୌ     କୃ କୄ କୢ କୣ କଂ କଃ କ୍
Tamil கா         கி கீ கு கூ கெ கே கை கொ கோ கௌ                     அஂ கஂ அஃ கஃ க்
Telugu కా         కి కీ కు కూ కె కే కై కొ కో కౌ     కృ కౄ కౢ కౣ అం కం అః కః క్
Kannada ಕಾ         ಕಿ ಕೀ ಕು ಕೂ ಕೆ ಕೇ ಕೈ ಕೊ ಕೋ ಕೌ     ಕೃ ಕೄ ಕೢ ಕೣ అం ಕಂ అః ಕಃ ಕ್
Malayalam കാ         കി കീ കു കൂ കെ കേ കൈ കൊ കോ കൗ     കൃ കൄ കൢ കൣ അം കം അഃ കഃ ക്,ക്‍
Meitei Mayek[b] ꯑꯥ ꯀꯥ         ꯀꯤ ꯑꫫ ꯀꫫ ꯀꯨ ꯑꫬ ꯀꫬ     ꯑꯦ ꯀꯦ ꯑꯩ ꯀꯩ     ꯑꯣ ꯀꯣ ꯑꯧ ꯀꯧ                     ꯑꯪ ꯀꯪ ꯑꫵ ꯀꫵ
Tibetan[c] ཨཱ ཀཱ         ཨི ཀི ཨཱི ཀཱི ཨུ ཀུ ཨཱུ ཀཱུ     ཨེ ཀེ ཨཻ ཀཻ     ཨོ ཀོ ཨཽ ཀཽ     རྀ ཀྲྀ རཱྀ ཀཷ ལྀ ཀླྀ ལཱྀ ཀླཱྀ ཨཾ ཀཾ ཨཿ ཀཿ ཀ྄
Dogra 𑠀 𑠊 𑠁 𑠊𑠬         𑠂 𑠊𑠭 𑠃 𑠊𑠮 𑠄 𑠊𑠯 𑠅 𑠊𑠰     𑠆 𑠊𑠳 𑠇 𑠊𑠴     𑠈 𑠊𑠵 𑠉 𑠊𑠶     𑠤𑠭 𑠊𑠱 𑠤𑠮 𑠊𑠲 𑠥𑠭 𑠊𑠹𑠥𑠭 𑠥𑠮 𑠊𑠹𑠥𑠮 𑠀𑠷 𑠊𑠷 𑠀𑠸 𑠊𑠸 𑠊𑠹
Modi 𑘀 𑘎 𑘁 𑘎𑘰         𑘃 𑘎𑘲 𑘃 𑘎𑘲 𑘄 𑘎𑘳 𑘄 𑘎𑘳     𑘊 𑘎𑘹 𑘋 𑘎𑘺     𑘌 𑘎𑘻 𑘍 𑘎𑘼     𑘨𑘲 𑘎𑘿𑘨𑘲 𑘨𑘲 𑘎𑘿𑘨𑘲 𑘩𑘲 𑘎𑘿𑘩𑘲 𑘩𑘲 𑘎𑘿𑘩𑘲 𑘀𑘽 𑘎𑘽 𑘀𑘾 𑘎𑘾 𑘎𑘿
Lepcha[c] ᰣᰦ ᰀᰦ         ᰣᰧ ᰀᰧ ᰣᰧᰶ ᰀᰧᰶ ᰣᰪ ᰀᰪ ᰣᰫ ᰀᰫ     ᰣᰬ ᰀᰬ         ᰣᰨ ᰀᰨ ᰣᰩ ᰀᰩ                     ᰣᰴ ᰀᰴ      
Limbu[c] ᤀᤠ ᤁᤠ         ᤀᤡ ᤁᤡ ᤀᤡ᤺ ᤁᤡ᤺ ᤀᤢ ᤁᤢ ᤀᤢ᤺ ᤁᤢ᤺ ᤀᤧ ᤁᤧ ᤀᤣ ᤁᤣ ᤀᤤ ᤁᤤ ᤀᤨ ᤁᤨ ᤀᤥ ᤁᤥ ᤀᤦ ᤁᤦ                     ᤀᤲ ᤁᤲ     ᤁ᤻
Tirhuta 𑒁 𑒏 𑒂 𑒏𑒰         𑒃 𑒏𑒱 𑒄 𑒏𑒲 𑒅 𑒏𑒳 𑒆 𑒏𑒴   𑒏𑒺 𑒋 𑒏𑒹 𑒌 𑒏𑒻   𑒏𑒽 𑒍 𑒏𑒼 𑒎 𑒏𑒾     𑒇 𑒏𑒵 𑒈 𑒏𑒶 𑒉 𑒏𑒷 𑒊 𑒏𑒸 𑒁𑓀 𑒏𑓀 𑒁𑓁 𑒏𑓁 𑒏𑓂
Kaithi 𑂃 𑂍 𑂄 𑂍𑂰         𑂅 𑂍𑂱 𑂆 𑂍𑂲 𑂇 𑂍𑂳 𑂈 𑂍𑂴     𑂉 𑂍𑂵 𑂊 𑂍𑂶     𑂋 𑂍𑂷 𑂌 𑂍𑂸                     𑂃𑂁 𑂍𑂁 𑂃𑂂 𑂍𑂂 𑂍𑂹
