Brahmin

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This article is about the social caste. For other uses, see Brahmin (disambiguation).
Group of Brahmanas, 1895

Brahmin is a varna in Vedic Hinduism and also a caste of people who are members of it. Members are subdivided into numerous communities known as gotras.

Brahmin priests and teachers (acharya) were engaged in attaining the highest 'spiritual' knowledge (brahmavidya) of Brahman and adhered to different branches (shakhas) of the Vedas. The Brahmin priest is responsible for religious rituals in temples and homes of Hindus and is a person authorized after rigorous training in vedas and 'sacred' rituals, and as a liaison between humans and the God. In general, as family vocations and businesses are inherited, priesthood used to be inherited among Brahmin priestly families, as it requires years of practice of vedas from childhood after proper introduction to student life through a religious initiation called upanayana at the age of about five.[citation needed]

Some Brahmins were also warriors.[citation needed] Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, son of a Brahmin sage Parashara and a fisher woman Satyavathi, in his Mahabharata, describes several warriors belonging to Brahmin castes/tribes, such as Dronacharya, Ashwatthama, Kripacharya, Parashurama[according to whom?] etc., who were professors in the schools of martial arts and the art of war[citation needed]. It is believed that after Lord Parshuram killed/slayed Khatriyas, he installed Brahmins to rule in their place as Brahm-kshatriyas. The famous Brahmin dynasty was Sunga Empire and other Brahmin dynasties are Kanva dynasty and Sena Dynasty. There were also thousands of small principalities being ruled/governed by Brahmins all over the Indian sub-continent and in addition to this there were innumerable Brahmin Zamindaars(Landlords), Jagirdaars, army-chiefs, ministers.....etc. working for/under both Brahmin and Non-Brahmin Kings.

History of Brahmins[edit]

The term Brahmin means one who has realized the Ultimate Reality.

 Brahmins are one of the groups of India and Nepal who pray for the welfare of the people in general, are ordained to be a role model for the Society and are expected to lead the society.
  In exercise of this, Brahmins have been priests, Advisers to kings(which continues even today) and in some cases have also been Kings, though this is not the function of the Brahmins.
    Brahmins are called ‘Vipra’ the ‘Inspired ones’ ‘Dwija ‘ Twice , first being born physically, the second, when a Brahmin is anointed with the ceremony and practice of the Upanayana, the opening of the third Eye.
   There are references to Brahmins from time of the Vedas, about 5000 years old, and in the Purans.Pippalatha, Katyayani.Angiras,Bharadwaja,Maitri, Gargi are some of the Brahmins who composed the Veda sutras.

Maitri, Gargi and Katyayani were women.

 The Brahmins were spread throughout the world as were the Vedas.
 Later after Sage Viswamitra consigned his sons beyond the  Vindhyas to the Dakshina Desa, or Dravida, there appeared a distinction between the Brahmins of the North and those from the South.
Kalhana,in His Rajatharangini describes and assigns the geographical locations for Brahmins.

कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः, गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे || सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः, पन्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासि ||

 Karnataka (Kannada), Telugu (Andhra), Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), Maharashtra and Gujarat are Five Southern (Panch Dravida). Saraswata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Utkala (Orissa), Maithili are Five Northern (Pancha Gauda).

Clerical positions[edit]

  1. Swami (Priest) - Purohita (performer of domestic ceremonies) and Rtvij (performer of seasonal ceremonies)
  2. Acharya or Upadhyaya (Spiritual teacher)
  3. Yogin
  4. Tapasvin - Mendicant[citation needed]

Requirements for being Brahmin[edit]

According to a Buddhist scripture, at the time of the Buddha in eastern India there were five requirements for being Brahmin:[1]

  1. Varna or Brahmin status on both sides of the family
  2. Jati
  3. Mantra
  4. Sila or virtue
  5. Panditya or learned

Communities[edit]

The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins from the Northern part of India (considered to be the region north of the Vindhya mountains) and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from the region south of the Vindhya mountains as per the shloka of Kalhana. According to four surveys conducted by CSDS in 2005-2007, Brahmins are 5% of India's total population.[2] Brahmins have been very influential in India and there have been some Prime Ministers also.[3]

Pancha-Gauda[edit]

Adi Guru Shri Gauḍapādāchārya, the grand guru of Shri Adi Shankaracharya and the first historical proponent of Advaita Vedanta, also believed to be the founder of Shri Gaudapadacharya Math.
Main article: Pancha-Gauda

The Brahmins from Sārasvata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Mithila and Utkala, who with passage of time spread to North East, East and West, were called Pancha Gauda. This group is originally from Uttarapatha (Āryāvarta).[citation needed]

Pancha Gauda Brahmins are divided into these main categories:

Saraswat Brahmins[edit]

Kanyakubja Brahmins[edit]

Gauda Brahmins[edit]

Gauda Brahmins or Gaur Brahmin .The Brahmins from historical region of Gauḍa are known as Gauda Brahmins.