Sylheti Nagari   ꠇꠣ         ꠇꠤ     ꠇꠥ         ꠇꠦ ꠅꠂ ꠇꠂ     ꠇꠧ                         ꠀꠋ ꠇꠋ     ꠇ꠆
Sinhala කා කැ කෑ කි කී කු කූ කෙ කේ කෛ කො කෝ කෞ     කෘ කෲ කෟ කෳ අං කං අඃ කඃ ක්
Chakma 𑄃𑄧 𑄇𑄧 𑄃 𑄇 𑄃𑄬𑄬 𑄇𑄬𑄬 𑄃𑅅 𑄇𑅅 𑄄, 𑄃𑄨 𑄇𑄨 𑄃𑄩 𑄇𑄩 𑄅, 𑄃𑄪 𑄇𑄪 𑄃𑄫 𑄇𑄫     𑄆, 𑄃𑄬 𑄇𑄬 𑄃𑄰 𑄇𑄰     𑄃𑄮 𑄇𑄮 𑄃𑄯 𑄇𑄯                     𑄃𑄧𑄁 𑄇𑄧𑄁 𑄃𑄧𑄂 𑄇𑄧𑄂 𑄇𑄴
Burmese က အာ ကာ         ကိ ကီ ကု ကူ     ကေ အဲ ကဲ ကော     အောင် ကောင်     ကၖ ကၗ ကၘ ကၙ အံ ကံ အး ကး က်
Tai Tham ᩋᩣ ᨠᩣ/ᨠᩤ ᩋᩯ ᨠᩯ (ᩋᩬᩴ,ᩋᩳ) (ᨠᩬᩴ,ᨠᩳ) ᨠᩥ ᨠᩦ ᨠᩩ ᨠᩪ (ᩋᩮᩡ) (ᨠᩮᩡ) ᨠᩮ ᩋᩱ ᨠᩱ (ᩋᩰᩡ) (ᨠᩰᩡ) ᩒ,ᩋᩰ ᨠᩰ,ᨠᩮᩣ ᩋᩮᩢᩣ,ᩋᩯᩣ,ᩐᩣ ᨠᩮᩢᩣ,ᨠᩮᩫᩣ,ᨠᩯᩣ     ᩁᩂ ᨠᩂ             ᩋᩴ ᨠᩴ ᩋᩡ ᨠᩡ ᨠ᩺,ᨠ᩼
New Tai Lue[c] ᦀᦱ ᦂᦱ ᦶᦀ ᦶᦂ (ᦀᦸ) (ᦂᦸ) ᦀᦲᦰ ᦂᦲᦰ ᦀᦲ ᦂᦲ ᦀᦳ ᦂᦳ ᦀᦴ ᦂᦴ (ᦵᦀᦰ) (ᦵᦂᦰ) ᦵᦀ ᦵᦂ ᦺᦀ ᦺᦂ (ᦷᦀᦰ) (ᦷᦂᦰ) ᦷᦀ ᦷᦂ ᦀᧁ ᦂᧁ                         ᦀᦰ ᦂᦰ
Khmer[d] អា កា         កិ កី កុ កូ     កេ កៃ     កោ កៅ     ក្ឫ ក្ឬ ក្ឭ ក្ឮ អំ កំ អះ កះ ក៑
Thai[c] อ (อะ) ก (กะ) อา กา แอ แก (ออ) (กอ) อิ กิ อี กี อุ กุ อู กู (เอะ) (เกะ) เอ เก ไอ,ใอ ไก,ใก (โอะ) (โกะ) โอ โก เอา เกา เออ เกอ กฺฤ ฤๅ กฺฤๅ กฺฦ ฦๅ กฺฦๅ อํ กํ อะ (อะฮฺ) กะ (กะฮฺ) กฺ (ก/ก์)
Lao[c] ອະ ກະ ອາ ກາ ແອ ແກ (ອອ) (ກອ) ອິ ກິ ອີ ກີ ອຸ ກຸ ອູ ກູ (ແອະ) (ແກະ) ເອ ເກ ໄອ,ໃອ ໄກ,ໃກ (ໂອະ) (ໂກະ) ໂອ ໂກ ເອົາ,ອາວ ເກົາ,ກາວ                     ອํ ກํ ອະ ກະ
Cham ꨀꨩ ꨆꨩ         ꨆꨪ ꨁꨩ ꨆꨫ ꨆꨭ ꨂꨩ ꨆꨭꨩ     ꨆꨯꨮ ꨆꨰ     ꨆꨯ ꨀꨯꨱ ꨆꨯꨱ     ꨣꨮ ꨆꨴꨮ ꨣꨮꨩ ꨆꨴꨮꨩ ꨤꨮ ꨆꨵꨮ ꨤꨮꨩ ꨆꨵꨮꨩ ꨀꩌ ꨆꩌ ꨀꩍ ꨆꩍ
Kawi 𑼄 𑼒 𑼅 𑼒𑼴 𑼆 𑼒𑼶 𑼇 𑼒𑼷 𑼈 𑼒𑼸 𑼉 𑼒𑼹 𑼎 𑼒𑼾 𑼏 𑼒𑼿 𑼐 𑼒𑼾𑼴 𑼐𑼴 𑼒𑼿𑼴 𑼄𑽀 𑼒𑽀 𑼊 𑼒𑼺 𑼊𑼴 𑼒𑼺𑼴 𑼌 𑼒𑽂𑼌 𑼍 𑼒𑽂𑼭𑽀𑼴 𑼄𑼁 𑼒𑼁 𑼄𑼃 𑼒𑼃 𑼒𑽁
Balinese ᬓᬵ         ᬓᬶ ᬓᬷ ᬓᬸ ᬓᬹ ᬓᬾ     ᬓᬿ ᬓᭀ     ᬓᭁ ᬅᭂ ᬓᭂ ᬓᬺ ᬓᬻ ᬓᬼ ᬓᬽ ᬅᬂ ᬓᬂ ᬅᬄ ᬓᬄ ᬓ᭄
Javanese ꦄꦴ ꦏꦴ         ꦏꦶ ꦏꦷ ꦏꦸ ꦈꦴ ꦏꦹ ꦏꦺ     ꦏꦻ ꦏꦺꦴ     ꦎꦴ ꦏꦻꦴ ꦄꦼ ꦏꦼ ꦏꦽ ꦉꦴ ꦏꦽꦴ ꦏ꧀ꦊ ꦏ꧀ꦋ ꦄꦁ ꦏꦁ ꦄꦃ ꦏꦃ ꦏ꧀
Sundanese             ᮊᮤ     ᮊᮥ     ᮊᮦ         ᮊᮧ         ᮊᮨ [e] ᮊ᮪ᮻ[e]     [e] ᮊ᮪ᮼ[e]     ᮃᮀ ᮊᮀ ᮃᮂ ᮊᮂ ᮊ᮪
Lontara             ᨕᨗ ᨀᨗ     ᨕᨘ ᨀᨘ     ᨕᨙ ᨀᨙ         ᨕᨚ ᨀᨚ         ᨕᨛ ᨀᨛ                          
Makasar 𑻱 𑻠 𑻱𑻳 𑻠𑻳 𑻱𑻴 𑻠𑻴 𑻱𑻵 𑻠𑻵 𑻱𑻶 𑻠𑻶    
Rejang     ꥆꥎ ꤰꥎ ꥆꥍ ꤰꥍ ꥆꥇ ꤰꥇ     ꥆꥈ ꤰꥈ     ꥆꥉ ꤰꥉ     ꥆꥊ ꤰꥊ ꥆꥋ ꤰꥋ     ꥆꥌ ꤰꥌ                     ꥆꥏ ꤰꥏ ꥆꥒ ꤰꥒ ꤰ꥓
Batak (Toba)             ᯂᯪ     ᯂᯮ       ᯂᯩ           ᯂᯬ                             ᯀᯰ ᯂᯰ ᯀᯱ ᯂᯱ ᯂ᯲
Baybayin             ᜃᜒ     ᜃᜓ     ᜃᜒ         ᜃᜓ                                     ᜃ᜔
Buhid             ᝃᝒ     ᝃᝓ                                                          
Hanunuo             ᜣᜲ     ᜣᜳ                                                         ᜣ᜴
Tagbanwa             ᝣᝲ     ᝣᝳ                                                          
ISO a ka ā ê ô i ki ī u ku ū e ke ē ai kai o ko ō au kau ə kr̥ r̥̄ kr̥̄ kl̥ l̥̄ kl̥̄ aṁ kaṁ aḥ kaḥ k
a ā ê ô i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au ə r̥̄ l̥̄  