Saryupareen Brahmins[edit]

Saryupareen Brahmins , also known as Sarvarya Brahmins or Saryupariya Brahmins, are North Indian Brahmins residing on the eastern plain of the Sarayu near Ayodhya.

Pancha-Dravida[edit]

Pancha-Dravida Brahmins comprise five categories:

  • Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
  • Dravida (Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
  • Gujarat
  • Karnataka
  • Maharashtra

Telugu Brahmins[edit]

The Telugu Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are broadly classified into four groups: Vaidiki Brahmins, Niyogi, Dravida Brahmins, and Vaikhānasa.

Niyogis are further divided into the following subcategories: Nandavarika Niyogi, Prathama Shakha Niyogi, Aaru Vela Niyogulu.

Maharashtra[edit]

During the days of Maratha India, Koknastha(Chitpavan) Brahmins primarily served as prime ministers or Peshwas,[4] apart from taking up military jobs and converged into the sovereign or the Chhatrapati of Satara. One of the notable Peshwa families is the Bhat family, who happen to be Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins.[5] They took up military jobs[6] and ended up being the de facto head[7] of the Maratha Dynasty.[8]

Karnataka[edit]

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Kerala[edit]

Gujarat[edit]

Gujarati Brahmins consist of various sub-castes such as :

Sampradayas[edit]

The three sampradayas (sects) of Brahmins found mostly in South India are the Smarta, the Srivaishnava and the Madhva.[citation needed]

Other sects[edit]

There are additional sampradayas, which are not as widely followed:

The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukunda Das of present-day Odisha, popularly known by followers as Mahima Swami according to the Bhima Bhoi text.[9] He was born in the last part of the 18th century, in the former state of Baudh, a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order.[9] This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.[9]

There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattatreya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an Avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva.[citation needed]

Nepali Brahmins[edit]

Bahun is a colloquial Nepali term for a member of the Pahari or "Hill" Brahmin (ब्राह्मण) caste, who are traditionally educators, scholars and priests of Hinduism. They are also known as Barmu in Newari, Bavan in Kham. Brahmins are the second largest caste group in Nepal (12.18% of the population).[citation needed]Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. Centuries earlier, at the start of the Buddhist era a powerful republic known as Licchavi existed in what is today Kathmandu. There is no conclusive evidence of any ethnic or historic links between the two states. The language of Licchavi inscriptions is Sanskrit, It is believed that the Lichhavi, having lost their political fortune in India, came to Nepal, attacking and defeating the last Kirat King Gasti. In the Buddhist Pali canon, the Licchavi are mentioned in a number of discourses, most notably the Licchavi Sutta,[10] the popular Ratana Sutta[11] and the fourth chapter of the Petavatthu.[12] The Mahayana Vimalakirti Sutra also spoke of the city of Vaisali as where the lay Licchavi bodhisattva Vimalakirti was residing.[5]The term 'Licchavi' term probably derives from Rikshavi possibly Sanskritized to Rkshvavati. Riksha or Rksha in Sanskrit means Star. they bult pasupati temple, chagunarayana, Various Buddha Stoopas, according to Chagunarayana Stoopa Lichhavi are From brahmin clan and their court language is saskrit.संस्कृत The economy was agricultural, relying on rice and other grains as staples. Villages (grama) were grouped into dranga for administration. Lands were owned by the royal family, nobles, temples or groups of Brahmans. Trade was also very important, with many settlements positioned along trading routes. Tibet and India were both trading partners..It is believed that the Lichhavi, having lost their political fortune in India, came to Nepal, attacking and defeating the last Kirat King Gasti.(10)

According to ANCIENT NEPAL Journal of the Department of Archaeology, Number 147 June 2001, The Vedic-Aryan Entry Into Contemporary Nepal [A Pre-Historical Analysis Based on the Study Of Puranas]by Shiva Raj Shrestha, Some 3,500 to 4,000 years "Before Present'(B.P.) Hari-Hara Chhetra (of present day GandakiBasins, including Mukti Nath, Deaughat and Triveni of Western Nepal), was one of the most important centers of Vedic Aryans, who had already expanded Swarswat Vedic Civilization.The Aryans could not have advanced upto this land, without the support of Lord Shiva-the supreme Lord of Kiratas of their time (who was regarded as the incarnation ofLord Rudra, the Early- Vedic God of Cosmic Energy).