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Letters for r̥̄, , l̥̄ and a few others are obsolete or very rarely used.
  2. ^ includes supplementary vowels not in contemporary use
  3. ^ a b c d e f Tibetan, Lepcha, Limbu, New Tai Lue, Thai and Lao scripts do not have independent vowel forms. For syllables starting with a vowel sound, a "zero" consonant (ཨ, อ or ອ respectively) is used to represent the glottal stop /ʔ/.
  4. ^ When used to write their own languages, Khmer can have either an a or an o as the inherent vowel, following the rules of its orthography.
  5. ^ a b c d Letters used in Old Sundanese. They are now obsolete.

Numerals

[edit]
Indic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Brahmi numbers 𑁒 𑁓 𑁔 𑁕 𑁖 𑁗 𑁘 𑁙 𑁚
Brahmi digits 𑁦 𑁧 𑁨 𑁩 𑁪 𑁫 𑁬 𑁭 𑁮 𑁯
Devanagari
Bengali–Assamese
Tirhuta 𑓐 𑓑 𑓒 𑓓 𑓔 𑓕 𑓖 𑓗 𑓘 𑓙
Sharada 𑇐 𑇑 𑇒 𑇓 𑇔 𑇕 𑇖 𑇗 𑇘 𑇙
Gurmukhi
Odia
Gujarati
Tamil
Telugu
Kannada
Malayalam
Sinhala astrological numbers
Sinhala archaic numbers 𑇡 𑇢 𑇣 𑇤 𑇥 𑇦 𑇧 𑇨 𑇩
Tibetan
Modi 𑙐 𑙑 𑙒 𑙓 𑙔 𑙕 𑙖 𑙗 𑙘 𑙙
Takri 𑛀 𑛁 𑛂 𑛃 𑛄 𑛅 𑛆 𑛇 𑛈 𑛉
Khudabadi 𑋰 𑋱 𑋲 𑋳 𑋴 𑋵 𑋶 𑋷 𑋸 𑋹
Meitei (Manipuri)
Pracalit 𑑐 𑑑 𑑒 𑑓 𑑔 𑑕 𑑖 𑑗 𑑘 𑑙
Mongolian[a]
Lepcha
Limbu
Saurashtra
Ahom 𑜰 𑜱 𑜲 𑜳 𑜴 𑜵 𑜶 𑜷 𑜸 𑜹
Chakma 𑄶 𑄷 𑄸 𑄹 𑄺 𑄻 𑄼 𑄽 𑄾 𑄿
Burmese
New Tai Lue
Tai Tham Astrological Numbers[b]
Dhives Akuru 𑥐 𑥑 𑥒 𑥓 𑥔 𑥕 𑥖 𑥗 𑥘 𑥙
Tai Tham[c]
Shan
Khmer
Thai
Lao
Cham
Bali
Java
Sunda
Indic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Notes

  1. ^ Mongolian numerals are derived from Tibetan numerals and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear script
  2. ^ for everyday use
  3. ^ for liturgical use

List of Brahmic scripts

[edit]

Historical

[edit]

The Brahmi script was already divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages. The main division in antiquity was between northern and southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was very influential, and in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Kadamba/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.[citation needed]

Early Brahmic scripts
IAST Ashoka Girnar Chandra
-gupta
Gujarat Prayagraj Narbada Kistna
a
ā
i
ī
u
ū
e
ai
o
au
k
kh
g
gh
c
ch
j
jh
ñ
ṭh
ḍh
t
th
d
dh
n
p
ph
b
bh
m
y
r
l
v
ś
s
h

Northern Brahmic

[edit]
A map of Indo-Aryan languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except dark blue colored Khowar, Pashai, Kohistani, and Urdu, not marked here, which use Arabic-derived scripts).

Southern Brahmic

[edit]
A map of Dravidian languages using their respective Brahmic family scripts (except Brahui, which uses an Arabic-derived script).

Unicode of Brahmic scripts

[edit]

As of Unicode version 15.1, the following Brahmic scripts have been encoded:

script derivation Period of derivation usage notes ISO 15924 Unicode range(s) sample
Ahom Burmese[6] 13th century Extinct Ahom language Ahom U+11700–U+1174F 𑜒𑜠𑜑𑜨𑜉
Balinese Kawi 11th century Balinese language Bali U+1B00–U+1B7F ᬅᬓ᭄ᬲᬭᬩᬮᬶ
Batak Pallava 14th century Batak languages Batk U+1BC0–U+1BFF ᯘᯮᯒᯖ᯲ ᯅᯖᯂ᯲
Baybayin Kawi 14th century Tagalog, other Philippine languages Tglg U+1700–U+171F ᜊᜌ᜔ᜊᜌᜒᜈ᜔
Bengali-Assamese (Eastern Nagari) Siddhaṃ 11th century Angika, Assamese language (Assamese script variant), Bengali language (Bengali script variant), Bishnupriya, Maithili, Meitei language (constitutionally termed as "Manipuri")[7] Beng U+0980–U+09FF
  • অসমীয়া লিপি
  • বাংলা লিপি
Bhaiksuki Gupta 11th century Was used around the turn of the first millennium for writing Sanskrit Bhks U+11C00–U+11C6F 𑰥𑰹𑰎𑰿𑰬𑰲𑰎𑰱
Buhid Kawi 14th century Buhid language Buhd U+1740–U+175F ᝊᝓᝑᝒᝇ
Mon-Burmese Pallava 11th century Burmese language, Mon language, numerous modifications for other languages including Chakma, Eastern and Western Pwo Karen, Geba Karen, Kayah, Rumai Palaung, S'gaw Karen, Shan Mymr U+1000–U+109F, U+A9E0–U+A9FF, U+AA60–U+AA7F မြန်မာအက္ခရာ
Chakma Burmese 8th century Chakma language Cakm U+11100–U+1114F 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦
Cham Pallava 8th century Cham language Cham U+AA00–U+AA5F ꨌꩌ
Devanagari Nagari 13th century Several Indo-Aryan languages (Konkani, Marathi, Hindi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Bhili, Sindhi, Gujarati etc.), Sino-Tibetan languages (Bodo, Nepal Bhasa, Sherpa etc.), Mundari (Austroasiatic language) and others. Deva U+0900–U+097F, U+A8E0–U+A8FF, U+11B00–U+11B5F देवनागरी
Dhives Akuru Gupta Before 6th-8th century Was used to write the Maldivian language up until the 20th century.[8] Diak U+11900–U+1195F 𑤞𑥂𑤧𑤭𑥂
Dogra Takri Was used to write Dogri. Dogra script is closely related to Takri.[9] Dogr U+11800–U+1184F 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬
Grantha Pallava 6th century Restricted use in traditional Vedic schools to write Sanskrit. Was widely used by Tamil speakers for Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam. Gran U+11300–U+1137F 𑌗𑍍𑌰𑌨𑍍𑌥
Gujarati Nagari 17th century Gujarati language, Kutchi language Gujr U+0A80–U+0AFF ગુજરાતી લિપિ
Gunjala Gondi uncertain 16th century Used for writing the Adilabad dialect of the Gondi language.[10] Gong U+11D60–U+11DAF 𑵶𑶍𑶕𑶀𑵵𑶊 𑵶𑶓𑶕𑶂𑶋
Gurmukhi Sharada 16th century Punjabi language Guru U+0A00–U+0A7F ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ
Hanunó'o Kawi 14th century Hanuno'o language Hano U+1720–U+173F ᜱᜨᜳᜨᜳᜢ
Javanese Kawi 16th century Javanese language, Sundanese language, Madurese language Java U+A980–U+A9DF ꦄꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ
Kaithi Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kthi U+11080–U+110CF 𑂍𑂶𑂟𑂲
Kannada Telugu-Kannada Around 4th-6th century Sanskrit, Kannada, Konkani, Tulu, Badaga, Kodava, Beary, others Knda U+0C80–U+0CFF ಕನ್ನಡ ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ
Kawi Pallava 8th century Kawi was found primarily in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia between the 8th century and the 16th century.[11] Kawi U+11F00–U+11F5F 𑼒𑼮𑼶
Khmer Pallava 11th century Khmer language Khmr U+1780–U+17FF, U+19E0–U+19FF អក្សរខ្មែរ
Khojki Landa 16th century Some use by Ismaili communities. Was used by the Khoja community for Muslim religious literature. Khoj U+11200–U+1124F 𑈉𑈲𑈐𑈈𑈮