Thus, from thedescriptionsofsatpath Brahman Grantha and various Puranas, it seemsthat the Aryans from Vedic Swaraswat civilization hadentered Nepal at around 4,000-4,100 years B.P. Already by this time, there seems to be the strong presence of Yakshyas in the Central Himalayas, who were in very friendly terms with Naga Kiratas of Central Himalayas. In the latter Vedic Age, more Aryans seem to have visited Nepal. Pradhumna also visited Kathmandu Valley and Lord Krishna had cut opened the dam on the foot of Chandra Giri (Chovar Gorge or the gorge at Katuwal Daha?) and released water from the Naga-Hrada lake with a view to built the cities and villages in the present day Kathmandu Valley according to Himabata Khanda of Skanda Purana.31 This ~uranic story, if supported by archeological evidences, will show as to how the last of the Later Vedic Aryans had reached Central Nepal. Western and Eastern Nepal Terai and hills were opened-up by Bhimsena according to mythological narrations. (The Tharus of Dang Valley and Newars, even now worship Bhimsen. According to Maha- Bharata Epic and Vishnu Purana, Arjuna was the first Aryan commander, who had reached as far east as Assam and conquered the ancient kingdom of Mani Pura and married Naga Princess Ulupi. These Puranic recordsamply show that by the timeofMaha-Bharata War (some 3,000 years B.P.), the Aryans had conquered most parts of the lower Himalayas and the latter Vedic civilization was penetrating in the important population centers of Nepal. However, except in mithila, the vedic aryan civilization could not flourish and the rich and equitable indigenous Naga-Kirati (Bon) civilization could continue undisturbed till the medieval times. Only in Mithila, this great Vedic Civilization could produce great philosophers like Yagnabalka, Maitree and Gargi and Philosopher-king like Janaka (of Upanishada fame, probably not Sir-Dhoj Janak, fatherofGoddess Sita). Now, it is for the archaeologist and historians to research further and reconstruct the history of Nepal of Vedic Age.

[10] [11] [12] [13]

Burma (Myanmar)[edit]

Manipuri astrologers and Brahmins in Burma, 1900

Historically, Brahmins, known as ponna in modern-day Burmese, formed an influential group in Burma prior to British colonialism. Until the 1900s, ponna referred to Indians who had arrived prior to colonial rule, distinct from kala, Indians who arrived during British rule. During the Konbaung dynasty, court Brahmins were consulted by kings before moving royal capitals, waging wars, making offerings to Buddhist sites like the Mahamuni Buddha, and for astrology.[14]

Burmese Brahmins can be divided into four general groups, depending on their origins:[citation needed]

  • Manipur Brahmins: Brahmins who were sent to Burma after Manipur became a Burmese vassal state in the 1700s and ambassadors from Manipur
  • Arakanese Brahmins: Brahmins brought to Burma from Arakan after it was conquered by the Konbaung king Bodawpaya
  • Sagaing Brahmins: the oldest Brahmins in Burmese society, who consulted the Pyu, Burman and Mon kingdoms prior to the Konbaung dynasty
  • Indian Brahmins: Brahmins who arrived with British colonial rule when Burma became a part of the British Raj

According to Burmese chronicles, Brahmins in Burma were subject to the four-caste system similar to that of India. Because the Burmese monarchy enforced the caste system for Indians, Brahmins who broke caste traditions and laws were subject to punishment. . However, in the Arakanese kingdom, punished Brahmins often became kyun ponna, literally 'slave Brahmins', who made flower offerings to Buddha images and performed menial tasks. During the Konbaung dynasty, caste was indicated by the number of salwe (threads) worn; Brahmins wore nine, while the lowest caste wore none. Brahmins are also fundamental in the Nine-God cult, called the Nine Divinities (Phaya Ko Su which is essentially a Burmese puja (puzaw in Burmese) for appeasing nine divinities, Buddha and the eight arahats, or a group of nine deities, five Hindu gods and four nat spirits.[14] This practice continues to be practised in modern-day Burma.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Govind Chandra Pande (1991-02-28). Foundations of Indian Culture. ISBN 9788120807129. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  2. ^ "Brahmins In India". 
  3. ^ "When will the Brahmin-Bania hegemony end?". 
  4. ^ "Dictionary - Definition of Peshwa". Websters-online-dictionary.org. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  5. ^ "peshwa (Maratha chief minister) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  6. ^ "Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa : Great warrior and protector of Hindu Dharma - Valiant Hindu Kings | Hindu Janajagruti Samiti". Hindujagruti.org. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  7. ^ The Satara Raj, 1818-1848: A Study in History, Administration, and Culture - Sumitra Kulkarni - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. 1995. ISBN 9788170995814. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  8. ^ "India : Rise of the peshwas - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  9. ^ a b c "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba"
  10. ^ "Licchavi Sutta," translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2004).
  11. ^ "Ratana Sutta: The Jewel Discourse," translated from the Pali by Piyadassi Thera (1999).
  12. ^ Thurman, Robert. "VIMALAKIRTI NIRDESA SUTRA". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  13. ^ ANCIENT NEPAL Journal of the Department of Archaeology, Number 147 June 2001,
  14. ^ a b Leider, Jacques P. (2005). "Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins of the Konbaung Kings". The Journal of Burma Studies 10: 159–180. doi:10.1353/jbs.2005.0004. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]