Khudawadi Landa 16th century Was used by Sindhi communities for correspondence and business records. Sind U+112B0–U+112FF 𑊻𑋩𑋣𑋏𑋠𑋔𑋠𑋏𑋢
Lao Khmer 14th century Lao language, others Laoo U+0E80–U+0EFF ອັກສອນລາວ
Lepcha Tibetan 8th century Lepcha language Lepc U+1C00–U+1C4F ᰛᰩᰴ
Limbu Lepcha 9th century Limbu language Limb U+1900–U+194F ᤛᤡᤖᤡᤈᤨᤅ
Lontara Kawi 17th century Buginese language, others Bugi U+1A00–U+1A1F ᨒᨚᨈᨑ
Mahajani Landa 16th century Historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records. Mahj U+11150–U+1117F 𑅬𑅱𑅛𑅧𑅑
Makasar Kawi 17th century Was used in South Sulawesi, Indonesia for writing the Makassarese language.[12] Makasar script is also known as "Old Makassarese" or "Makassarese bird script" in English-language scholarly works.[13] Maka U+11EE0–U+11EFF 𑻪𑻢𑻪𑻢
Malayalam Grantha 12th century Malayalam Mlym U+0D00–U+0D7F മലയാളലിപി
Marchen Tibetan 7th century Was used in the Tibetan Bön tradition to write the extinct Zhang-Zhung language Marc U+11C70–U+11CBF 𑱳𑲁𑱽𑱾𑲌𑱵𑲋𑲱𑱴𑱶𑲱𑲅𑲊𑱱
Meetei Mayek Tibetan[14] 6th century[15] officially used for Meitei language (constitutionally termed as "Manipuri") in accordance to "The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021"[16] Mtei U+AAE0–U+AAFF, U+ABC0–U+ABFF ꯃꯤꯇꯩ ꯃꯌꯦꯛ
Modi Nāgarī 17th century Was used to write the Marathi language Modi U+11600–U+1165F 𑘦𑘻𑘚𑘲
Multani Landa Was used to write the Multani language Mult U+11280–U+112AF 𑊠𑊣𑊖𑊚
Nandinagari Nāgarī 7th century Historically used to write Sanskrit in southern India Nand U+119A0–U+119FF 𑧁𑧞𑦿𑧒𑧁𑧑𑦰𑧈𑧓
New Tai Lue Tai Tham 1950s Tai Lü language Talu U+1980–U+19DF ᦟᦲᧅᦎᦷᦺᦑ
Odia Siddhaṃ 13th century Odia language Orya U+0B00–U+0B7F ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଅକ୍ଷର
ʼPhags-pa Tibetan 13th century Historically used during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. Phag U+A840–U+A87F ꡖꡍꡂꡛ ꡌ
Prachalit (Newa) Nepal Has been used for writing the Sanskrit, Nepali, Hindi, Bengali, and Maithili languages Newa U+11400–U+1147F 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐮𑐶𑐟
Rejang Kawi 18th century Rejang language, mostly obsolete Rjng U+A930–U+A95F ꥆꤰ꥓ꤼꤽ ꤽꥍꤺꥏ
Saurashtra Grantha 20th century Saurashtra language, mostly obsolete Saur U+A880–U+A8DF ꢱꣃꢬꢵꢰ꣄ꢜ꣄ꢬꢵ
Sharada Gupta 8th century Was used for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri Shrd U+11180–U+111DF 𑆯𑆳𑆫𑆢𑆳
Siddham Gupta 7th century Was used for writing Sanskrit Sidd U+11580–U+115FF 𑖭𑖰𑖟𑖿𑖠𑖽
Sinhala Brahmi[17] 4th century[18] Sinhala language Sinh U+0D80–U+0DFF, U+111E0–U+111FF ශුද්ධ සිංහල
Sundanese Kawi 14th century Sundanese language Sund U+1B80–U+1BBF, U+1CC0–U+1CCF ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ
Sylheti Nagari Nagari 16th century Historically used for writing the Sylheti language Sylo U+A800–U+A82F ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ
Tagbanwa Kawi 14th century Various languages of Palawan, nearly extinct Tagb U+1760–U+177F ᝦᝪᝨᝯ
Tai Le Mon 13th century Tai Nüa language Tale U+1950–U+197F ᥖᥭᥰᥖᥬᥳᥑᥨᥒᥰ
Tai Tham Mon 13th century Northern Thai language, Tai Lü language, Khün language Lana U+1A20–U+1AAF ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
Tai Viet Thai 16th century Tai Dam language Tavt U+AA80–U+AADF ꪼꪕꪒꪾ
Takri Sharada 16th century Was used for writing Chambeali, and other languages Takr U+11680–U+116CF 𑚔𑚭𑚊𑚤𑚯
Tamil Pallava 2nd century Tamil language Taml U+0B80–U+0BFF, U+11FC0–U+11FFF தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி
Telugu Telugu-Kannada 5th century Telugu language Telu U+0C00–U+0C7F తెలుగు లిపి
Thai Old Khmer 13th century Thai language Thai U+0E00–U+0E7F อักษรไทย
Tibetan Gupta 8th century Classical Tibetan, Dzongkha, Ladakhi language Tibt U+0F00–U+0FFF བོད་ཡིག་
Tirhuta Siddham 13th century Historically used for the Maithili language Tirh U+11480–U+114DF 𑒞𑒱𑒩𑒯𑒳𑒞𑒰

See also

[edit]

References

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  1. ^ a b Frellesvig, Bjarke (2010). A History of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-0-521-65320-6.
  2. ^ Hand, Felicity (23 April 2015). "Editorial". Indialogs. 2: 1. doi:10.5565/rev/indialogs.36. ISSN 2339-8523.
  3. ^ Court, Christopher (1996). "Southeast Asian Writing Systems". In Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 443.
  4. ^ Court, Christopher (1996). "The spread of Brahmi Script into Southeast Asia". In Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. pp. 445–449.
  5. ^ a b Sproat, Richard (20 July 2006). "Brahmi-derived scripts, script layout, and segmental awareness". Written Language and Literacy. 9 (1): 45–66. doi:10.1075/wll.9.1.05spr. ISSN 1387-6732.
  6. ^ Terwiel; Khamdaengyodtai (2003). Shan Manuscripts, Part 1. p. 13.
  7. ^ "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in.
  8. ^ Pandey, Anshuman (23 January 2018). "L2/18-016R: Proposal to encode Dives Akuru in Unicode" (PDF).
  9. ^ Pandey, Anshuman (4 November 2015). "L2/15-234R: Proposal to encode the Dogra script" (PDF).
  10. ^ "Chapter 13: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  11. ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana and Ilham Nurwansah 2020. Proposal to encode Kawi
  12. ^ "Chapter 17: Indonesia and Oceania" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0. Mountain View, California: Unicode, Inc. June 2018. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1.
  13. ^ Pandey, Anshuman (2 November 2015). "L2/15-233: Proposal to encode the Makasar script in Unicode" (PDF).
  14. ^ Chelliah, Shobhana Lakshmi (2011). A Grammar of Meithei. De Gruyter. p. 355. ISBN 978-3-11-080111-8. Meithei Mayek is part of the Tibetan group of scripts, which originated from the Gupta Brahmi script
  15. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 142. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1. The coins of Urakonthauba (568-653) and Ayangba (821-910) in the Mutua Museum, Imphal bear evidence of early existence of old Manipuri alphabet.
  16. ^ "GAZETTE TITLE: The Manipur Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2021". manipurgovtpress.nic.in.
  17. ^ Daniels (1996), p. 379.
  18. ^ Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 389.
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